In the 21st Century, our society is facing decrease of general population and beginning of aging society due to low birth rate, and such issues are increasing the elderly population. Especially in Korea, the elderly population exceeded 7% of the total population in 2000, making its way to the aging society and the elderly population will increase up to 14% by 2019, becoming the true aging society. Unlike other countries, aging in Korea is happening very fast and this requires the society's preparation and plans to deal with the problem. This study was started with the problem that the welfare centers for elderly people in Gwangju do not have the space plan adequate for the regional characteristics and users' demands. Therefore, this study performed an investigation and analysis on service programs, management, and space formation of S welfare centers for elderly people in Gwangju. This study produced a figure after interviews with social welfare workers and surveys. And then this study investigated size and formation of space for the service programs in each welfare center This study showed the current status of welfare centers for elderly people and difference in size and formation of space related to the service programs of the region. Therefore, this study was done to provide the basic data for the space formation of new welfare centers.
Mies van der Rohe is still known as the architect whose influence is the largest among modem architects. As his work is typical of modern architecture, the architecture of Mies shows an interest in materials and techniques, even though It established the new architectural world by glass and iron, and only transparency is emphasized with glass. So it is blame for the loss of peculiarity a result of thinking In the way of sachlich with expression and structure of material and hierarchical relation. Vincent Scully has insist on that an appearance of modem architecture be occur not by simply a technical request of a technician but by reflection of the times and times' spirit. In this means, the works of Mies is the trial to express the new times' spirit that the new times order and an understanding of material properties about glass with new material of modern. For that, this study tries to consider that Mies'work is the new trial through reflection of material to express about the bstraction beyond the limit of sachlich expression, on the point of expresslonal characteristics of material shown in plan of the Barcelona Pavilion and skyscraper and on the basis of the theory of Gottfried Semper and Karl Boetticher that architectural surface Is a medium which can define space and also express mass.
The purpose of this research is to understand and explore the view of the current architectural and interior design approach through Critical Regionalism created as one of the movements opposed to Contemporary. Critical Regionalism as a critical view about the contemporary architecture is based on integrated critical thinking toward a built environment surrounded by regional facts such as natural environment, materials, light, weather, unique culture where exist the specific places. The architectural themes of Critical Regionalism based on Kenneth Frampton's view and interpretation about contemporary architecture can be understood as follows; the concept of the place, tectonics, expression by abstraction and phenomenologlcal interpretation. Critical Regionalism has two distinctive features, which are the connection to the Contemporary and critical aspects to develop processes of an architectural design.
The purpose of this study is to provide design guidelines on office layouts to improve workers' concentration and communication behavior while supporting work processes. Among the present office types, benzene-type was preferred the most was providing better concentration. Regarding communication, link and benzene were preferred types. In present office types, workers were satisfied in communication more than concentration. To increase concentration level, acoustical privacy was indicated as the most important factor In conclusion, to support both concentration and communication in office, the team area should be divided into smaller sub-team areas. The sub-team areas may support interaction within a group while preventing unnecessary distraction. The major circulation of work process should be formed outside of the sub-team areas to provide concentration within the groups.
A general hospitals change continuously and rapidly, the way of growth and change becomes an important factor in the interior design. For this purpose, it compares and analyzes the image between different general hospital's ultrasonography with content level in the interior design to aspect investigating the preferences of the patient. Also the field survey on the real users was carried out, asking what kind of interior design you like in the general hospital ultrasonography. These research materials can be utilized for the practice application in the interior design of general hospital ultrasonography with the analyzing each available space. In the survey result, the point on the users needs things which are considered as the most important aspect for the fundamental data for the reasonable design planning and the basic principles of the modeling plan in the hospital's ultrasonography. So this study is to investigate and analyze the characteristics of the waiting area, way finding, color, lighting, counter design. This study would apply to interior design for the modeling of general hospital's ultrasonography.
