Themed hotels is a new form of hotel development that is rising at home and abroad. In the hospitality industry has a leading position. And The design of the themed hotel is different from tradition as hotel as it more innovative. People are attracted to themed hotel for its' unique interior design especially the guest room. For the sake of promoting the themed hotel's running better, guest room design characteristics can't be neglected. Therefore, this paper will analyze the characteristics of the guest's room design in the themed hotel. This paper initially narrates the concept, features and current situation, and then makes an analysis about the types of theme hotels in combination with examples. Secondly, through the thesis analysis of prior research, key words, hybridity, interactions, symbolic, diversity and regionalism about features of rooms in theme hotel are given. Finally, examples about theme hotels at home and abroad opened after 2005 are taken as the center, through which features of rooms in each theme hotel are analyzed. By the analysis of conclusion, basic current situation of rooms in theme hotels is given. The findings of this research will provide a reference to design the guest's room of the themed hotel.
To make provision for the super-aged society, the senior welfare facility which is a kind of typical physical environment of the nursing service would be expected to perform a very important role in local community. This study was conducted to identify the constructs of the servicescapes of senior welfare facility and to draw analysis indicators of it. For this, we performed literature review based on domestic & foreign government guide, service marketing theory and interior architectural results concerning the physical environment of the senior welfare facility. The result of this study showed as follows: servicescapes of the senior welfare facility could be explained as "a whole set of physical environment to support a variety of services provided by the senior welfare facility for the elderly or services of the kind of tangible clues". Analysis indicators of the senior welfare facility's servicescape could be explained as five factors: safety factor, functional factor, aesthetic factor, ambient factor and social factor. In addition we developed 37 pieces of detailed factors referred to five factors. The evaluation and verification of analysis indicators was carried out through 8 experts in-depth interviews. We inspected importance factor using a 5-point Likert scale, therefore safety factor was 4.41, functional factor was 4.27, aesthetic factor was 3.66, ambient factor was 4.20 and social factor was 4.25. More than anything else, in this study, there is a sense that it has established the concept of servicescape adapted to the senior welfare facility and contained a social element between the employees and the physical environment. Theoretical and practical implications of findings are discussed, and future research directions are proposed. we expect to be a little or benefits to the senior welfare facility corresponding to the future of the super-aged society.
Liturgical space of Catholic churches should be equal conditions for everyone who wants to participate in the liturgy. However liturgical space is standardized for healthy adults without considering the elderly and the disabled. This study intended to suggest the guidelines required for the construction of Catholic churches from the perspective of universal design for all believers to equally participate in liturgy. The results of the study are as follows. First, as a result of the analysis of the liturgical spaces in six Catholic churches from the perspective of universal design, although the principle of universal design was not appropriately applied to all liturgical spaces of a Catholic church, there were cases where it was appropriately applied in part to each of the Catholic churches. Therefore, this study suggested the examples of exemplary installation by space, which is considered to be the materials that can be referenced and utilized when planning the liturgical spaces in the Catholic churches from the perspective of universal design. Second, the obligations required by the building regulations were installed in six cases, but the application of the universal design was insufficient in other spaces. Therefore, more careful consideration for users is considered necessary during space planning. Third, the construction of Catholic churches should be planned, taking into account the liturgical law; for this purpose, the provision of the guidelines for Catholic architectural planning further than the guidelines for architecture by each diocese is necessary. At this time, the collaboration between the Catholic officials and the architects and designers with knowledge of Catholic doctrine is required.
We live in the era of unlimited design competition. As the importance of design is increasing in all areas including marketing, each country does its best effort on design development. However, the preparation on protecting interior design rights by intellectual property laws(IPLs) has not been enough even though they occupy an important place in the design field. It is not quite easy to make a judgement on the similarity between two images having a single common factor because the factors which are composed of interior design have complicated interactive relations between them. From the IPLs point of view, designs with the similar overall appearance are decided to be similar. Objective evaluation criteria not only for designers but also for design examiners and judges are required in order to protect interior design by the IPLs. The objective of this study is the analysis of the possibility that a computer algorithm method can be useful to decide the similarity of interior design images. According to this study, it is realized that the Img2 which is one of content-based image retrieval computer programs can be utilized to measure the degree of the similarity. The simulation results of three descriptors(CEDD, FCTH, JCD) in the Img2 showed the high degree of similar patterns compared with the results of perceptual judgment by observers. In particular, it was verified that the Img2 has high availability on interior design images with a high score of similarity below 60 which are perceptually judged by observers.
