• Title, Summary, Keyword: Strategic Environmental Impact Assessment

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Official Development Assistance and Environmental Assessment (공적개발원조사업(Official Development Assistance)의 방향과 환경평가)

  • Lee, Jong Ho
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.51-65
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    • 2014
  • ODA projects such as multi-purpose dam, industrial complex, road construction etc. have resulted in environmental damage and resident relocation including destruction of site of living. Even the grandiose developments as ODA projects have made clear the value clashes between development and environmental conservation, and have brought about conflicts between public interests and public environmental right, and the discordance between public interests and private property rights in the recipient country. This study summarizes and analyses the Korea's ODA projects and will suggest the public participation and governance system based on Saemaul Movement, Strategic Environmental Assessment and Environmental Impact Assessment based on the guideline of OECD DAC, and emphasize Strategic Environmental Assessment and Social Impact Assessment in the procedure of ODA projects. In the future the ODA project should be implemented for the overcome of poverty and response to climate change based on the experience and trial and errors of Korea's compact growth and past ODA projects.

A Study on the Alternative Environmental Assessment System in KOREA : Applying New Conceptual Model(APEMI IA MODEL) into Impact Assessment for Better Integrated Decision-Making (대안적 환경평가 시스템 연구: 통합적 의사결정을 위한 새로운 개념의 영향평가모형(APEMI IA MODEL)의 국내 적용방안 탐색)

  • Kim, Im Soon;Han, Sang Wook
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.179-193
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    • 2005
  • As the world's attention turns to sustainability and the considerations of cumulative effects, the concept of Strategic Environmental Assessment(SEA) has become more significant and urgent and increasing number of countries and international organizations now undertake some forms of SEA. The term SEA, however, is variously defined and understood; generally it means a formal process of systematic analysis of the environmental effects on development policies, plans, programmes and other proposed strategic actions. This process extends the aims and principles of EIA upstream in the decision-making process, beyond the project level in which major alternatives are still open. There is a shift toward more integrative approaches and greater use of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) as sustainability tools in cooperation with Environmental Management System (EMS). Currently, Korea has EIA system and Prior Environmental Review System (PERS) which is different type of SEA as Environment Assessment (EA) system. APEMI IA MODEL integrated following three pillar(refer to attached figure.1) ; First pillar symbolized decision making cycle with planning process. Second pillar symbolized integrated assessment which tying SEA and EIA with specific impacts assessment(eg: social impact assessment, economic impact assessment, health impact assessment etc) in cooperation with EMS. Third pillar symbolized EA best practical procedure of International Association for Impact Assessment(IAIA). Considering the above, we applied new conceptual model(APEMI IA MODEL) into Impact Assessment for better integrated decision-making in KOREA as an alternative IA system(IS IA MODEL A and B refer to attached figure 4, 5).

A Study on the Implication of Sustainability and Environmental Assessment (지속가능성과 환경평가의 연계에 관한 연구)

  • Hong, Sang-Pyo
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.269-279
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    • 2011
  • Sustainability assessments tend to integrate ecological, social, and economic concerns. Sustainability assessment could be considered the highest rung in the assessment ladder. Broad strategies that seek to integrate individual SEA(Strategic Environmental Assessment) could be subjected to a sustainability assessment. Sustainability assessment could incorporate global and transboundary effects and priorities into SEA and project-level EIA(Environmental Impact Assessment). SEA could provide an environmental context and direction for project-level EIA. Procedural and substantive EIA requirements can be addressed through tiering such as sustainability assessment, SEA, project-level EIA. In Korea, PERS(Prior Environmental Review System) that has been utilized to evaluate administrative plans related with various kinds of development projects should be evolved not only to incorporate environmental impacts into early stage decision-making, but also to implicate sustainability assessments that include social equity and economic efficiency. Integration of SEA and sustainability assessment can be initiated through the application of DPSIR (Driving Force - Pressure - State - Impact - Response ) framework that was developed by European Environmental Agency.

