From the stages of formation, to the processes of change, the alleys with long history not only reflect on the trends of the area, but also have a historical and cultural value as a place where the local residents make living and socialize. However, due to the rapid growth of the city's civilization, and industrialization, there has been a great amount of loss in the roles of the rural areas while urban areas have been expanding over time. The rural areas including the old alleys have been neglected and fell far behind in the processes of growth overall, and therefore, it became harder to trace the old days as well as the old emotion that we used to see. Nowadays, there are various cases in terms of alley regeneration project as people are getting more interested in it. The alley regeneration projects can be divided into two different backgrounds; a part of urban regeneration project by the government and local organizations and the other developed by the trends. This research, with successful case studies, is for analyzing the direction of the ultimate goal and the identity that only the alleys have. As the alleys contain history, tradition and culture of the community, we need to not only preserve but also maintain all of these since it will affect the goal and the establishment of identity of the alley regeneration projects as a significant factor. In addition, in order to attract visitors from diverse cultures, providing cultural or artistic experiences and aesthetic landscapes will be importantly considered as an additional factor for the research. In other words, through this research, I would like to demonstrate that it is the most important for the alleys fell far behind to establish its identity for continuous successful eyre generation projects, which are not temporary.
Promoting barrier-free living environments is necessary in residential facilities on which senior citizens rely most of their lives. Safety of elder people can be reassured by a certification system based on the existing barrier-free certification program in public facilities. The range of certification does not cover all living area, but is limited to the bathroom, which is a sanitary space. Given the nature of BIM modeling, an existing multi-family building was selected and modeled, as the certification process requires all the necessary information and various viewport. BIM modeling of the bathroom was conducted in accordance with the requirements of the certification for barrier-free living environment. The results suggested that there is a need for a removal of thresholds, larger doors, better selection of finishing materials, sufficient room for a wheelchair, larger space next to the toilet, and the availability of an emergency bell and grab bars. Such information supports the potentials of BIM modeling, and it is expected that an automated certification system would be established in the foreseeable future.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the characteristics of interior space in his design hotel through the analysis of Tony Chi 's work and to present the direction of the design direction of the interior space of the design hotel in the future based on the results. The results are summarized as follows. First, the characteristics of the interior space of Tony Chi are divided into visual balance, repetitive rhythm, symbolic emphasis, exaggerated scale, design harmony, and physical borderlessness. Second, the spatial composition through visual balance was consistently shown in all cases, mainly by arranging elements such as furniture and lighting symmetrically. Third, the spatial composition through repetitive rhythm did not show its characteristics at the beginning of the works, but gradually appeared as repetitive rhythm expression using bold pattern. Fourth, Toni Chi constantly expressed the space composition through symbolic emphasis during the planning of the design hotel. Fifth, the exaggerated scale was mainly used to express the architectural detail vertically according to the height of the ceiling to express a grand space and appear in many works. Sixth, Toni Chi consistently expressed the composition of space through the harmony of design of oriental and western cultures, classical and modern designs in all cases. Seventh. In order to provide curiosity induction and aesthetic experience, spatial composition through physical borderlessness was used.
Korean-Japanese architect Itami Jun that proceeded with primeval architecture based on analogue ideas in the digital era realizing nomad architecture is delivering a totally different meaning in the modern time. Not like the Japanese architectural community equipped with rich technologies showed state-of-the-art architecture after 1980s, Itami Jun' formative consciousness intending to assimilate nature from the original position of things is thought to have started from the relationship with Korean-Japanese painters leading MONO-HA desiring to look at the world as it is and approach the source of existence. The purpose of this study is to analyze the spatial characteristics from the viewpoint of 'Theory of Meeting' which is the essence of the work theory of Lee UFan that made the theoretical foundation of MONO-HA to understand Itami Jun's architectural space in the ideological aspect. Although the characteristics of marginal men appearing in Itami Jun's architectural space as others located on the boundary between Korea and Japan, art and architecture, and functions are valuable research objects, they have not been studied in the aspect of source, so it is needed to research his works and the source of the spatial ideas that led his works. Based on Theory of Meeting claiming that the world becomes the place of experience by the medium of objet which is the structure of meeting, and that human beings can meet the truly opened world by self-awareness through body, the expressive characteristics of Itami Jun's interior space was analyzed. As a result of the analysis, it turned out that Itami Jun's interior space actively expressed Theory of Meeting on the unity of structure and space, and on the trans-boundary by the medium of objet. Conclusively, this study suggests that, in the reality of the modern interior design full of technology-intensive designs, analogue approach moving in the opposite way from technologies could be a better expressive method of design delivering the fundamental human emotions.