The aim of this study is to review the background and characteristics of Pallasmaa's architectural phenomenology. As a prominent architect, educator and phenomenologist, Pallasmaa criticizes the contemporary architecture that has been commercialized and intended to addict superficial images. He suggests the restoration of essentials of architecture related to human existence. His architectural phenomenology shows a solution to problems of contemporary architecture through focusing on architectural experiences. Pallasmaa argues 'multi-sensory architecture' to criticize architecture based on visual images and emphasizes the importance of tactile sense for architectural experiences. His phenomenology of architecture has significant meaning in that it bridges between theory and practice but also has limits in depth rather than width of theory. Pallasmaa believes that the essence of architecture can be explained as existential activities to maintain existence of our lived space.
Although the improvements in the health sanitary facilities of the elementary school were made by the implementation of the 7th curriculum, color design and concept of toilets used by lower classes students were shown to be still insufficient and so, it is also necessary to have color planning for toilets considering users' preferences. This study is targeting lower classes children of elementary schools under Seoul Gangseo Office of Education. The purpose of this study is to propose a toilet color design direction preferred by children as users. Therefore, the toilets of elementary school were investigated and at the same time, juvenile pictures were analyzed. The results of this study are that the color space used in the current design, the following gives a substantial psychological and emotional impact for many elementary school children in the developmental stages of children leads to an interesting use of color. Therefore, this study propose to improve the toilet to a more familiar environment with high accessibility considering the development of the child when using color in design space through color preference.
This study was conducted to determine a 'platform' as a mean of interactions between users in contemporary spatial design and network(web) and to verify the similarity between the platform and space of Rem Koolhaas, one of the leading contemporary architects of our time. A platform, referring to tangible or intangible structures designed for common use in a variety of ways, is activated by the networking effect of participants. Aided by the recent development of the IT industry encompassing computers and smart phones, the concept of platforms is extending to all areas of modern life, in general. In this study, the similarity between architectural space and platforms after reviewing the computer-related platforms, ecological features that refer to virtuous circulation, and various cases applied with platform thinking. Through this process, the platform feature of architectural platforms is defined as the 'open spatial system combined with control and freedom that acts more than one function and facilitates direct/indirect exchanges between users regardless of its type or size'. Establishing the criteria for spatial analysis based on this definition, analysis was conducted on interior design projects that were planned and conducted by Rem Koolhaas after 2000. As a result of this analysis, it was learned that Rem Koolhaas designs space using dual space structures where the extension and mixture of the user group, mixture of various functions defined by users, loose control that induces voluntary participation, community reinforcement, and inducement of accidental events, and opening and closing coexist. In addition, this design approach was found to be a design strategy similar to the concept of platforms that began to be developed in the IT field.
This study is to contemplate an ultimate goal and new methodology the architecture and space design community should pursue forward by analyzing concepts in Kengo Kuma's idea of "Anti-object" and examining his design methods and characteristics. To this end, I reviewed space design methods and features in his book of "Anti-Object" and his architectures built around in 2000. The result is as in the followings. (1) Contact is an essential concept of "Anti-object" to connect and integrate divided materials and consciousness with time and space. (2) Elimination is a meaningful way to reverse "cohesiveness" of agglomerated cluster which is a form of object and reconstruct it into the form of passive and acceptive "Anti-object". This idea is realized through overlap of material property and removal of massing. (3) Minimization is a concept of "Anti-object" to set the temporality free from constraints of materials. Three-dimensional transparent faces and lines or patterns of porous materials can be used to remove static and coercive volume. (4) A particle is a "reflector of its environment." It rebuilds one-way or disconnected communication between human and architecture into an interactive one. Kengo Kuma materializes this "particle" by exploring positional relation with physical paths, precise details and measurements.