Studies for International Trends in Health Impact Assessment and Linking HIA and EIA (지속성을 위한 보건영향평가의 국제적인 동향 고찰 및 환경영향평가와의 연계방안 연구)

  • Kim, Im-Soon;Kim, Choong-Gon;Kang, Seon-Hong;Han, Sang-Wook
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.275-289
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    • 2005
  • In Korea, health-related items under current EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) system can only be found in the categories of hygiene and public health. However, environment and public health are not adequately connected and also health is underestimated even though health is an important component of environmental assessments. As a result, health is not well integrated within criteria for investigating the impacts on environment. International trends in HIA (Health Impact Assessment) to strengthen the connection between environment and health were investigated in this research. Definitions, functions, circumstances, and merits of HIA in foreign countries were compared. By collecting and analyzing international organizations' and other countries' data related with HIA and EIA, preceding conditions and execution plans were suggested to link EIA and HIA from SEA (Strategic Environmental Assessment) aspects and to successfully accomplish EIA in Korea. According to this research, EHIA (Environmental Health Impact Assessment) can predict and manage the results of economical development only under the principles of inhabitants' participation, sustainability, and social justice. EHIA should be modified and improved towards increasing regional and national capabilities. For this, preparation of adequate procedure is required to connect EIA and HIA.

A Comparative Study on the Plans for Strategic Environmental Assessment in Korea and Foreign Countries (국내외 전략환경평가 대상계획 비교 연구)

  • Oh, Jinkwan;Kwon, Younghan
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.244-259
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    • 2015
  • The Strategic Environmental Impact Assessment(SEIA) in Korea has been introduced and implemented for 15 policy-level plans and 86 project-level plans since 2012. Lately an important issue of the Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA) policy has been emerged regarding the expansion of the policy-level plans subjected to SEIA. Thus, we propose the plans that need to be included in the system, compared with those subjected to the Strategic Environmental Assessment(SEA) enforced in the law or the guideline of 10 foreign counties, especially with those of Germany, France, Italy, the United Kingdom, and Netherlands. Specifically the study suggests that plans related to energy as well as land use, which are well known to cause potential environmental impacts and subjected to the federal-level SEA in those countries, should be the subject of SEIA.

Integrated Approaches of Health Impact Assessment as part of Environmental Assessment in Korea (한국에서 환경평가의 부분으로서 건강영향평가의 통합적 접근에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Im-Soon;Park, Joo-Hyun;Han, Sang-Wook
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.309-322
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    • 2006
  • During the last decade, Health Impact Assessment (HIA) has been discussed worldwide as being an important tool for the development of healthy public policy. HIA has been advanced as a means of bringing potential health impacts to the attention of policy makers, particularly in sectors where health impacts may not otherwise be considered. HIA, a systematic assessment of potential health impacts of proposed public polices, programs, and projects, offers a means to advance population health by bringing public health research to bear on questions of public policy. In Korea, health-related items under current EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) system can only be found in the categories of hygiene and public health. However, environment and public health are not adequately connected and also health is underestimated even though health is an important objective component for the implementation of Environmental Assessments (EA). As a result, health is not well integrated within criteria for investigating the impacts on environment. This study examines linkages for HIA from the related and relatively well-developed field of Prior Environmental Review System (PERS) which is similar to SEA and EIA in Korea.

Integration of Total Pollution Load Management System and Environmental Impact Assessment related System (수계 오염총량관리제와 환경영향평가제도의 통합운영방안)

  • Lee, Jong-Ho
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.12 no.5
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    • pp.359-367
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    • 2003
  • The total pollution load management system of watershed has been implemented upon Special Law pertaining to the Han River Watershed Water Quality Improvement and Residents Support, Special Law pertaining to the Nakdong River Watershed Water Management and Residents Support, Special Law pertaining to the Youngsan River Watershed Water Management and Residents Support, and Special Law pertaining to the Seomjin River Watershed Water Management and Residents Support in Korea since 2002. But many other similar systems with total pollution load management system of watershed are being operated separately or independently, even though its purpose is nearly same with those of the total maximum pollutants load management in Law on Water Quality Environmental Protection, environmental impact assessment(EIA) in Law of Impact Assessment on Environment, Transportation and Disaster and Pre-environmental assessment of Environmental Policy Act. Therefore the contents of total pollution load management system of watershed and many other related systems could be overlapped and at some times have inconsistency among them. This study suggests first the integrated operation of total pollution load management system of watershed, EIA, pre-environmental assessment, urban planning, and sewage planning and secondly EIA system development by integration of EIA and pre-environmental assessment and strategic environmental assessment(SEA).