A social phenomenon that occurs in a physical space is said to be a complex system. However, space syntax, which is commonly employed by researchers to identify such social phenomena, has various limitations in interpreting their complexity. On the other hand, agent-based modeling considers a variety of factors including the personality of the agent, objective-oriented work flows, estimation according to time flows and better prediction of space use through diverse parameters depending the situation, as well as the characteristics of the space. The agent-based method thus has the potentials to be developed as an alternative to space syntax techniques. In particular, discrete event driven simulation(DEVS), which is part of the agent-based modeling method, embraces the concept of networks just like space syntax, which allows a possible theoretical linkage in the future. This study suggests a procedural model of agent-based DEVS reflecting two different connection methods, i.e. connections between adjacent areas and those of the entire space, and attempts to identify the relationship between the local and regional indices of space syntax. A number of spaces were selected as examples-one for a preliminary experiment and eight modified for the main experiment-and space syntax and DEVS were applied to each of them. The comparative analysis of the results led to the conclusions as follows: 1) Adjacent connections were closely related to local indices, while the whole-space approach to regional indices. Local integration shows both characteristics. 2) Observation of the time flow model indicated a faster convergence with the range of 1 to 3-fold of the total time of one lap, with the error of less than 10%. 3) The heat map analysis showed more obvious characteristics of using the space for the entire space rather than adjacent connections. 4) Space syntax shows higher eligibility than ABM.
As recently too many local museums have been built in the whole country, most of them cannot attract enough spectators. In order to resolve this problem, it is needed for local museums to differentiate their spaces and programs related to their exhibition. Thus, the purpose of this study was to analyze the characteristics of spaces and programs of local museums from the perspective of spatial marketing to activate them, and contribute to development of local cultures. This study targeted historical public museums located in Seoul and Incheon. Through preceding research, an analysis frame was established based on the keywords related to spatial marketing, and then the characteristics of spaces and programs of local museums were analyzed based on the frame. The study results are as follows. 1) Access convenience refers to openness that public museums located in Seoul and Incheon can embrace accessible locations, points of interest, and convenient facilities easily recognized by pedestrians. 2) Symbolic formativeness is to express symbolic historical contents in the museum lobby or exhibition to show the identity of local museums. 3) Visibility is needed for direct guidance signs or spaces to let spectators know directions and locations. 4) Public concern is for spectators and local residents to participate in local museums to share and utilize their partial spaces. 5) Interactivity is to induce activation of local museums by utilizing experience exhibition contents and having spectators directly contact exhibits. 6) Interest is related to cultural festival programs of exhibition to arouse spectators' and local residents' curiosity. 7) Participation is to activate spaces and spectators by providing educational programs. 8) Usefulness is to induce spectators' interest in local museums by providing historical, social, and cultural information. These results are expected to be used as baseline data to suggest a new direction for activation of local museums from the perspective of spatial marketing.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the inner space of detached houses from 1980 to 2016. It was used 'space syntax program' for analysis and analyzed with intervals of 10 years as 1980~1990, 1990~2000 and so on. The research results will be summarized as follows: 1) Overall, all inner space that was examined shows a trend that integration space tends to increase while segregating space tends to decrease. 2) In the case of the master bedrooms(M B) in 1980s, these were composed of 2 rooms as a front room(F R) and a master bedroom type, but as time went by, the F R which was attached room to the M B disappeared. While inside space of M B attached powder-room and wardrobe instead of the F R of the M B. And F R was an integrated space at first in 1980s, but it began to change to a segregating space to protect personal privacy. 3) The dining(D) and kitchen(K) spaces were strictly separated in the 1980s but began to change to D+K and L+D+K types after 1990. 4) In the 2000s, the most typical living space in every house is continuing to change from an separate space in the other space to an integrated space where it is clearly seen from the kitchen and the dining room in the types as L+D and L+D+K.