This study aims to grasp the vital rhythm of the Chapel at Ronchamp by analyzing its rhythm through Henri Lefebvre's 'rhythmanalysis' in an effort to show the possibility of approaching the presence of this chapel. For the purpose of this study, Lefebvre's thought of rhythmanalysis was first contemplated, and a case study analysis was conducted on the concept and presence of the chapel in the design process. On this basis, examples of the chapel's rhythms were analyzed through Lefebvre's dialectical analysis of the triad of time(melody), space(harmony) and energy(rhythm). The results of analysis are as follows: First, the concept intended by Le Corbusier in the process of designing the Chapel at Ronchamp is expressed as the acoustic form, the modulor corresponding to the scale of the music, the light and shadow of counterpoint, and the opposite composition of musical changes. Consequently, the concept-mediated presence of this chapel is the presence of music. Second, at the Chapel at Ronchamp, a Lefebvre's rhythmanalyst experiences, or rather senses, two vital rhythms of an antithetical unity (i.e., acoustic curved rhythm and modulor-generated linear rhythm), with reference to his/her own rhythms. These rhythms are a dialectical union of spatiality of melodies temporalized through continuity, (i.e., acoustic curved form and modulor-generated linear form), and temporality of harmonies spatialized through simultaneity (i.e., light and shadow, materials and color, form of interpenetration, and stairs or windows/doors). These rhythms carry the measures generated by music-specific repetitions and differences in movements(energy). Consequently, the rhythm-mediated presence of this chapel is also the presence of music. In conclusion, the Chapel of Ronchamp indicates that an approach toward its presence can be realized through vital rhythms derived from Lefebvre's 'rhythmanalysis'. This study holds significance as an analysis of spatial rhythm and presence, employing a philosophical thought.
As architecture is designed for humans to live in based on practicality, what one experiences within such spaces is important. Such experiences are not felt only by appreciating the structure's appearance, but involve physical presence inside the space and the deepening of the individuals relationship with the space through the body's sensory perception. However, in modern times there is a much greater tendency to rely on superficial experiences by way of images or tastes rather than more meaningful human participation, while the standardization of the object universe is gradually erasing the uniqueness of experience. In light of this, the restoration of emotional and sensory spatial experiences through the design of sensory spaces can be regarded as an important task in modern spatial design. This study contemplated the meaning of emotional spatial experiences through a phenomenological understanding of such experiences, and analyzed the meaning and main factors in the creation of spatial atmosphere as a phenomenon of spatial experience. In addition, we highlighted the fact that spatial atmosphere can be applied as space design methodology by devising methods of expression through an analysis of actual examples. O.F. Bollnow's space theory and the spatial design of Peter Zumthor were the subjects of this analysis. The spatial atmosphere analyzed using Bullnow's theory is a phenomenon in which both the human and space are connected and the ensuing spatial experience embodies the emotions of both. This spatial atmosphere can be understood as a condition in which the human and space are fused together. Furthermore, coincidental/accidental meeting, mediums using potential objects, reorganization of the center due to autonomous boundaries, as well as the three temporalities were identified as the main factors in the creation of spatial atmosphere. Based on this analysis, through the identification of methods of expression for spatial atmosphere in Zumthor's spaces.
The paper begins with the idea of the society of the continued rooms that building connects architectural space (building interior) and urban open space (urban interior) or countryside/rural open space (territorial interior). It gives an account of, through literature review, a theoretical possibility of integrating not only architecture and urbanism but also architecture and countryside/rural planning. The first site explores the continuously articulated and connected spaces between building interior, urban interior, and territorial interior, in understanding Alberti's analogy, "A house is a little city." (1452) The second site illustrates architecture as an open boundary and a spatial medium which makes building, urban, and territorial interiors connect and makes them continuous. There is an opportunity of reading the continued relations and the continua of spaces. The third site deals with the form of building that architecture creates for building interior (society of rooms) and urban interior (society of urban rooms), and moderates the interiors. The last site clarifies the territorial interior (society of countryside/rural rooms) that constitutes homogeneous spatiality moderated by architecture between building interior and urban interior. The paper discusses the society of the continued interiors(building/urban/territorial interiors) that ought to be a fundamental truth in the field of every project which deals with a unit of space. It logically clarifies the society of the interiors, not isolated and blocked off but multilayered and continued. It comes to the conclusion that the territorial interior should be subsumed under the design field and the society of the continued rooms ought to be considered as a united object of space in the fields of interior architecture/design, architecture, landscape, urbanism and countryside/rural planning. Ultimately, it aims at offering a departing point of discourse and a theoretical foundation for the future studies on urban interior and territorial interior.
