The purpose of this study is to examine the state of utilization in sport facilities at a university and drew up the improvement plan for all students. To accomplish this work, the survey of the 445 students(male 221, female 224) were collected. The collected data were analyzed through the frequency analysis. All of sports facility is used for wide range of student who like to use as their leisure in order to learn variety experience for spending their spare time. Also sports facility of university accomplish social education function to all member of university. Having sports facility for university can also work as a promotion and new impression to people its university image as well as welfare for staff. Especially, excellent sports facility at university can provide public service to local people where university is located. Having sport facility at university is directly related to development of university in many way, university is required to implement effective program for operating sport facility at university.
Technological development of information and communication have brought sharp changes to every sector such as society, culture, economy and education because of knowledge and information-oriented society. The number of classes has decreased, and some schools are closed or incorporated due to decrease of the population. Such phenomenon has brought changes to learning using digital technology and space. A change called digital innovation is characterized by interactive communication centering on the internet network. Therefore, it is very important to predict educational environment to be changed according to digital environment and to note how real learning space is changed. The development of digital technology in society in general presents two concepts of digital and contents, digitalized information. Such technology is recognized as a new paradigm in education sector and a new space is created through participation of instructors and learners in learning space. This study analysed cases of learning space of elementary schools based on bibliographical examination and related bibliography including data from academic presentations and news release to present developed leaning space. To present healthy and creative learning environment which can lead knowledge and information-based society in the future, the preface described the background, purpose, methods and range of the study, and analysed transitional processes of society and culture, digital learning contents, and learning space in education of elementary schools. Finally the study identified trends and cases of research on learning space and suggested digital learning contents space.
Art historians and critics have defined the style as common features appeared in a class of objects. Abstract common features from a set of objects have been used as a bench mark for date and location of original works. Commonalities in shapes are identified by relationships as well as physical properties from shape descriptions. This paper will focus on how the computer and human can recognize common shape properties from a class of shape objects to learn design knowledge. Shape representation using schema theory has been explored and possible inductive generalization from shape descriptions has been investigated. Also learned shape knowledge can be used. for new design process as design concept. Several design process such as parametric design, replacement design, analogy design etc. are used for these design processes. Works of Mario Botta and Louis Kahn are analyzed for explicitly clarifying the process from conceptual ideas to final designs. In this paper, theories of computer science, artificial intelligence, cognitive science and linguistics are employed as important bases.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the architectural publicness of Hague city hall by Richard Meier. The Hague city hall shows the systematic and comprehensive configuration of architectural publicness. Meier applied publicness to the city hall from concept and the configuration of space to object design. Architectural publicness of Hague city hall can be realized by providing large public space including atrium, programs about public events, linear space for street activities and the lower location of public facilities in the city hall without the limitation of weather, lime and size of space. Architectural publicness can obtain its real meaning when physical conditions meet the standard of public activities. Besides this, the Hague city hall case shows the desirable role model of city administrator and NGOs in that public events are organized by the independent body. The publicness of architecture is influenced by various factors including physical and political systems. The case study of the architectural publicness is very important in that it is very hard to generalize. In these basis, the study for architectural publicness can be complemented by concrete and positive case studies as well as existing humane and general studies.
The objective of this study is to find an educational method that is able to increase creativity using both left and right directed thinking with complementary cooperation. The premise of experimental study is that analogical inference is a great help to produce a creative design, and the design tasks of residential space are given to 20 students, voluntary participants in four experimental tests. The first test is conducted with fundamental conditions such as site or location, users and their design requirements. Other three tests make a clear distinction with three cases using verbal analogy from many keywords, using visual analogy from many images and using verbal visual analogy from keywords and visual images. Consequently, when students use both verbal and visual analogy in solving design tasks their creative ability qualitatively as well as quantitatively is higher than in using only verbal analogy or visual analogy. Further study will be progressed with the design tasks of residential space in order to have an effective verification by comparing students' design results classified into two groups. One is a control group that consists of sophomore students in a college and another is a comparison group that consists of sophomore students in an university.
