The number of shared offices has increased and changed within the flow of the era into various forms in recent days. Co-working spaces and related shared space businesses are growing fast, keeping pace with the trend recently. It is confirmed that the need of spaces grew 180% since 2015 to 2017. Most of the shared offices in Seoul are placed in Gangnam circle, it is verified that shared office is providing work, space, and community by visiting cases of foreign companies, domestic companies, local companies. Meanwhile, shared space can be categorized into serviced office, co-working space, virtual office, and daily office. It is to consider various target levels by leasing service or the difference of costs. It is divided into forms of dispersion, circulation, and concentration and is planned to increase the utilization of communities' traffic according to the allocation of shared office. The business is conducted network-centered. During the process of communication, members can get chances to exchange and build communities. They are making business ecosystem which they can coexist and grow together. Shared offices have a view of a solution to empty rooms and will last for a while, and it is expected that co-working system be settled as office space and giving people sense of belonging on their workspace.
After the "Landscaping Law" was enacted in 2007 Korea, national and local governments has been responding swiftly by seeking various methods. Seoul Metropolitan City and other municipalities have established "Seoul Coloring and Systematization" project, which analyzes and extracts the humanities, humanities and natural environments in 2007 as an opportunity to recognize the importance of environmental color. However, it is necessary to slightly supplement the color scheme created by the observer's concept. In this way, you have to find the color of the environment in a city where real life takes place. The city's environmental color has the concept of "walking" as the basic human behavior. Because the average speed is 4km, it differs from that of a vehicle that travels more than 60km per hour. Also, most of the frontage zone is used except for special cases. Therefore the characteristics of the environmental color and frontage zone on the road side were concluded in this paper as Single Type, Connection Type, and Extension Type. In addition, the principle of environmental color of city was established by the change of texture according to space of time and the characteristics of urban scale, and new media characteristics were found in various interactions. The results of this study suggest an environmental coloring strategy for workability such as hue continuity, hue harmonization and integrated design.
Environmental issues had arisen following industrialization with rapid physical growth of city and its consequences: widened metropolitan areas, uncontrolled reconstructions of new metropolitan areas, many social issues, such as declines of existing metropolitan areas. Due to these issues, new development policies have been made in order to find identities and reconstruct new images of cities. This research aims to remind the meaning of conservation of modern construction and building re-use, and to identify values of modern architectures in the context of a city. Regeneration of cities is not only finding national identities, but also expecting to increase inflow of foreign travellers. However, this regeneration hasn't stayed sustainable, focusing only on short-term curing of the problem in limited areas. This work analyzes cases of modern architecture, historic buildings from various cultures: Western, Japanese, Chinese. The result of the analysis shows that the value of existing buildings and citizen participation is necessary to revitalize cities. Four characteristics have been also identified: historic relationship, spatial identity, spatial presence, and approachable efficiency. For a potential solution, cities need to be viewed from multiple perspectives to find a method to generate new vitality for a city whose values should be recognized as an asset through sustainable re-use, by transforming modern construction as a heritage.
This research is to analyze the change of pupil size in gender through the eye-tracking experiment in large complex cultural space. It is meaningful that figured out the common characteristics and differences from gender observation characteristics. Through this research, the analyzed results of the observation time measurement that appeared from the fixation and saccades pupil indicator able to define as follows. Firstly, it was suggested that there were differences between each gender and participants through extract pupil size that can be the standard examples for the case from male and female and the process of extracting the relative pupil size change on the hourly range. From the specific time range, it was possible to indicate bending characteristics and reversal phenomena of Fixation and Saccades. Second, the result was found equally from both male and female group that the rapid increment of pupil size at initial time range immediately after the eye-tracking experiment has been initiated. This can be considered to actively accepting the stress given by the subject through the extended pupil after 10 seconds that compare to indicated very low pupil size between 0 to 10 seconds after starting the experiment. Third, meanwhile 0 to 10 seconds after initial observation are the time of sudden change in the pupil size, therefore these time range data cannot be regarded as observed in the appropriate condition. Thus, it able to define the highest times of emotional processing for male as 10 to 80 seconds, and for female as 10 to 70 seconds. There was no definition of the time range data for observation experiment from previous research, this data can be considered to stable time to observation through the pupil extension. Therefore, it is possible to set suitable time of observation experiment to be around 70 to 80 seconds exclude initial experiment time.
