• Title, Summary, Keyword: Young North Korean Defectors

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A Phenomenological Study on the Child-rearing Experience of North Korean Female Defectors with Young Children (영유아기 자녀를 둔 북한이탈여성의 자녀양육에 관한 현상학적 연구)

  • Lee, Joo-Yeon
    • Korean Journal of Childcare and Education
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.85-106
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    • 2017
  • Objective: The purpose of this study was to learn from Korean female defectors about their views of child-rearing experiences in South Korea. This study explored how 7 North Korean female defectors with young children developed child-rearing microideologies that acknowledge both North Korean cultural ideology and South Korean cultural ideology. Methods: To examine North Korean female defectors' child-rearing experiences, indepth interviews with 7 North Korean female defectors with young children were conducted. Results: Four theme clusters, 11 themes, and 47 meanings were found from a phenomenological analysis with indepth interview data. Based on the themes, three types of child-rearing microideologies were identified: (1) separation,(2) assimilation, and (3) integration. Each type of child-rearing microideology can be understood with a meaningful phrase "there is no choice", "nevertheless" and "because I came here to be better," respectively. Conclusion/Implications: This study provides knowledge on the individual-specified child-rearing strategy of North Korean female defectors with young children and suggests the necessity of diverse policy proposals based on the child-rearing microideology types.

Teachers' Experiences with North Korean Defectors' Young Children during Their Initial Settlement Period at Pyeonghwa Kindergarten (입국 초기 북한이탈가정 유아가 다니는 평화유치원 교사의 경험)

  • Kang, Jai Hee
    • Korean Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.175-191
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study was to acquire in-depth understanding regarding teachers' experiences with North Korean defectors' young children during their initial settlement period at Pyeonghwa Kindergarten. The participants of this study included 2 kindergarten teachers and 15 North Korean defectors' young children along with 3 local classmates. Qualitative data was collected via interviews and in-class observations. The study results show that (1) teachers witnessed that North Korean defectors' young children came from diverse backgrounds and struggled with emotional insecurity while local classmates were being excluded by them, (2) teachers had difficulties to communicate and make a consensus with their parents while teachers' efforts to communicate were being paid off gradually, and (3) teachers felt that kindergarten education was de-prioritized administratively to elementary education, and many programs were cancelled due to lack of understanding of in-charge staff.

Still life with less: North Korean young adult defectors in South Korea show continued poor nutrition and physique

  • Choi, Seul-Ki;Park, Sang-Min;Joung, Hyo-Jee
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.136-141
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    • 2010
  • North Korean defectors who settle in South Korea have experienced severe food shortage and transition of food environment which could affect their health status. However, little is known about their anthropometric measurements and dietary intake after settlement in South Korea. The purpose of this study is to compare anthropometric measurements and dietary intake between North Korean young adults who defected to South Korea and those of South Koreans. We hypothesized that North Korean young adults' physiques and dietary intake would be poorer than that of South Koreans. We compared anthropometric measurements and dietary intake from 3-day food records in a cross-sectional study of 103 North Korean young adult defectors, aged 12 to 24 and 309 South Korean subjects. North Korean subjects were significantly shorter (4.9 to 10.8 cm) and lighter (6.0 to 12.5 kg) than the control group. Body mass index were significantly different between North and South Korean groups only in men. North Korean young adult defectors had lower mean daily intakes of energy and most nutrients and food groups compared to the control group, while North Korean subjects had higher nutrient density diet than that of South Koreans. The proportion of subjects who had dietary intakes of nutrients of less than the Estimated Average Requirement was higher in North Korean subjects than in controls except for in the cases of vitamin A and vitamin C. In conclusion, we recommend providing nutrition support programs for North Korean young adult defectors to secure adequate nutrient intake.

Mental Health Factors associated with North Korean Defectors' Quality of Life

  • Rho, In-Suk;Kang, Hee-Young;Jeon, Jeung-He
    • International Journal of Advanced Culture Technology
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.19-27
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of this study was to assess mental health and quality of life (QOL) including factors influencing QOL among early North Korean defectors in South Korea. Participants were 151 early North Korean defectors residing in a settlement support center. All measures were self-administered. Unlike refugees living in communities, early defectors did not experience a high rate of mental health problems and reported a good QOL. Psychoticism was the most predictive factor affecting QOL. Findings from this study suggest the importance of mental health assessment and support over time. Psychoticism, significant in explaining QOL of early North Korean defectors, needs early diagnosis and treatment to prevent progression. Mental health issues among refugees may not be evident while they are in a structured, supportive environment. Evaluation and treatment are needed over time.