Frank Lloyd Wright(1867-1959) was regarded as the pioneer of the modern architecture in the beginning and transition period of 20th century. His works have the pure shape form which have the deep relationship with the organic architecture. Wright told himself that the Froebel System had an influence on his works a lot. This study have researched about the three dimensional application of the Froebel System in his works with assembling and disassembling. Also the two dimensional application in the diagonal and circular plans are the one of the subjects here. The following conclusions are reached. First, The similar of the Wright's works and the Froebel System was the application of the similar principles rather than the copy of the method, which are the accent of the center, the composition of the part and whole, the understanding of the composition principle through the unit system and the unfolding of the crystal by rotation. Even thought the Wright's works have the triangle, square, hexagonal shape, the way of the expansion from the centered space was same. Also the space formed by the division of the center space, unfolds making the part and whole by overlap and continuation. The 2nd Froebel make space decided by the Net and Crystal Lattices which have the crystal characteristics by the rotation. The new geometric architecture, pinwheel, was created by this method. The application of the Froebel in the Wright's works have the several sets which are the 3th, 4th, 5th, 6th Froebels, 2nd, 7th Froebels and the 3th, 5th, 9th Froebels. The geometrical analysis of the square shape and the diagonal shape of the Wright's works was possible. The unfolding of the centered space can be found in the Guggenheim Museum using the analysis of the circular geometric of the 9th Froebel. The above study proves that the Froebel was not a mere tool for the basic shape training but also the main body of Wright's works which consists of the organic idea and philosophy of the space.
The purpose of this study is to examine how the perception of lives and studies in the Joseon Dynasty period, and the concept of its sculptures can be reflected in Korean traditional pavilion place, from the perspective of Nomadism as a western philosophy of this era. Nomadism literally refers to way of life of peoples who do not live continually in the same place but move cyclically searching for temporary centres whose stability depends on the availability of food and water supply or pastures for their livestock. In recent years, the term encompasses three general types: job nomads, digital nomads and ubi-nomads, which represent distinct features of modern society. Its concept implies looking for the new creative possibility through the liberation of desire and the breakaway to another thinking through continuous formation and transformation. Likewise, Korean traditional pavilion is the architecture to take a quick rest while walking in the mountains. This open place thus connects surroundings with people who are allowed to assimilate with nature as well as train their mind by following the law of nature, in order to finally reach the celestial state of mind. Knowing how to see, enjoy and appreciate the arts very close to nature, our ancestors were able to learn aesthetic activities. After recognizing Korean traditional pavilion as the potential place of unification of heaven and men which is Korean scholor's lifestyle and outlook on the world, this study accordingly will identify the value and meaning of Korean traditional architecture according to Nomadism in the occidental point of view.
Today, the world is facing overflowing digital technology, floating digital contents in the air, and various perspectives on the contents, and these are called new media waves. The waves show diverse features applied in arts and interior designs. In the new media world, a process that shows what artists and designers are dreaming of, planning, and presenting is becoming important., Therefore, a purpose of this research is to understand and refine the concept of new media world, and is to study on presentations of new media art in commercial spaces. Up to present times, New media art is a metaphor in the air, which connects digital art and design. Like the modifier "NEW" contains meaning of frequent changing, new media art has various characteristics in the commercial areas. First, new media art shows lighter and various space-designs with numerous lights and colors through the evolution of interface between substances and non-substances. Second, new media art has liquidity of spaces that come with diverse communication and change though infinite possibilities of digital technology. Finally, new media arts has amusement itself based on virtual images through interactive reality extension from human experience.