The probability of visual perception occurrence varies in case the expectation of using each unit space of which the whole space consists because the size of space subject to analysis is very large or the organization is complicated in the analysis of spatial visual configuration. Therefore, it is necessary to compensate space analysis and index measurement by applying weight to the point of view for the probability of experiencing space. This study proposed a method of analyzing visibility ratio by applying the integration of space syntax theory as weight, and grasped the effect in comparison with the visibility ratio when weight was not applied.
With the modern society approaching, a lot of new paradigms have been created which can be explained by the existing space notions while suspicions on the true essence and existence of space have been raised. Ontology regards as the beginning the cause for a 'Field' which will be faced for the research of the essence of a space where 'being-in-the-world' exists. This study has analyzed the existing method of space construction in the spatial thinking and works of Peter Zumthor who mentioning ontological viewpoint as the physiological background of his works so that the ontological spatial concept may be clarified. The following is the study results. First, in order to construct the structures of his own designing into a 'Field' for experiencing the existential meaning, Zumthor chose a reductive pattern with the entire additional elements removed. The materials leading the subjects to call attention to memory and experience and the methods dealing with it enables the realization of various spatial essences. Second, the ontological event-system is required for the formation of relationship among beings. He tried to create a spatial meaning by introducing external environment into the inside and using the materials reflecting regional features and phenomenological empiricism through the multisensory experience. Third, he applied assimilation/insert/adjustment/formative change as the way of constructing the relationship between site and structure.
Gaze induction characteristics in space vary depending on characteristics of spatial components and display. This study analyzed dominant eye-fixation characteristics of three zones of department store space. Eye-fixation characteristics depending on spatial components and positional relationship can be defined as follows. First, [**.jpg] was used as an extension in the process of storing the image photographed during image data processing for analysis in pixels and due to compressed storage of image data, the image produced with a clear boundary was stored in neutral colors. To remove this problem, the image used in operation was re-processed in black and white and stored in the [**.bmp] format with large capability, at the same time. As the result, the effort caused by unnecessary colors in the program operation process was corrected. Second, the gaze ratio to space area can be indicated as a strength of each gaze zone and when analyzing the gaze strength of the three zones, the left store was a zone with a "little strong" gaze strength of "102.8", the middle space was a zone with an "extremely weak" gaze strength of "89.6" and the right store was a zone with an "extremely strong" gaze strength of "117.2". Third, the IV section had a strong strength of gaze on the middle space and the right store and the V section showed a markedly strong strength of gaze on the left and right stores. This tendency was the same as the VI section with the strongest gaze strength and the right store had a little strong gaze strength than the left store.
Brand space is one of the important elements of urban cultural space and can stimulate the urban culture as a significant landmark. Thus, it is necessary to develop factors for evaluating the communication with users in brand spaces. In particular, factors for evaluating the psychological, emotional aspects of users is essential. This study is aimed at developing evaluation factors with a space marketing perspective through an user behavioral analysis. As for research method, the emotional responses of users will be examined and analyzed through an eye-tracking device. First, The researcher will visit brand spaces and take photos of them to collect data and analyze the status. Second, we filled out the questionnaire based on analytical framework and selected 20 architectural students for survey. Third, Eye-tracking experiment will be conducted. Forth, Space design marketing evaluation factors will be established based on the results. Final, suggestions for future research based on the analysis results. When the 30 images of premium supermarkets were used for the survey, men were more sensitive to the store design. But women were more sensitive to the quality or store accessibility. Also, the furniture factor was most important for women, and spatial factor was most important for men. When the eye-tracking experiment was done as to the 5 selected brand spaces, both men and women looked at the furniture factor that includes the showcases more than anything else. It shows the same result as the previous survey.