The Affordance, discussed in the theory of ecological perception of environmental psychology, is the concept of perception that deals with inter-relationship between environment and human. It is a theory seeking for gradual evolution, with the change of user experience behavior and the space, by getting feed-backs from the analysis of perception of characteristics of 3-dimensional space and the user as moving entity. Although there has been many attempts to define the Affordance and apply its concept to the architecture, now there's a need to identify the Affordance in the real architectural space, represent Affordance of space and the user inter-relationship in the architecture and apply its design specifically, Thus, the purpose of this study is to present the methodology of applying Affordance in architectural space design by identifying the Affordance of space concept of human experience behavior in the architectural space and analyze its recognition process.
The space is formed in close connection with a human life style, and whose significance is interpreted and recognized by characteristics given in the life culture to which they belong to. The spacial concept in terms of recognition plays an important role in the design of spaces. The understandings of its identity is an indispensable factor to forming the proper relation between the human beings and the space. This paper is the inquiry and the arrangement for geographical, thinking, and beauty-conscious features of Japan by the researches on documentary records in order to reveal the relationship between recognition and space as mentioned aboved. Also this paper presents the frame(system) which can draw the method of space construction and its expression and then seize and analyze the reality of space by re-arrangement for these various cultural background on the center of the relationship with Japanese spacial cognition. And this paper analyzed and arranged expressive features for Japanese spacial concepts by applying this analysis frame to contemporary commercial spaces in Japan. In results this research revealed that Japanese spacial features is always in the consciousness for cognitive space on the design of space , and in the features the neutral and several layered spaces are showed in complexed and mutual connected forms. These may be the methods for the relationship establishment between human and space on the ground of unique spacial concepts which is commonly found not only in traditional spaces but also in contemporary spaces in Japan.
There has been preconceived assumption that, in good architecture, exterior and interior have to be harmoniously related to each other. However, in contemporary architecture, it is easy to witness that this harmonious relationship between exterior and intoner is severely challenged and various exterior surfaces have multi-faceted roles. Rem Koolhaas explained this sort of new situation in the light of 'lobotomy' that is a surgical method for mental disorders, based on the high-rise buildings in the early Manhattan. This study is started with the Rem Koolhaas' lobotomy concept and how this concept is applied to his projects. The multiple roles of exterior surface can be also found in many contemporary architects' projects. Among them, Jacques Herzog & Pierre do Neuron and Toyo Ito's recent projects are discussed to further analyze the new roles of surface and compared with Rem Koolhaas' case. Although the architects discussed present very limited scope of what is happening on the surface of comtemporary architecture, it is hoped to disclose some examples of new relationship between exterior and interior.
Much evidence points to the fact that Korean traditional architecture has long reflected traditional Korean philosophy. If what this evidence points to Is true, there is much more insight to be gained about this connection. It is important to begin with the idea that Korean culture stemmed from Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism. All three share similar ideas, and this study will set out to prove that topology, an anti-Euclidean school of thought created at the end of the 19th century, shares many of the same core ideas as the three mentioned above. Transitively, if Korean traditional culture is reflected in Korean traditional architecture, and topology shares many of the same core ideas, it seems that topology should be accepted into the mainstream of architectural design. This study will aim to interpret space structure forms and space constructions of the Korean traditional architecture from the topological perspective.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the remodeling of apartments housing unit according to the area type and size in order to provide useful information for future plans for more consumer-friendly dwelling units. To achieve this goal quantitative data analyses were employed. The sample was a total of 100 apartments analysed in previous researches conducting case studies on apartments remodeling. The data were analyzed by SPSS WIN program package in terms of frequency, percentage, and x2-test. The results of the study are as follows: The change of finishing materials were made in almost all of the sample. 6.4, 8.6 and 10.6 categories were altered in the small, medium, and large apartments respectively out of 21 remodeling categories. In the case of communal areas, change of finishing materials and installation, removal, and change of lighting fixtures were most frequent. The most frequent alteration in private areas was also observed In change of finishing materials and installation, removal and change of lighting fixtures.