The purposes of this study are to present the criteria for a sensibility rating scale for measuring the general public's perception of museums' spatial environment, particularly lobby space, through an empirical analysis; and to clarify the characteristics of the presented rating scale in terms of each rating element and factor. For this study, a survey was conducted during September 11-17, 2010, and a total of 370 museum visitors participated in the survey. A sensibility rating scale used for the survey consisted of a total of 32 adjectives selected from a literature review of previous studies. To specify the dimensions of semantic space using the semantic adjectives, words with opposite meanings were analyzed with the semantic differential technique developed by Osgood et al. Using SPSS, a reliability analysis, factor analysis, and cluster analysis were conducted on the data obtained from the survey. The results of this study can be summarized as follows: According to the general public's perception of museum lobbies, five factors were found from the 19 semantic ratings of the Gyeonggido Museum of Modern Art and the 20 semantic ratings of the Seoul Museum of Art, respectively. In the case of Gyeonggido Museum of Modern Art, three additional semantic words of 'orderly', 'open', and 'original', which did not appear in the case of Seoul Museum of Art, were discovered. In the case of Seoul Museum of Art, more detailed semantic words such as 'restrained', 'ordinary', 'concrete', and 'intellectual (rational)' were obtained. Five semantic elements, which describe the two museums, were: Feelings of 'pleasantness', 'value, 'usage', 'aesthetics', and 'materials'. According to a comparative analysis of the two lobby spaces in terms of semantic rating elements, Gyeonggido Museum of Modern Art was perceived to be an orderly, original, open, soft, and female-like space, whereas Seoul Museum of Art was perceived to be aesthetic, restrained, concrete, realistic, intellectual and rational. In the coming years, the results of this study will serve as valuable data for constructing a sensibility rating scale for evaluating spatial environments of museums.
Emotional interest in the 1970s, Japan started from the technical and engineering beyond the scope, period late structuralist entering the world has been the subject of interest, as well as in academic research is becoming the main theory. In addition, communication between various disciplines such as humanities through the study of consilience and fusion, the human life to continue as a subject, its importance has risen. So this study are to design for the study of emotion through the human heart in space and how the expression of emotions and can be validated in a study. GSD to evaluate the action (verb) and emotional words (adjective) related to two variables to measure the degree of correlation coefficient was an experiment to find out. Picasso painting, it is 'difficult to understand', 'special', 'interesting', 'not interested', 'confused', 'fun', 'anxious', 'dark', 'cool', 'hard' to have relevance, such as the distribution of emotional words, and as a result of the move was a lot of work. This result can be obtained through the arcane resistance of the cubist paintings that make a lot of body movements. In Renoir painting 'stable', 'warm', 'soft', 'easy to understand', 'bright', 'boring', 'curious', such as emotional words ranged to have a relationship with this behavior is less motion in space. This result can be obtained through the understanding of the Impressionist paintings that are less body movements. As a result, space design, emotional design in the evaluation (GSD) for the empirical analysis that evaluated the feasibility and future of the emotional space of the design could be based in the area is considered.
There is a commonality between Frank Lloyd Wright and Charles Rennie Mackintosh in that they created the new patterns of geometric Art Nouveau from the late 19th and early 20th centuries. This study compares the furniture of Wright and Mackintosh who had significant impacts on the development of modern design for each of the periods divided by their design feature to find the individualities and similarities of their design. It is an analytical approach with an accurate understanding of the design trends of the Art Nouveau era. The results of the furniture comparison are as follows: The finding is that Wright and Mackintosh designed creative furniture in harmony with a specific indoor space, Organic design was well expressed through the selection and use of wooden materials, Based on the understanding of tree characteristics, they did not use detailed decorations, but designed the simple and rigorous forms of furniture with highlighted interest in geometry. As for shape, Wright's furniture in his early days tend to be look largely formal and heavy. Since his debut in Japan in 1905, the furniture design became very sophisticated. On the other hand, Mackintosh's chairs are characterized by plenty of geometric patterns and long back. In many cases, his chairs were designed as part of formative elements in space, not for the purpose of furniture itself. As for materials and colors, Wright used mainly cherry wood. And he also utilized metals colored in olive green, red-brown and others for office furniture. The frames, fabrics and leather used for most of the furniture have natural colors, which are harmonious with spaces. Meantime, Mackintosh used primarily oak and ash trees. He used seat cushions and various colors to make the design of furniture have a sophisticated and simple image. The materials used for seat panel are horsehair, rush, silk and leather. He applied these materials to the furniture by weaving or cutting them.