The purpose of this study is to analysis the change of rural house type and house plans in Bonghwa province. According to definition of rural area, the scopes of the research of rural houses limited the Bonghwa rural area(1 eup, 9 myeon). The method of study is to compare and analyze about housing situation, structure of house, housing type and construction of house space etc. through the statistical data of Bongwha statistical yearbook, space syntax(convex analysis) and other various data etc. during these 10 years. As a results of the analysis 1) According to Change of family member the supply ratio of detached house is steadily decreasing and changing from a detached house to multi-household house in Bongwha areas. 2) Most of houses structure were using lightweight steel construction because of cost-cutting of construction and easy way to construct etc.. 3) The highest Integration space is living space in rural house plans 4) The highest segregation space is bathroom space of master bed room in rural house plans. Some of bed rooms are classed as segregation space regardless of Integration space 5) Traditional front yard's function is changing from the place with the various functions to the place with the specific functions.
The aim of this study is to figure out the preference features on design components of shop facade on the basis of the questionnaire survey on short-term memory and sensory memory of human right after an image experiment. As for a preceding research, this study examined the design features of facade into tangible elements and intangible elements, and also classified them into physical, aesthetical, marketing and symbolic components in detail. And, it extracted 5 representative elements in preceding studies including shape, material, pattern, color and sign, which is the standard of a questionnaire survey and preference analysis. The subjects of the experiment were 30 men and women who were over 20 years old majoring interior design. They were exposed to 20 images with 10 seconds respectively through a video, and were asked to respond the questionnaire promptly. The findings of preference analysis of design components of facade including shape, material, pattern, color and sign are as follows. Firstly, shape was the most interesting and attracting component, and designs applied with shape of objects such as 'web', 'drawer', 'wheel' and 'button' obtained high preference. Secondly, as for material, block, steel, exposed concrete board attracted higher preference as memorable materials than other materials. Material was affected by shape, pattern and color. Thirdly, pattern was the most lasting element. Designed pattern had higher preference than simple pattern. Fourthly, as for color, red and green with strong stimulation and attention attained priority having long lasting memory. Fifthly, when visiting a shop, sign out of 5 elements of shape, material, pattern, color and sign drew attention the most. As for the preference of location of sign, 'center top' was the most noticeable. The findings of this study could be utilized for facade design, and also could be used for commercialization considering highly preferred components, and top preference aspects of such elements. advised that to give an impression to customers is important to make a successful design for sales marketing, which, in turn, would lead customers to revisit the shop.
University libraries aim to improve not only educational effects but also the general quality of colleges. A primary way of pursuing this goal is through providing professors and students with sufficient amounts of available references and materials that can be used for academic purposes. However, even though university libraries are intended to be used by college students majoring in different fields, they tend to provide mostly books. This limited offering of resources means that they are not distinguishing themselves from regular libraries. The purpose of this study is to present basic data for the spatial design of a subject specialization room in a college library. Included in the design are recommendations for the type and placement of the furniture in the room. The summary of results for this study and the conclusions are as follows: The layout of data space and reading space in a subject specialization room can be categorized into both document-oriented (document centralized and document categorized) and reading-oriented (reading centralized, all, and group types). The public reading seats and private reading seats in a subject specialization room, according to their ratio, can be divided into private reading, public reading, and distributed reading sections. The ratio of open-spaced tables is higher for groups of four or more people, but users often sit separately from others in order to ensure privacy. Unfortunately, this practice results in seating gaps that do not make efficient use of space. The result is that the public reading seats are less efficient than the private reading seats in terms of space. Therefore, it is necessary to increase the number of cubicles.