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the residents' awareness toward the differentiation of design factors in apartments in order to offer the information helpful to housing designers. Documentary research and questionnaire survey methods were used in this study. In this survey, internet web survey was carried out using questionnaire tool that was extracted in the Preliminary survey. This web survey was carried out on 124 housewives from January 6 2004 to January 20 2004. Data were analyzed with the SPSS PC+ window version 11.0. The major results of this study are as follows. 1) Residents' educational level is high and they are so young nuclear family and they live in Seoul and metropolitan area. 2) They want 85$m^2$ type apartment and the dress room that is so large. 3) Although they have evaluate very Important factors to architectural design which are apartment plan design, space design, interior design, storage design, equipment and high-tech system design, it seems that they are interested in interior design among the design factors in apartments. 4) There is significant difference the evaluation of importance toward the differentiation of design factors in apartments according to housing size when they move to go.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the modernity characteristics of the traditional housing in Seoul 1920s to 1930s setting the criterion for analyses based on a Korean architect, Park, Kil-Ryong 'Housing improvement theory' about 'the Housing Plan of the Middle Area in Choseon'. The architect Park, Kil-Ryong expressed 'Housing Improvement Theory' positively founded on having a deep knowledge of traditional architecture. At his early working stage in 1928, he announced 'Housing Improvement Theory' about 'the Housing Plan of the Middle Area in Choseon' from the paper titled 'An Inquiry into the Housing of the Middle Area in Choseon', It is inferred that his paper quite affected the modern changes of traditional housing of those days. As the results of the study, even though the main floored room still keeps the symbolical and central position in traditional housing, the size of that is designed to be smaller than before. The room on the opposite side is generally designed widely as the scope more than 2 'KAN' and shows the features of expansion and division according to functions. By interchanging the location of the kitchen, the inner room as the main living space souths in the front of the house. The kitchen is designed as fitting size and separated from the space of working, linking, setting the table, keeping things and others. The bathroom is built in the house and then connected to the corridor. Each space is effectively planned for the best location in the house as considering lightening and ventilation.
The purpose of this study is to propose the unit plan for home office which can substitute the existing unvaried unit plan in housing and homogeneous working space in office building through the recognition of necessity and possibility about whether home-basedworkandhomeofficecanbeformedornot. Based on the above contents of a research, the following conclusions were summarized; 1. The unit plan of home office was divided into 'jointly-used type' and 'independent-separated type' in accordance with the relationship between housing and working space, 'dwelling-emphasis type' and 'working-emphasis type' in accordance with the grade of ranks between housing and working space. And the universal validity which could accept properly the dweller's characteristics was drawn by the above classification of unit types. 2. The required characteristics in a unit plan for home office were classified into flexibility, privacy, efficiency, identity, amenity. And the analyzing system of planning methodology was assigned according to dividing interior components into space-functional, space-designing interior facts. The planning methodology would have to be considered on the correlation with each required characteristic. As a result of the study, through a planning of independent-separated type, In especial, 'vertical-separated type', it was certificated that vertical-separated type could satisfy a variety of required characteristic in space-designing as well as space-functional aspect.
The space planning and interior lay out of youth centers should be determined carefully for youth education and leisure after school which is considered cultural exchange, hobby, physical training in area of the daily life and to prevent unvaried or unwanted situation in the interior space. Recently, the youth center in youth facilities is architectural planning and managing without consideration of conditions of location environment, regional characteristics and prior condition of space. This paper try to provide basic architectural concept of the space planning for youth centers in urban. On the bases of survey and analysis, the basic data for youth centers have been proposed in consideration of the development of youth activity and community environment in korea. The results of the study were firstly, general basic data for the general architectural planning, secondly, guidelines for the space planning of youth centers in urban, thirdly, new alternative youth centers with 3 types.