'Pattern' is the term that is frequently used in the aspects of history, society, and science. It always appears in the remains or relics of the age of civilization when recording was started, and its evaluation and value differ by time. Patterns in the ancient civilization were symbolic, social, and spatially crucial. However, after the modernization, they were considered to be immoral and unnecessary, so the range of their significance came to reduce. Due to the development of science, ornament patterns lost the limitation of its range of use along with new interpretation of them. Especially with the advent of new scientific theories such as the evolution theory from the biological aspect, quantum mechanics, and super string theory, morphological possibilities more than the human scale perceived by men came to be discovered. Living organisms maintain their lives through patterns, structures, and processes in order to produce a system alive. Among them, patterns are the organization of relations determining the characteristics of the system. The present patterns may correspond to this meaning. The pattern in a space is the matter of how to relate the components after all. In a space, however, there are numerous components mingled with one another. If these tasks are conducted as analogue work, it will take a lot of time and effort. However, if digital media are utilized to perform the tasks like analysis, generation, or fabrication, it will produce a result with higher precision and efficiency. In this sense, parametric modeling is quite useful media. Opening morphological variation, it realizes more possibilities, connects conveniently the relations between complex components composing a space, and helps produce creative patterns.
Human can recognize the environment by detecting spatial perception, and most of environmental perception depends on visual perception. In view that the acquisition of spatial information is accomplished through visual recognition, analysis of visual structure contained in the space is thought to be very important sector in studying the characteristic of the space. The history of studies on visual structure of space, however, wasn't too long, and furthermore most of the theories up to now focused on static and planar principles. Under this circumstance, this study is intended to suggest new theory by combining Isovist theory and VGA theory that have been actively discussed as the theory on visual perception-based spatial structure and supplementing them between each other to expand into 3-dimensional model. The suggested theory is a complex principle in dimensional and dynamic form in consideration of visual direction, which forms 3-dimentional virtual model that enables visualization of the property of spatial structure as the routine discriminating whether visual connection is made between viewing point and target point, and the target point is included in the visual field quadrangular pyramid or not. Such model was built up by an analysis application where four probe paths were applied to simulate the visual structure that occurs in virtual space, and then the characteristics were analyzed through quantification. In result, in spite of the path with equal space and equal length, significant difference in the acquired quantity of spatial information could be found depending on the probe sequence. On the contrary, it was found that probe direction may not affect the acquired quantity of information and visual property of the space.
Interior design education has been developed rapidly since the discipline established in Korea in 1980s but unfortunately the development was without any progressive transition until 1990's. When Korean Institute of Interior Design/KIID inaugurated in 1992, interior design education and related research activities began to be intensified. Despite its effort, there were still confusion about the discipline as there were many similar discipline tracks (architecture, design, fine art, & home economic, etc.) each having an own definition of interior design and introducing different aspects of educating the subject. Education program for interior design still not sufficiently supporting the needs of today's rapidly changing industry nor to prepare the diverse needs of the client. In order for interior design major to be effective in the future and fulfill the needs of current industry development within our society, re-evaluation of our current interior design educational programs in Korea is important. This study will be the beginning of a research series. As the first part of the research series, this particular study has been focused on reviewing of current status of interior design majors in the nation and its current condition. While making suggestion for the changes in curriculum, the following points will have to be considered as basic principle. First, understanding the duality of technology and design to accommodate the contents of design discipline. Second, understanding the need of practice and theory combined for practical education. And lastly, considering ways to adopt the human experience in order to develop creativity in oneself. The focus of this research is only on the interior design discipline, and research method as the following; first, analyze current status by reviewing admission data for 2010. Second, process a survey regarding the interior design education and practice-related issues in admissions and collect opinions from educators and professional designers in the field. Thirdly, with reference to previous studies, suggestions will be made for the discipline to be effective in the field. As mentioned earlier, this study series will continue and develop to suggest improvement in interior design program as well as to provide curriculums for students get ready for the industry with more up-to-date knowledges and creativities.