In case of Senior Hospitals, meticulous care is required in both amount and quality of natural lighting because of the semi-long term residence of patients. Natural lighting has a huge impact on the physical and psychological part for the seniors. Likewise, natural lighting is an important factor considered for hospital design because it can also effect hospitalization period of patients. Research subject was K Senior Hospital which was determined as the courtyard-type building made to provide healing environment through natural lighting. Analysis was performed by dividing the space of K Senior Hospital into Central Treatment Department directly used by patients, Outpatient Department(OPD), Ward Department, Common Use Department. Research was carried out in two ways of integration value analysis using SPACE SYNTAX and illumination intensity analysis using ECOTECT. K Senior Hospital intended to actively let in natural light through courtyard and to make patients exposed to natural light when they walk along the circuit corridor built around the courtyard. This environmental consideration affected the utilization rate of Common Use Department and residence time of patients raising the average of Common Use Department on every floor. As a resuit of this study presenting type C and type D, part of four types of illumination intensity, takes higher percentage of almost every spaces compare to the others therefore K Senior Hospital was designed on the assumption of healing environment composition through natural light. The result of this research would be used meaningfully in the space programming phase of Senior Hospitals in the future. Utilization rate can be adjusted using illumination intensity value in the space that integration rate should be planed to be high. The use(purpose) of space and integration rate can be used as a guideline to set illumination intensity of natural.
Recently in most homes, children are mostly cared in early childhood education facilities. However, the increased number of safety accidents on children cared in such facilities has become a social issue. For that, the purpose of this study is to suggest interior environmental planning elements to improve safety level of early childhood education facilities. This study was carried out by performing literature review analysis and survey. First, in total of 42 environmental planning elements that can be applied domestically were derived from analyzing safety related guidelines for children facilities located both domestically and internationally then a survey was carried out targeted for teachers and staffs in the facilities on importance of the factors. The results of this study are as followings. First, it is required to intensify the level of safety related training for teachers and staffs in the facilities including better treatment for them. Second, the necessity of safety environment by each space in such facilities is required to be approached upon the level of child activities. Third, facilities planning and finalizing planning are important for improving safety of early childhood education facilities. Forth, from factor analysis on the extracted environmental planning elements that are considered as important by the teachers from both day care centers and kindergartens, they were categorized in 5 groups including 'collision and fall prevention plan', 'physical characteristic consideration plan', 'evacuation safety plan', 'lock security plan' and 'outer control plan'. It is fair to say that constructing a better safety environment for children can be achieved by the environmental planning factors by this study.
Majority of the seniors living in nursing homes suffer from persistent chronic pain, which may cause depression and compromised quality of life if untreated. The environment should support them to lift their focus from current pain and worries to the positive feelings and the delight of life. The purpose of this research is to classify the healing environment elements for positive distraction, and analyze 6 international cases to see the current situation. The elements were categorized as follows, based on literature review from both healing spaces and elderly care field: spatial elements(view, natural elements, artificial elements, exercise space, garden), psychological elements(grooming area, space for privacy, meal/drink area, elements for recollection, religious space), social elements(common living area, activity/hoppy room, family/visitor area, information area, local community program space). Analysis on 6 facilities showed that each elements were reflected to designed relatively well. New inventions from workers who think distraction is important were also introduced. Healing environment for positive distraction requires delicate touch, derived from understanding characteristics and situation of the residing elderly individuals. Technology update is also significant, from audio books to virtual reality devices, since cultural life of nursing home is far behind from what the others enjoy now.
As the aging society is globally increasing, the guide for the aged-friendly city is suggested by WHO and many cities are preparing to meet with it. The base of this guide for an age-friendly city is an active aging. This study examined how degree the neighborhood environment is age-friendly from older persons' standpoints. The data were collected through the interview with old persons who aged more than 65 years, 117 persons in an urban area and 110 ones in a rural area. The age-friendly degree of neighborhood environment was examined from two aspects. One is how close 12 neighborhood facilities were from the elderly's houses. Another one is how degree the elderly were considered in 4 areas: pedestrian road, traffic, the amount of housing for the elderly, and space layouts of their houses. Findings were as follows. First, the elderly related neighborhood facilities in urban area were closer located to old persons' houses than in rural area, except the senior center. Second, in case of the age-friendly degree of their neighborhood environments, the space layout of house was the highest, and then traffic, pedestrian road, and the amount of housing for the elderly, in order. The consideration degree of wheelchair users was the lowest. Third, the age-friendly degree of pedestrian road, traffic, and room layout of house in rural area were higher than in urban area. However, the amount of housing for the elderly in urban area was higher than in rural area.
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