This study is intended to suggest an improvement scheme of activating container multiplex cultural space through an analysis of container architecture characteristics and a survey of user satisfaction, focusing on container multiplex cultural space located in Seoul city. Hence, the elements of multiplex cultural space and the characteristics of container architecture were deduced and analyzed through precedent study and literature review relating to multiplex cultural space and container architecture, and then an analysis framework was established with items to measure the user satisfaction. Based on this, a questionnaire was created, and users were surveyed through on-site visit. The results of analyzing the container multiplex cultural space users' satisfaction are as follows. First, in order to increase user satisfaction, it is necessary to highlight visual element. Second, there is necessity for distinct space configuration, such as connection, stack and extension by utilizing the fixed specifications, the characteristics of container. Third, there is necessity for extended space where people feel a sense of openness. Fourth, it should be improved so that air is well circulated by installing glass, operable window, etc. In further research, it is thought necessary to make a study of commercial space and facilities inside university besides multiplex cultural space.
Recently, cosmetic shops are facing a complicate economy situation and a great number of brands are attempting two-way communication with customers, not one-way communication. 'Brand' equity is important to deliver virtual brand mark as visual image. We have 4 steps for brand identity structure, and this study is about the first 'brand-awareness' and the second step 'brand-image'. We investigated the correlation between brand-awareness and brand-image after searching which spatial elements are highly effective to both steps as we designated 5 cosmetic shops. We already organized the means of spatial analysis and we separated into two elements, constructive and decorative. For constructive element, a shop needs a distinct ceiling and wall design, and for decorative element, strong brand image communication is required through showcase design. We proved that brand awareness and brand image have the correlation, which also can be in direct proportion, by regression analysis. The result of this study shows that improving brand awareness as the primary element for cosmetic road shop can be an effective way to enhance brand image.
This study aims to analyze the cases of storage space outside housing unit and propose the activation plan. The issue of storage in residential complex has continued to be reported. This is more salient due to the recent preference trend for small houses, the constant increase of living goods and the limitation of the available space inside housing unit. Although more apartment houses are trying to have individual storage in the exterior space to address these issues, there is still a paucity of the related studies and more studies are required. In this study, we conducted on-site investigation and user interview of each case to propose active usage of the storage space outside housing unit. Result of this study shows that the most crucial factor to improve is 'accessibility' in order to activate the storage space. Storage room should be located close to each household or the individual parking space. The second factor is the size and the structure of the storage room. The sufficient space for keeping and taking large objects out are required. The front of the storage room should have a clogged structure to insure privacy. The third is the provision of suitable support programs such as the system that occupants can check remotely what items are in their storage rooms, garage sale, laundry service, auto cleaning system and rental program. Those programs are required for efficient management and activation of space. Another requirement is to improve environmental factors which include maintenance of optimal temperature and humidity, automatic ventilation system, control of individual lights, and security enhancement. Based on the results of the survey, we provide basic data which can be used for practical space planning to activate exterior storage space of the housing unit. Further surveys are required to develop this study by obtaining more data for generalization.
The main purpose of this paper is to introduce 'Inframince' in modern and contemporary architecture. The Inframince(English: infra-thin) is a concept coined by Marcel Duchamp. The conceptual definition of the term "Inframince" by Marcel Duchamp replied that the notion is impossible to define, "one can only give examples of it:". It describes fine indirect perceptions of physical phenomena. Inframince is conductor of two dimensions into three, the essential dynamic in the practice of making space. Inframince is the interval between an inhabitant and their environment that both connects and separates. This study deals with the difficult situation how Contemporary Architecture represents itself over the 20th century modernity and asks the question how it presents its ornamentality. In order to analyse contradictory situation between self-referentiality and ornamentality in Modern/Contemporary Architecture we need to survey the historical process of changing position of ornaments and its meaning in time. The article also analyze the selected works of contemporary architects like Herzog & de Meuron, Jean Nouvel, to show that the trend reversal continues now more than ever. The Architectural surface must be a different kind of media that can communicate in different way with compared to conventional ornament. If we understand Duchmp's Inframince to be the provocation of the unuseful things, and if we interpret Contemporary fact that all specific Architectural Surfaces have been dissolved in timelines, it shows us post-trend of the Surfaces via conspicuous consumption or desire.