Malaysian traditional houses are basically post-and-beam structures raised on pillars, with gabled roofs. They were designed and built by the people themselves to meet specific needs, accommodating the values, economies and ways of life of cultures that produce them. The main purpose of this study is to understand the form and culture of Traditional houses in Malaysia through two parts. The first part is to summarize the general characteristic of traditional houses of Malaysia in the aspect of two different perspectives. One is the climate perspective, for which the analysis was made on the primary characteristics such as the climate, material, structure of the vernacular houses. The other one is the social-cultural perspective which try to find the religion, belief, life style and social and family relationship which controlled the forms of the housing under the surface. As a result, this study summarise and find the outstanding and unique meaning and definition of the traditional houses in Malaysia. The second part is to survey the specific case of the traditional house. Rumah Penghulu which were located in Kuala Lumpur were analyzed. As a result, this study summarise and find the formal and symbolic features of the traditional Malay houses. We hope that this study addresses the blank area in Korean housing studies about Southeast Asia countries which have not been clearly introduced yet.
This thesis is designed to take a close look into the characteristics of architectural space through the standard of beauty, which has been created apart from our desires at certain cultural or historical periods of time. It will try to construct the outline of conception about the beauty throughout many centuries. First of all, contents of the research will focus on the aspects, which people have been considering as beauty eversince the ancient time without having any assumptions on its concept. For example, if the beauty of art has been accepted by the theories of modern aesthetics while degrading the beauty of nature, its value could have possibly been much more appreciated. The standard of beauty has been going through the process of change in such history of mankind. The general standard of beauty, which was established in the ancient time was the proportion and harmony between many elements. Afterwards, beauty was expressed as colors and light in medieval times. Expression of beauty using ugly features such as monsters or demons also existed at the time. Beauty has been periodically developing from supernatural to gracious, rational, noble, romantic, religious, mechanical, and today's media. The concept of beauty established from the above has been appearing throughout various culture such as dress and decoration at the given period of time. It would later affect the formation of space as well as decoration for architectures and styles. It will be analyzed throughout the five design elements; style, composition, materials, components, and form. The thesis would like to find the spatial order of beauty from the result of the analysis. The analysis will examine the possibility for which the recomposition of beauty will be provided as a design process for the new era. The Greek beauty represents a shape. The shape represents proportion and the proportion represents given numbers. However, beauty is being expressed by the opposite process at the present time. In other words, computers will arrange the numbers, which would formalize the proportion between the numbers. Beauty would be presented when the shape is presented as certain forms.
The origin of the Roman public basilica is Rome's indigenous style morphologically but actually it seems that developed the Greek semi-open style stoa into the Roman practical interior space. In the early ages, the arrangement of Roman forum had been planned high symbolical temple as the center but gradually changed into the basilica centered which were used often by citizen. Through the Roman period, the important types of early Roman basilica have Fano basilica in the first century BC, Pompei basilica of mid period in the first century AD, Doclear basilica with apse as late type in the second century AD. Pompei type well characterized the feature of Roman public basilica among them. The result of the floor plan analysis shows that the long side access to the interior space is over 76 percent of examples and nearly 70 percent have no apse and the average of vertical horizontal length ratio presents as 1:2.3. The typical plan of Roman public basilica can be defined that most of access are being entered from one of the long side, and most of basilica have no apse, and normally having inner columns arranged in one or more concentric rectangles around nave as a center.