A Study on Acculturation Stress and Stress-coping among North Korean Defectors (북한이탈주민의 문화적응 스트레스와 대처기전)

  • Kim, Jong-Kyung;Yang, Young-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Adult Nursing
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.50-59
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: This study investigated the degree of acculturation stress among North Korean Defectors and the coping method that they used to deal with it. Methods: Ninety-nine participants of this study were North Korean Defectors in Seoul and Daejeon. The tools of survey for this study were acculturation stress and stress-coping. Results: The score for acculturation stress among North Korean Defectors was $2.97{\pm}0.47$ which was a moderate level of stress. The score of problem-solving coping was $3.10{\pm}0.47$ and emotional coping got $2.85{\pm}0.52$. On acculturation stress, there were higher scores among people who were old-aged, married, low educational levels, dissatisfied with job, low monthly income, and living alone. On problem-solving coping, there were higher score among people who have jobs. Regarding emotional coping, there were higher score in people who have jobs, dissatisfaction with job, and living alone. The higher the problem-solving coping skill, the less the acculturation stress. Conclusion: Reducing of acculturation stress and increasing adaptation mechanism of North Korean Defectors are very important due to the results of this study. Therefore, adaptation programs like psycho-social counseling should be created for North Korean Defectors.

North Korean Child Defectors' and South Korean Children's Moral Reasoning and Moral Judgement on Pro-sociality and Violence (새터민 아동과 남한 아동의 친사회성과 대인폭력에 대한 도덕추론과 도덕판단)

  • Rhee, Hye-Young;Yi, Soon-Hyung
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.71-86
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate North Korean child defectors and South Korean children's pro-social moral reasoning, pro-social decision-making, moral reasoning and moral judgement on violence. The participants were 82 North Korean child defectors and 186 South Korean children in Seoul and Kyunggi Province. All respondents answered self-report questionnaires including 6 stories of pro-social moral conflicts and 4 stories of moral conflicts on violence. Data were analyzed by independent sample t-test, $Scheff{\acute{e}}$ test, repeated measure ANOVA and one-way ANOVA. The major findings were as follows. First, North Korean child defectors showed a bigger difference between the level of pro-social moral reasoning in close relationship situations and that in distant relationship situations than South Korean children did. In the 11-13 year old group, North Korean child defectors showed lower level of pro-social moral reasoning than that of South Korean children. Second, children showed more helping responses in close relationship situations than in distant relationship situations. The 11-13 year old group Children also showed more helping responses than the 14-16 year old group did. Third, 11-13 year old South Korean children showed a higher level of moral reasoning on violence than the North Korean child defectors did. Finally, North Korean child defectors judged violence with a justifiable intention as being more wrong than South Korean children did.

Development of a comprehensive health promotion program for North Korean young adult defectors in South Korea (북한이탈 청소년을 위한 통합적 건강증진 프로그램 개발)

  • Choi, Seul-Ki;Park, Sang-Min;Joung, Hyo-Jee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of School Health
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.73-83
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a comprehensive health promotion program for North Korean young adult defectors in South Korea. Methods: The comprehensive health promotion program consisted of nutrition, mental healthcare, physical activity and sexual behavior was developed on the basis of need assessment results. For the evaluation of the program, 70 North Korean young adults who were attending two alternative schools for North Korean defectors were recruited. The program had taken place once a week for 13 or 19 weeks. Effectiveness of the health promotion program was evaluated using anthropometric measurement, 3-day food records and a questionnaires that comprised the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Short Form with 36 questions (SF-36) and health behaviors. The surveys were proceeded at the beginning and after the program. Results: After health promotion program, participants' height was significantly increased (p=0.004) and body fat mass (0=0.004) and percentage of body fat mass (p=0.003) were significantly decreased. The number of subjects who ate breakfast alone was decreased whereas the number of subjects who ate breakfast with friends was increased (p<0.001). There were no significant changes in dietary intakes, mental health status and quality of life. North Korean young adult defectors' willingness to participate and interests in the health promotion program were high, however the practice rate was low. Conclusion: The health promotion program could induce interests and willingness to participate, but bring about limited effects on the health behaviors. These results imply that a health promotion program for North Korean young adult defectors should have a long-term strategy as well as short-term plan. Furthermore, it should be based on their health problems, health related behaviors, academic performance and daily life matters.