This study aims to find gender differences in inpatients' privacy and stress concerns in multi-bed hospital room. In the literature review, we consider the characteristics of multi-bed hospital room and patients' privacy as a psychological environment factor. In the survey research, the questionnaires were used to understand the inpatients' general characteristics and privacy requirements. A total of 109 copies were analyzed through a cross-tabulations and T-test using the SPSS 18.0. Results and conclusions are as follows: (1) In the case of multi-bed room patients, there were some gender differences in privacy and stress, but the differences were limited. (2) There is a difference in the patient 's preference of the hospital room according to gender, and this is related to the privacy characteristic. (3) The social communication and strolling are commonly effective stress relief methods for both men and women, so space is needed to do this methods. The meaning of this study is to specify the privacy and stress of the inpatients in multi-bed patients' room.
The income level of people in South Korea has risen as the gross national income per capita reached the milestone of 30,000 dollars. More and more consumers try to change their houses according to their tastes just like they express themselves through clothes, bags, and other fashion items, thus pursuing value-based consumption. The changes to the housing culture including the greater percentage of one- or two-person households and the growing trend of lease and monthly rent have made consumers increase their demands for products to express their lifestyles. As a result, global lifestyle shops with characteristic and diverse concepts entered the South Korean market and were joined by South Korean fashion brands, large-sized stores, department stores, and fancy stationery manufacturers, which launched their own brands, in the expansion of lifestyle shops across the nation. Lifestyle shops have a couple of unique attributes including the relatively clear selection of target consumers and a clear set of VMD strategies accordingly. Based on a judgment that there was cost differentiation among brands, the investigator categorized the comparison and analysis criteria into high, middle, and low prices to apply case analysis. This study set out to analyze VMD strategies for spatial composition through cost differentiation among lifestyle shops, take the results into total consideration, and propose an effective and competitive VMD strategy for lifestyle shops through spatial composition elements.
This study is based on the way Kim Kwang Soo works, which reveals a strong expressive tone that is rare in Korean architecture. His work is not decorative and symbolic representation of the intention of positive amusement. Therefore, the following noteworthy points will arise. The various phenomena associated with architecture and society are researched and analyzed in a critical manner. So, it creates and expresses its own formal logic. In this study, the theory of the subversive appropriation theory was identified by using the expressive characteristics of engagement. The study was based on a conceptual framework for the overturning of the mimesis, which Benjamin and Adorno have described. From this, this study summarizes Kim Kwang Soo's nihilistic attitude, finding boundaries and crack points, and subversive expression as a new form of architectural formal logic as main characteristics of interpretation of works. The characteristics of subversive expression of Kim Kwang Soo architecture derived from this are as follows. It does not take an ideological approach to the dismantling of the internalization of traditional Korean architecture. Popular culture and social phenomena are used as materials for expression. These are structured sensibly with appropriated formal logic. Finally, the architectural position adhered to the limit of performativity was recognized as the dimension of new meaning generation.
Prairie style houses in first stages of Frank Lloyd Wright's architecture activity pay a leading role in the process of house modernization as reflecting social and economic circumstances of the time based on traditional house style of the States. Wright's first work after retiring from L. Sullivan's office, Winslow house in 1983 is pioneering work predicting prairie house. This is because this house has only one modern architecture language of Wright and follow no style prevailing of the time. So, a researcher analyse Winslow house within the framework of functional thinking and new formative value creation in the modernization process of western house. Through this, The goal of this study is to find out modern characteristics and the meaning of Winslow house in modernization process prior to the 1900s. Firstly, the followings are modern characteristics of Winslow house. First, Winslow house has original planning breaking from custom based on modern functional and reasonable thoughts, and has practical space reflecting resident's inner demand. Second, Winslow house has modern new plastic value through original exterior breaking from custom and integrated shape of inner-outer space and structure. Secondly, the followings are the meaning of Winslow house in modernization process prior to the 1900s. First, Wright intend to suggest directions of residence modernization through Winslow house before designing Prairie style houses in earnest. Second, mixing of modern vocabulary and eclecticism show a sign of residence modernization process on the time. Third, inner-outer flowing space, opening space concept of Winslow house has innovative meanings predicting spacial characteristics of modern architecture.