A city is a type of culture as living styles people have accumulated, In Particular, urban streets are integrated bodies of culture based on regional history and tradition which are easily accessible by people. However, due to insensible expansion policy of current cities, decline of old downtowns which have kept cultural characteristics of each region, hollowing out of the downtowns, expansion of new downtowns which have uniformed characteristics are weakening identities of each region. To overcome such problems, a culture-oriented approach as one of the urban regeneration strategies which have been appeared since 1980s is effective. Life style which has been formed by human activities can be considered as the culture of comprehensive concept and peculiar resources of each region are distinctive culture of each region. Cultural streets in which people can share each other's feeling may influence regional activation through cultural influence while preserving regional tradition and history. Therefore, this study aims to discover spatial characteristics of cultural streets through theoretical examinations on formation of streets in as aspect of urban regeneration and identify their characteristics by analyzed cases of domestic cultural streets.
In this study, the concept of environmental-friendly architecture, where environment is importantly regarded as a design concept in modern architecture and the meaning of boundary are examined, To apply properly design methodologies along with the importance of environment, the concept of environmental-friendly architecture should be first correctly established. And as the recent rapid development of technologies provides new possibilities for environmentally-friendly architecture, it is needed to have a new boundary concept and the interpretation of the meaning of boundary differentiated from the one of existing architecture. Recently the meaning of boundary is expanding its range to the relations with its neighboring environment beyond the relations with in and out of a space and has also the role as a medium for exchange and communication instead of breaking-off. Therefore, the boundary of environmental-friendly architecture alongside physical boundary is extended to the area for communication. Here, a basic boundary of architecture is maintained, but its meaning and expressions get natural shapes. The study deals with the analysis of the concept of environmental-friendly architecture and its changes from the perspective of times, environment and social backgrounds and seeks its appropriateness centered on environmental-friendly architecture Since 1980s when the issues of human and environment were raised in earnest.
For the user-centered interior space design, a designer needs to carefully focus on the details from which the user must keenly observe or concentrate on the space and how to deliberately check the image of the space. Following this view, for the user-centered interior space design this study analyzes the way which the space is represented from the perspective of the image assessment. The results obtained from this study are summarized as follows: First, this study analyzed the characteristic of space image change in the form of cross-comparison between one space and a rotated space. With analyzing of an eye fixation by showing the space, the space images of "concentration-dispersion" and "strengthening-weaken "have an important role in the analysis of the perception of space. it confirmed that the method of space perception was changed by rotated the space. Second, With changing quantities of image and extraction of deviation from adjective in survey, it quantitatively graps that respondents of feel in space perception by changing the space and "concentration" and 'dispersion" for process of space choice. The results of the research can provide important basis to judge the changing of space perception by visual perception. Third, through the analysis of image change rate and deviation rate, the characteristics of image change with space change can be analyzed. The results derived from the study provide the evidence to support the image change by space rotating.
The Commercial space are changed gradually large scalized and complexed to introduce different culture exchanges and experience. However, the mass-complex commercial space are limited as of their complexed space composition or degree of space depth, which may become factors causing people to get tired easily. Thus, having a design strategy is important to create economical effectiveness in order to overcome these limitations and for the people to stay longer and do their consumption activities through more experiences and social interchanges. Recently, Jerde Partnership's who designed many complex commercial spaces made a commercial success by their unique design strategy to setup a new space and lead the interaction between space and people. The purpose of this study is based on Jerd's design concept to analyze Jerd Partnership's design strategy and space related structure to propose their space construction and design method for mass-complex commercial spaces. The results are as follows. (1)Jerde Partnership's causes the abundant space experience of the user through mass and space constitution to have a theme and a story. (2)They builds an excursion type line of flow system with an organic curve, and a non-daily experience by the change of the space scale and the application of various programs is enabled and guides the stay for the long time. (3)They builds the doorway of various courses and a circulation system through the open space and controls depth of the space. In addition, various events are performed in the center of such a circulation system, and this event makes a unique place.