Korea is facing various social problems including single elderly household, increase in the number of disabled people and poverty rate and a difference in the proportion of males to females between urban areas and rural areas along with the advent of rapid aging society. Especially, the ratio of poor households in rural areas residing in housing which falls below the minimum housing level and most of them are in the dead zone of housing welfare. In addition, if it is impossible for them to move (relocate) to new housing, the house remodeling is the only measure for improving their housing welfare. However, we don't have enough prior relevant academic and practical experience, and house remodeling requires a series of process including prior planning construction and post-occupancy evaluation, but almost no fundamental research that provides relevant insight has been carried out. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to describe all field situations that occur in the whole customized house remodeling process for disabled female senior citizens living alone in a rural area. The remodeling process was classified into initial planning stage, field verification and adjustment stage and construction stage as the method to participate in the field directly, and any change in the remodeling plan and its causes at each stage were analyzed. As a result, some remodeling items were changed from the main viewpoint of participating parties before the beginning of construction and for reasons such as the deterioration level of housing site, limitation in building equipment and rearrangement of housing, etc., and the remodeling method and its details were developed. It was identified that constant change that occurred in the remodeling process resulted from 1) unique poor characteristics of existing housing and 2) physical condition of residents and their unique lifestyle characteristics that were two aspects required to be emphasized by customized remodeling.
Subsidiary welfare facilities in an apartment complex are one of the most important factors for consumers when they buy an apartment due to an increase of consumers' consciousness level, increase of leisure time, and increase of cultural life. This study aims to analyze layout types and characteristics of subsidiary welfare facilities at the apartment complexes in the second phase new towns, investigate the current situation and find out the improvement direction. For this purpose, this author investigated three "second phase new towns" which were designated as a new town at similar time, and selected a total of 15 apartment complexes by selecting 5 complexes in each of the three new towns. Literature survey, case visit, photo shoot, user observation survey were used as study methods. The results of the study are as follows. First, it was found that a mixed type was the most common type of plane layout types in the subsidiary welfare facilities. This type improves accessibility and equity of the residents as the facilities are appropriately placed based on the functions and the user characteristics. Second, it can be considered that a distributed type for senior citizen centers and daycare centers may give independence to specific users, but it may give a sense of alienation to the elderly. Moreover, it does not have enough community so that it is necessary to make proper supplementation. Third, there were two lay out types. The first one is that the subsidiary welfare facilities are placed with step difference and the second one is that they are placed in sunken places using the underground space. Fourth, all layout types of outdoor facilities are distributed types, and it is considered that measurements for a proper balance of accessibility and equity are required.
The rapid growth of Korean-style buffet in recent years has increased the size of corporate investment. Under this circumstance, businesses make various marketing efforts while highlighting the features and advantages of their brands. Against this backdrop, this study aims to understand which space branding has been applied to the Korean-style buffet through case studies and to propose a method of application of space branding to increase sales in an effective manner in the future. First, the research is theoretical examination and case studies with focus on the characteristics of expressions of Korean-style buffet space branding. Basically, upon completion of examining the concept and the characteristics of expressions of the Korean-style buffet and analyzing the concept of space branding, the components of space branding have been reconstructed based on preceding studies on space branding and then have been applied to each brand space. Also, the hands-on experience of the characteristics of expression of the Korean-style buffet with space branding incorporated in it and prepared a checklist via visual inspections. And then, the field surveys based on these examinations and took approach of drawing a conclusion based on the results analysis conducted by using the SPSS statistical program. Through preceding studies, the three components of space branding, that is, sensory element, emotional element, and cognitive element have been reconstructed before proceeding with this study, which has obtained five major findings as a conclusion. First, the sensory element should be given elements differentiated enough to attract consumers' attention along with a sustainable effort to have brand image imprinted in their mind. Second, in terms of emotional element, the study has found that the brand experience oriented toward interest and participation results in higher utility frequency. Third, the study has found that the cognitive element should seek consistency in communicating with consumers with focus on face-to-face contact on the display in space. Fourth, it has been found that arranging independent spaces is necessary to attract consumers' participation. Finally, the study has identified in which location area of buffet the sensory, emotional, and cognitive elements have placed a significant weight.