New Environmental Impact Assessment Technology (신환경영향평가기술(新環境影響評價技術)의 개발방향(開發方向))

  • Han, Sang-Wook;Lee, Jong-Ho;Nam, Young-Sook
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.277-290
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this study is to identify the problems of environmental impact assessment(EIA) and to suggest new EIA technology. The problems of EIA in Korea can be summarized as follows. First, the EIA does not reflect the impact of policy, plan and program on environment. Second, the project EIA does not consider the cumulative impacts such as additive impacts, synergistic impacts, threshold/saturation impacts, induced and indirect impacts, time-crowded impacts, and space-crowded impacts. Third, the EIA techniques in Korea are not standardized. Finally, the present EIA suggests only alternatives to reduce adverse impacts. To solve above-mentioned problems, the development of new EIA technology is essential. First, the new EIA technology should be developed toward pollution prevention technology and comprehensive and integrated environmental management technology. Second, new fields of EIA for pollution prevention contain strategic environmental assessment, cumulative impacts assessment, socio-economic impact assessment, cyber EIA and EIA technology necessary after the reunification of Korean Peninsula. Third, EIA technology for integrated environmental management contains the development of integated environment assessment system and the development of packaged EIA technology. The EIA technology for integrated environmental assessment system contains (1) development of integrated impact assessment technology combining air/water quality model, GIS and remote sensing, (2) integrated impact assessment of EIA, traffic impact assessment, population impact assessment and disaster impact assessment. (3) development of integrated technology combining risk assessment and EIA (4) development of integrated technology of life cycle assessment and EIA, (5) development of integrated technology of spatial planning and EIA, (6) EIA technology for biodiversity towards sustainable development, (7) mathematical model and GIS based location decision techniques, and (8) environmental monitoring and audit. Furthermore, there are some fields which need packaged EIA technology. In case of dam development, urban or industrial complex development, tourist development, landfill or combustion facilities construction, electric power plant development, development of port, road/rail/air port, is necessary the standardized and packaged EIA technology which considers the common characteristics of the same kind of development project.

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A Study of Perception on Improvement of Environmental Impact Assessment using Strategic Environmental Assessment (전략환경평가를 통한 환경영향평가제도 개선에 대한 인식도 조사 연구)

  • Kim, Im Soon;Kim, Yoon Shin;Moon, Jeong Suk;Han, Sang Wook;Son, Bu Soon
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.125-135
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    • 2004
  • Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA) in Korea has been used to improve environmental conservation and decision-making. Since environmental impact statement(EIS) was introduced in 1981 with the promulgation of the Environmental Preservation Act in 1977, which replaced the Pollution Control Act legislated in 1963. With a rapid growth of environmental perception as well as the diversification of development activities, however, it has recently bring about a strong demand for a new assessment process related to the strategic level of policies, plan, programs. Method of this study includes analyses of the situation of local EIA and its problematic issues through survey and analysis of information and data, analysis of the level of environmental awareness of professionals and case studies including analysis of foreign strategic environmental assessment. Accordingly, I have elicited a concept of SEA. In addition, I have studied on costs of environmental assessment, and efficiency of internalization of HIA. The survey was carried between September and November 2003, and 177 professionals were asks to complete a questionnaire. As a result of questionnaire survey of environmental pundits, it revealed that 83.8% of participants were in favor of introduction of strategic assessment. This result demonstrated more or less higher approval rate than those of awareness survey done by the Ministry of Environment, i.e. 86.0% ayes, and 14.0% nays. 22.8% of participants agreed to the opinion; "For introduction of this system, earlier is better," 50% reported having an opinion such as, "Will introduce this system in an earliest possible time after correcting problems," 26.3% reported having an opinion such as, "Let's decide the time for introduction of this system after correcting problems first,' and 0.9% reported having an opinion, "it's too early to introduce this system." Specifically, the ratio of ayes on introduction of the system marked 72.8%, and it revealed that a majority of respondents have an opinion such as, "Will introduce this system in an earliest possible time after correcting problems." As means of solutions for the problem regarding the limits of applications that existed in SEA System, factors, such as collecting a wide variety of opinions, securing experts, and faithful implementation, etc. were reported important, and in addition to these factors, respondents revealed having opinions such as, consistent research and development, reflection of public interest, establishment of professional organization, enforcement of after-management service, expanding investments in large, systemizing reference materials, and encouraging public participation, etc. To improve problems involving with present EIA system, it has been identified through this study that SEA is efficient and useful. In order to have SEA introduced successfully, it has been cleared that internalization of effectiveness of environmental cost together with HIA must be accomplished.