For the spatial experience of spectators visiting a museum, the route search of trying to follow the spatial structure or production of exhibition and the information search of trying to see are accomplished at the same time. In such process, the spectator's reaction of visual perception produces the result of emotional reaction and action exchanged between human and space by going through the recognition and perception on the target of environment factor. For the spatial experience of a spectator, the reaction of visual perception which interacts according to the exhibit and exhibition environment within space according to viewing purpose, interest and concern of spectator comes out as visual activity which is an activity to understand the spatial information shown as various activities according to spatial structure and unfolding characteristics of the display. The purpose of this study is to identify The Correlation of Spectator Movement Created According to Structural Form of Exhibition Area Based on Interaction between Exhibition Area Structure and Spectator to utilize as basic material while designing museum exhibition using isovist field which is a quantitative analysis tool of spectator's visual behavior and spatial structure at each exhibition area.
This study, for church architectural amenities for the aged, with a base of 'laws on securing promotion of convenience for the disabled, aged, and pregnant women,' would like to propose improvement program after figuring out church worker (priest)'s willingness for amenities improvement, request of the aged church members, and level of request by different ages of the aged church members and total number of church members. The scope of geographical range for the study is limited to Northern side of Han River in Seoul and the churches with its own building having 500 to 3,000 people attending services, and implementation range, with a base of laws on promotion of convenience, separates specific items into mediation facility, interior facility, sanitary facility, and other facilities. The study selected 40 workers in church and 339 aged church members as subjects. As analysis method for the study, we have measured reliance level of questions by performing reliance test on each question, and performed frequency analysis in order to observe church worker's willingness to improve and request level of the aged church members. And, in order to find out the difference on opinion by the aged church members and total number of church members, we have performed "One way ANOVA," that verifies average difference. For evidence analysis we have verified all of them in attention level of p<.05, and for statistics analysis we have analyzed them using SPSSWIN 12.0 program. We are proposing improvement program based on study and analysis as next: First, since most of church workers have strong willingness to improve amenities we have learned that it is very optimistic to see improvements on church's amenities in the future. Second, since the aged church members' level of request was high on 3 of mediation facilities, elevators, and restrooms, it is desirable to improve mainly with these facilities. Third, the result on level of request for facilities based on the total number of church members revealed that the churches with 1,000-2,000 members have the highest level of request. Thus, we feel that the churches with 1,000-2,000 members should try harder to improve compared with churches with different number of members. Fourth, since the level of request on church amenities by different age group showed that the age group with 65-70 had the highest level of request on all facilities, except elevators, there are needs to apply the opinions of this age group more in depth based on this result.
As the population of preschooler increases with the increment of employed women today, the physical environment of day-care center is becoming an important factor for the preschooler as well as home environment. In order to create a suitable and desirable day-care environment for preschoolers, the using behavior of the preschoolers, who are the main users, needs to be applied to the spacial design. In this research, play preference area of Korea and United States which have different physical environments are analyzed. Child behavior observation analysis technique, interview with the teacher in charge, floor plan and furniture arrangement plan of the day-care centers and photography were performed for this research. The subjects were 63 preschoolers of 50 months old who are using Korean and American day-care centers and play of five minutes per preschooler was filmed for 3 days. Total 01 189 motion pictures were analyzed for this research. As a result, the physical environment, programs, preference area and finally the similarity and difference according to the gender were clarified for each countries' day-care center. The Korean preschoolers preferred the block area most, the second most favorite area being art for the younger class and language for older class. According to the gender, girls preferred language area while boys chose block area. On the other hand in American preschoolers' case, due to the large variety of play area, the play preference was distributed among various area except several high preference area. Based on this research, when designing indoor play area of day care centers, the area of block, language, and art which are popular play preferences should be considered firsthand, and gender preference is also needed to be thought of. These results may be used as an important data for planning the day care center play area in the future.