Based on an analysis of the characteristics of "Ecute" of the East Japan Railway Company (JR East) that planned the world's first large scale commercial facilities inside a ticket gate (paid-area including waiting room and platforms), the present study proposes a brand development of commercial facilities inside aged railway stations, where only basic railway business have been provided focusing on passenger transportation, by renewing the definition of railway commercial facilities and presenting a detailed planning and the direction of the operation system. A list of practical tasks that can be carried out in academia, planning and operation / management to facilitate the revitalization of the use of commercial facilities inside railway stations are as follows: 1) the setting of a wide scope for the revitalization of railway commercial facilities around the railway station focusing on private-funded stations in addition to existing stations; a setup of the direct scope of commercial development in the practical railway operation for passengers and stations in terms of external research, and a corresponding shift in thinking in terms of internal research 2) development of under used spaces such as the transfer area (Gongdeok Seoul Wangsimri Station are first target stations where more than four subway lines intersect) 3) brand establishment through improvement strategies for image and symbolism specialized for railway stations 4) rent of suitable business stores and layout of commercial facilities by analysis of passenger move pattern 5) development of commercial facilities which can attract customers by displaying various products, as well as finding a way to develop them in to a base facility that connects to local infrastructures 6) providing advertisement and management system for continual maintenance, and 7) brand specialization through unique storytelling and design plan that stimulates sensibility. The above study results can be utilized as a starting point for design brand awareness about commercial facilities in railway stations in Korea, which can be developed further to improve station image and passenger convenience, as well as to increase the revenue of railway businesses.
As the functions and roles of public libraries expand, it is time for qualitative growth. In order to improve the quality of public libraries, it is important to plan actual construction costs through systematic feasibility study. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to present the guideline of construction costs considering the size and regional characteristics according to the status role of the new public libraries. The construction costs are based on actual data. The results of the study are as follows. First, we derived the analysis framework according to the size and regional characteristics. The status role of the public libraries was considered theoretically. The size was classified according to status role of the public libraries. Regional characteristics were classified through literature review. Through this, an analysis framework was derived according to size and region. Second, the actual data on construction costs of the new public libraries were examined and analyzed. Basic factors, size, area, and construction costs were analyzed for 285 libraries nationwide that opened from 2010 to 2016. The data of 129 newly opened public libraries were classified. To present construction costs depending on price fluctuation, construction cost index was analyzed as of September 2016. Third, a guideline of construction costs for new public libraries was suggested. The construction cost per $1m^2$ of building area was analyzed. By multiplying 116.70(p), the construction cost index, the construction cost per $1m^2$ of total building area was calculated to be 2,472,350 won. When applying the research result, construction costs can be gained by adding construction cost index of the month.
The study is to identify the status of the ward of public hospital for integrated nursing care service. Integrated nursing service has expanded nationwide from 2016 but 10 out of 34 public hospitals are currently unable to operate as nurses due to the shortage. Analyze each floor plan and space program of ward and provide the basic data for the construction of the architecture plans for Integrated nursing care service. For this study, selecting 14 wards of public hospital in Korea and then analyzes space organization, distance from NS to bedroom and NS to core(Elevator) and spatial hierarchy of them. Among the 14 public hospitals, there are 7 types of double-loaded corridor, 4 types of double corridor and 3 types of single corridor. If NS is placed centrally, the control of the outsider and the patient's control would be efficient, but most of NS are lean on one side of floor. the placement of NS should be independent of individual arrangements, but it should be smooth alignment with patient spaces, staff spaces, and public spaces. This study could serve as basic research for the architectural plan for future integrated nursing care in ward of public hospital.
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