The hospitals built In the seventies and eighties have gone through many different extensions and renovations. However, as there had been no prior projections of the future extensions, irrational processes in terms of interdepartmental functional relocations and space availability have recurred. As well, areas and departments are located in several wings, which bring about a decrease in interdepartmental functional linkage, causing a lot of confusion and trouble in hospital management. Through this research we acquire concluding remarks. 1) To restore functional linkage in the whole hospital, strategy of interdepartmental relocation with the clinic-in-the clinic concept is the measure to minimize the problems of the increase in interdepartmental functional linkage since the clinic-in-the clinic concepts minimize circulation and maximizes efficiency of hospital management by making all the dispersed wings as professional as possible. 2) The measure of smooth circulation in order to resolve the problems of patients' difficulty in identifying directions and in decrease in staff's work performance, which arises from the extensions without considering the traffic systems of the whole hospital involves introduction of linear circulation systems in which connections between departments or areas can be made centering main axes of circulation. It is also a responsive measure to enhance the functional linkage between buildings and efficiency of patient's ease in identification of directions.
This study is to a question in argument that existing theses about a trait spatial configuration of exhibition space were analyzed without appropriateness verification of analysis characteristics. Firstly, through theoretical studies of established thesis, validity twenty analysis characteristics was chosen by making an investigation into existing analysis characteristics. Secondly, through a subject of our investigation, forty-two exhibition space of nineteen museums and art museum at home and abroad, a distribution map of exhibition space was analyzed by multivariate analysis. As a result of this study : 1) Nine analysis characteristics which extracted through multivariate analysis was the principal analysis characteristics. 2) A scale was important characteristic for the classification of museum therefore a degree of space perception was ought to compare every one of similar scale museum. 3) When comparing a trait of spatial configuration at exhibition space, these characteristics came into effect on middle sized museums. 4) It was visually confirmed a trait of spatial configuration of each group between museum and art museum
The bentwood technique was introduced for the Windsor chair for the first time in the 18th Century. It was Michael Thonet who produced the bentwood chair in Austria around the 1870's, and it has changed the perception of architects and designers since then. The bentwood chair suggested a new and eccentric way of manufacturing furniture and the process of producing materials for it. Moreover, the method of furniture assembling, with screw nails, made a positive contribution not only to the convenience of transport and distribution of furniture to anywhere in the world, but also to the development of mass production of furniture for the multitudes. The bentwood technique of Michael Thonet was developed much further by Alvar Aalto, who inferred a soft curve from nature and developed the beauty of modern laminated bentwood by using birch, a plentiful resource of Finland. This study will help us to understand the functions and process of bentwood furniture, and help to develop technical skills for diverse furniture design. It will also confirm that diverse bentwood furniture design will be possible by applying materials, technical skills and the design process of bentwood according to the characteristics and concept of furniture design.
The Furniture Industry is, which is taking Charge of the large Portion of environmental Pollution as a nun Consumer of Resources, therefore, in a Furniture Design, active Argument of the Researches and the related Constituents to the Design and Material is very absolutely required recently The Furniture Design which Ecology was applied to can minimize the environmental Burden through the Resources and Energy Consumption Reduction and cyclic Utilization within the Earth Ecosystem, and proceed to the Presentation of the Possibility to solve the recent environmental Problems. This Study was written as part of the first Step in the Development of independent Eco-Label System and environmental Criteria for Furniture and national Furniture Industries. It contains the Definition of Furniture, ecological Design and ecological Furniture (Chapter2). and Chapter 3 Presents Characteristics of ecolo91cal Furniture. Chapter 4 Provides a Summary of the specific Criteria on a Materials used for Furniture Design with the relevant environmental Issues in the Life Cycle of Furniture, and also health 8t safety related Issues and performance Issues.