The Family Characteristics Affecting the Socio-Cultural Adjustment of North Korean Defectors (가족특성에 따른 새터민의 사회문화적 적응)

  • Chin, Mee-Jung;Yi, Soon-Hyung
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.63-74
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    • 2007
  • As the number of North Koreans defectors entering South Korea with their family members increases, it becomes more important to explore the family characteristics that facilitate their adjustment. The data used in the present study was collected from a survey of 195 North Korean defectors. The aim of this study was to investigates how the structural and relational aspects of family influence the socio-cultural adjustment of North Korean defectors. The structural characteristics of family life included whether or not the defectors exited with their family members, whether they were living with family members, and whether they were living with family members under the age of 18. The relational characteristics included family cohesion and adaptability. The study results showed that living with young family members was negatively associated with the social activity restriction problems commonly perceived by North Korean defectors. Family cohesion was also negatively associated with the social activity restriction problems and positively associated with the social isolation problems. The results of this study also showed that family adaptability was not significantly associated with any socio-cultural adjustment problems.

Development and Effectiveness of the Interpersonal Caring Program for Young North Korean Defectors (탈북청소년을 위한 대인간호중재 프로그램의 개발 및 효과)

  • Choi, Jeong Im;Choi, Eun Joung
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.310-321
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    • 2020
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the interpersonal caring program for young North Korean defectors which we developed based on Kim's interpersonal caring technique. Methods: This study employs a non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design. The subjects of this study are 36 young North Korean defectors living in three areas. The participants are recruited through alternative schools, churches, and acquaintances. The experimental group consists of 20 participants and the control group consists of 16 participants. Experiments are conducted by four days. Specifically, the experiments are conducted eight times and each takes about 120 minutes. Furthermore, we run the camp for two nights and three days. We test our hypothesis by using Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Independent t-test, Paired t-test, and Independent t-test. Results: All the test statistics support our hypotheses such as self-esteem (t=1.87, p=.035), mental health (t=-1.69, p=.049), interpersonal relationships (t=1.93, p=.031), and quality of life (t=1.88, p=.034). Conclusion: We found that the interpersonal caring program developed in this study is effective in improving North Korean defectors' self-esteem, mental health, interpersonal relationships, and quality of life.

The Factor Influencing to the Effectiveness of Prevention Policies of the Criminal Victimization of North Korean Defectors (북한이탈주민 범죄피해 예방정책의 효과성에의 영향요인)

  • Lim, Chang-Ho;Kim, Yun-Young
    • Korean Security Journal
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    • no.51
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    • pp.223-249
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze the actual situation of crime victimization by North Korean defectors and to examine whether any of the protection and support systems for defectors has a statistically significant effect on the perceived effectiveness for preventing the criminal victimization of North Korean Defectors. The subjects of this study were 107 police officers from the 17 provincial police departments. Independent variables were (1) social adaptation education in Hanawon, (2) protection officer system, (3) legal support system, (4) private participation system, (5) support for family life, (6) community participation activity. And the dependent variable is the crime prevention effectiveness for the defectors. As a result of multiple regression analysis, it was found that the independent variables that have a significant effect on the effectiveness of prevention of crime victimization were protection officer system and support for family life. First, in order to prevent the crime victimization of North Korean defectors in advance, three kinds of protection officer system that will be received after the transfer of the residence should play the role successfully. Second, the efforts of the government and municipalities alone are insufficient for the early settlement of North Korean defectors. Therefore, it is necessary to diversify the support and protection programs for North Korean refugees through cooperation with civic organizations. Third, it is necessary to expand the legal education time so that North Korean defectors do not suffer crime because of lack of legal knowledge. Fourth, in order to prevent North Korean defectors from being victimized by various kinds of crime, it is necessary to actively support them so that family life can be stabilized.

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