Due to the paradigm shift of the industrial structure in the contemporary china society, the usage of practical function of industrial facilities goes down in this high developing society, so that it falls into some unused spaces. But the unused industrial facilities that including historical, symbolic and cultural meaning has been creating a new cultural space by giving architectural form and function through a variety of application methods for revitalization design. Especially, the facade design which fully expresses the function and meaning of building while properly expressing the cultural situation. It improves the living and cultural conditions of residents while giving the new symbolism of unused industrial facilities through various ways of application methods for revitalization. The unused industrial facilities that was reconstructed into the exhibition space in Beijing and Shanghai, china since 2006 is the object and scope of this study. The purpose of this study is to analyze the methods and characteristics of application methods for revitalization according to each component of the facade design in the idle industrial facility and to expect it to become basic data in the future design plan of unused industrial facilities.
The high-rise and high-density apartment complexes are built on a large scale and occupy a large portion of the city. The facade of the apartment has a great influence on the cityscape. In particular, the lower part of apartment design gives people to important impressions. For the harmonious landscape of the city, the color plan emphasizes its importance as an influential visual design element that forms the urban landscape. In specialized apartment design, especially finishing material on lower-parts of apartment which is recognized by pedestrian is more important planning factor. Also, finishing material which is one of the primary design elements is important for making the entire image about the building with color. Nowadays stone is mostly used for specialized design on lower-level in apartments. Stone makes luxurious image and harmonious landscape as a nature material. But when planning for design, only general stone graphic or pictures is used without specific plan, after construction, there is a big difference between a plan and the actual color and image. Thus based on exact understanding of stone, I analyzed current state of expression for stone which is used for lower-parts of apartments in Daegu. By this, the purpose of this study is to present detailed data to offer the basis for planning specialized design of lower-parts of apartment.
In response to the development of IT technology in the 21st century and the advancement of the public human rights consciousness, it has become necessary to continuously evolve the office environments to support the changes of organizational structure and work methods of the police investigation departments. As a facility standard, continuous researches on standardized design space models and guidelines of the police investigation departments are needed. In respond to the organizational changes for the convenience of the working police investigators and the protection of the human rights of the visiting public, the environmental improvement projects for the office of the investigation department of the police stations are going on since 2014. In this study, analyzation and verification of the 3 cases of pilot projects for the improvement of police investigation departments would be done, based on the policy research project in 2014: 'the standard design direction of police officers for the protection of human rights and benefit of police investigation process.' The purpose of this study is, first of all, the actual situation survey for presenting the standard design space model and guidelines of investigation department of the police department. Secondly, the validation of the spatial model adequacy for for the past 3 years' case study of the police investigation department's environmental improvements by the application of standardized design space models and guidelines. The result of this study would be to enable the more effective police department investigation environment improvement policy by presenting the standard design space models and guidelines of the investigation departments of the police facilities.
This study analyzed the characteristics of Physical Environment of existing free shuttle bus Interior centered on elderly people who frequently use free shuttle buses. The purpose of this study is to provide basic data that can be used for improvement of existing free shuttle buses. In the case of the old type, in terms of accessible design, the middle entrance is not normally opened except the wheelchair occupant, so that the entrance of the front wheel is always used. Therefore, most elderly people go to the back seat and travel distance is twice longer. In addition, many stairs caused frequent inconveniences for boarding. In the case of the new type, it is planned to be a low-floor type, and various types of safety rods and handles, pictograms for enhancing the information convenience are well-equipped, and the measured value of the overall design characteristic is high. However, in the case of mental stability, it was confirmed that the seat of the bus is colored with a cold color system and is in a different relationship with the warm color which can feel mental stability. Overall, both old and new shuttle buses lack audiovisual feedback on bus routes and route guidance in terms of Supportive design. Also, since the cleaning tools and other miscellaneous items were left in the room, it became an obstacle to space utilization in terms of adaptable design. In terms of safety, both shuttle buses did not come into view with fire extinguishers shaded by miscellaneous items. Therefore, immediate action is unlikely in case of emergency. This problem should be resolved quickly.
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