This study aims to analyze how the color of Korean traditional architecture affects its plasticity. The researcher took (our distant and near photographs of each representative building of each use, measured the colors, and analyzed these using the color perception theory. The results are summarized as follows: 1. When perceiving the entire plasticity of a building, the color of Korean traditional architecture reduces the heavy feeling that may be brought about by the roof's weight, but stresses the solidity of the pillars. This color perception effect displays the visual stability and balanced plastic beauty of the building's facade. 2. When looking at a building up close, the building's color emphasizes the solidity of the major materials used to construct it through a contrast effect, and highlights the characteristics of each building, such as the dignity of its seal engraving, its magnificence, its simplicity, etc. 3. The color of Korean traditional architecture is a major factor that expresses plastic language as it displays topographical level differences and intercepts or opens view through the artificial division of space, etc., according to the building's use.
The purpose of this study is to examinethe present illumination conditions in office environment and to suggest an efficient illumination plan in office planning process. Illumination conditions in work environment were surveyed in 6 offices to investigate whether the present illumination conditions were appropriate to the work type. The results of this study are as follows: Most of the general Illuminance level in the area of work were all at an adequate level, except one. The average Illuminance level in the all meeting rooms were met for the standard. Illuminance in the all reception area were extremely over the standard, The illuminations of this area were rather designed according to the image of the company than the standard. As for the illumination method in the area of general work, four offices used a general lighting by a direct lighting type, while two offices used a general lighting and a task lighting at the same time. This survey suggested that first, each company should consider illumination plan in the building planning process, second, illumination plan considering the type of places is needed, and third, illumination environment may be differentiated according to the work type. In conclusion, efficient illumination environment should be considered in office building planning process, especially In terms of illumination materials and methods.
As the information-oriented society makes progress, the role of Image has much influence on human being in space as a medium for information delivery and a means of artistic communication. These influences are appeared as expressional characteristics of the image such as the reproducibility of reality and unreality in the real world, the synchrony of expression of time, visual formality, a sign and the transmission of moaning. For these, the investigator examined the meaning of image in aspace, taking into consideration of the interrelationship of image, space, and human being. As study findings show, the expressional characteristics of image in space have such visual effects as a space in which pictorial formality and object exists, in which the mutual understanding of communication exists, and that realizes immaterial membrane in the aspect of time and space, according to the electronic light, color, and formation of the image media. In addition, it become clear that the characteristic could be staged on various circumstances by constructing the relationship between an object and a point of time interactively with bidirectional communication through combining technology and art. This suggests that the image develops as the form of sensory communication via interacting of space and human being.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the space use pattern and the daily living activities of the elderly with dementia in the common space (dining room, day corner) of nursing home in Japan. The subjects were six units of the 2 nursing homes in Tokyo. For this, researcher visited from September 5 to December 5 and collected data by observations of behavior of the elderly with dementia in common space and interviews with staff for the information about basic characteristics of the elderly with dementia and administration and operation of the facilities. The data were analyzed using the frequency and percentage with SPSS 11 program and recorded in the form of behavior map. The results revealed as follows: first, 6 types (self-concentration type, physical environment-interest type, passive others-interest type, staffs-interaction type, other elderly-interaction type, visitors-interaction type) of the daily living activities of the elderly with dementia in common space were founded. Second, the daily living activities of the elderly with dementia in common space tended to focus on self-concentration type and physical environment-interest type. Third, physical environmental characteristics of common space affected space usage pattern of the elderly with dementia. And it was perceived like as living oriented space, social interaction space, facility space, staff oriented space. Conclusively it was suggested to plan dining space as semi-private space, day comer as semi-public space.
Non-territorial workplace has different characteristic from conventional workplace in terms of interior and architectural design and organization management even the user awareness. The purpose of this study is to examine the non-territorial workplace and suggest needs for improving the quality and efficiency of work. To fulfill this task, information describing various environmental conditions and user awareness were gathered from the non-territorial office in Seoul. Data were collected by using questionnaires regarding general information of user and satisfaction of environmental elements that were established on pre-study. Finally, based on the results of this study, the users of non-territorial workplace seem to be satisfied with utilization of space and working but discontent with psychological element such as privacy, security and affinity. Therefore designers should focused more on psychological elements according to users awareness which is the finding in this study among other elements.
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