This paper aims to identify the characteristics and the current situation of the architectural characteristics, children's characters using facilities, and status of management and utilization by surveying 'Day Service for Children' in Tokyo-do. First, About the status of management and utilization, 'Day Service for Children' is operated by a local government, NPO corporate group and social welfare corporate. There are not big differences of the care program or running hours depending on operating principals but there are differences depending on staff organization, number of children and space constitution. Also, infants ratio at 'Day Service for Children' is high for the purpose of detecting disability early and supporting their development early. They have diverse disabilities but developmental disabilities' ratios high and most children are using both this facility and normal nursery centers together. Samples for proper child care based on status of space constitutions were installing lock, raising door knobs and using softer floor materials which are for children's safety. For the problem of space utilization, most comments were about lack of space which is not enough for teaching and training materials. Therefore, as an example, observation rooms for parents and teachers were sometimes used as storages and it changes teachers' moving direction, staying area and behavior zone. The programs of 'Day Service for Children' are divided to group teaching and private one. It will be the best if they have separate spaces such as group class room, private class room and play room. When they were operated by NPO corporate group or Social welfare corporate, there are many cases that their space was not properly zoned for each activity.
This research is designed to study the residence environment of the elderly residing in three different types of residence - the local community, silver towns and nursing homes and compare their level of social support and life satisfaction of the residents. The subjects of the study was those aged 65 and older who live single and couple 68 residing in the local community, 32 in silver town and 32 in nursing homes. The result of analysis is as follows; 1) the residence environment is different in the three types of residence in terms of number of children, living with a spouse, subjective economic status, and participation in group activities; 2) as for social support, emotional support is the highest among the elderly residing in the local community and declines among those in silver town and the lowest in nursing homes, which suggests that the local community still maintain the support system for the elderly, however it declines in silver town and drop further in nursing homes. But in terms of instrumental support, there is no meaningful difference in the three types of residence. The result shows that the elderly residing in nursing homes are supported by systematic medical and residence service which make up for instrumental support Similar to those in the local community and silver town; 3) life satisfaction is the highest among those residing in nursing homes, however there was little meaningful difference. The result means quality of living is similar among three different types of residence. What is interesting is those living in nursing homes has similar level of life satisfaction despite their lowest emotional support.
The population of the elderly is rapidly increased because maturation of the social welfare system and development of medical technology. However, welfare environments for the elderly are poor either in its quality or its quantity. The aims of this study is to confirm the space improvement possibility to change the Gyung Ro Dang to the senior life support center as a community welfare service network. This study is done by the comparative analysis between existing Gyung Ro Dang in korea and former cases in Japan based on the elderly's facility preference. The facility's space reprogramming alternative from that analysis is applied to change the Gyung Ro Dang to a network facility for the regional senior life support. Afterward, it is proposed that first, facilities should be expanded scale by the new education and health improvement facilities functional room that the modern elderly need. second, Facility space will be reconstitution because the Gyung Ro Dang have to be extended it's role as a community welfare network.
For guaranteeing for security of nuclear power plant, ergonomic factors have been applied to design of main control room, core area for management and control of nuclear power plant, but design elements for performance of operators have been ignored. As the behaviors of operators are important for security of nuclear power plant, space design which makes them pleasant psychologically and makes them maintain attention on security equipments ceaselessly is required. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to analyze space characteristics of main control rooms according to regulations of nuclear power plant and general guidelines of space design, and to offer basic data for designing of main control room which makes operators pleasant psychologically and physically. At first, theoretical issues related with design of main control room are reviewed and several premises of space are developed by abstracting design elements from common space and regulations of nuclear power plant and, then integrating each design elements interactively. In short, the improvement of system environment based on human-machine interface space has brought about perceptual, cognitive, and spatial changes and has realized next generation of main control rooms. And, differences and similarities between ordinary space and main control room, which ergonomic sizes and regulations are applied and is VDT environment based on LDP, are discussed in relation to 13 design elements and 17 space premise.
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