• Title/Summary/Keyword: 경과시간

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Analysis of Learning Opportunities Provided in Elapsed Time Instruction: Focusing on Quantitative Objectification (경과시간 수업에서 제공되는 학습기회 분석: 양적 대상화를 중심으로)

  • Han, Chaereen
    • Education of Primary School Mathematics
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.203-216
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    • 2021
  • Seeing the elapsed time as a quantity that can be measured is quite challenging for students while making students see it is also challenging for teachers. Tuning on these challenges, this article reports on what learning opportunities elementary teachers provide when they teach elapsed time focusing on quantitative objectification. I observed three mathematics classrooms where the elapsed time was taught by three elementary teachers and did a narrative analysis on the instructions. All three teachers utilized certain tools to support students access to the elapsed time as a quantity. They appropriated various quantitative attributes of the tool. In the case of the analog clock, one teacher tried to quantification the elapsed time with the number of minute hand's turning, while the other teacher indicated the distance of minute hand's moving. One teacher represented the elapsed time with the longitudinal attribute of the time band. Standing on the findings, the didactical implications of various attempts for quantitative objectification of the elapsed time implemented were discussed.

Realization of signifiers and mathematics understanding: Focused on the elapsed time (기표의 구현과 수학적 이해: 경과시간을 중심으로)

  • Han, Chaereen
    • The Mathematical Education
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    • v.60 no.3
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    • pp.249-264
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    • 2021
  • This article is devoted to investigating young learners' understanding of elapsed time from socio-cultural perspectives. The socio-cultural perspective benefits to access and personalize mathematics learning as how to have a mathematical object to be able to realize signifiers with the help of many other mathematical words and mediators. In terms of the realization of signifiers, I analyzed performances on elapsed time tasks of students in Grades 3 (n=115) and interviewed focal students. Quantitative analysis on students' performance identified that students perform differently when the task provided with the analog clock signifier. It suggested that students might think in a different way upon the given signifier even for the same elapsed time, especially when given as the analog clock. Qualitative analysis on focal students' interviews visualized how the students' understanding were different by displaying individual realization trees on elapsed time. The particular location of the analog clock signifier on each realization tree provided a personalized explanation about low performance on the task with analog clock signifier. The finding suggested that the realization of a specific signifier could be a key point in elapsed time understanding. I discussed why a majority of students face difficulty in elapsed time learning indicated analog clock and the advantage of moving elapsed time strands to higher grades in the school mathematics curriculum.

Correlation Analysis with Modified Barthel Index and Motor Assessment Scale in Stroke Patients (뇌졸중환자의 기능평가척도로서의 MBI와 MAS의 상관성분석)

  • Ko, Seong-Gyu;Jun, Chan-Yong
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.52-59
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    • 1999
  • 연구목적 : 뇌졸중환자에 기능회복도의 측정을 위해 가장 신뢰도가 높은 MBI에 대해서 순수하게 뇌졸중환자의 운동기능평가만을 위해 고안된 MAS의 상관성을 각 기간별로 분석하여 MAS의 운동기능평가척도로서의 객관성에 대해 연구한다. 또 한편으로 경과시간에 따른 운동기능 회복도의 차이를 전체그룹과 사상그룹에서 평가한다. 연구방법 : 1998년 1월부터 1998년 6월까지 6개월에 걸쳐 상지대학교 한의과대학 부속한방병원 내과에 입원하여 뇌졸중으로 진단된 환자 중 의식과 언어상태가 명료한 32명을 대상으로 하였다. 입원직후 사상의학과에 의뢰하여 QSCCII 시스템에 의하여 체질진단을 받은 후 본원 운동기능평가실에서 입원직후, 입원 후 2주와 4주 등 3회에 걸쳐 Modified Barthel Index(MBI)와 Motor Assessment Scale(MAS)을 시행하였다. 각 환자에 대한 검사는 2명의 한방순환기내과 전문의와 전공의에 의해 환자에 대한 사전 정보 없이 이루어졌다. 연구결과 : 통계처리는 상관분석을 위해서는 Pearson correlation coefficient, 사상체질에 있어서 각 경과시간에 따른 점수변화는 Repeated ANOVA, 일반적특성 분석에는 Descriptive analysis가 사용되었고, 프로그램은 SPSS/PC+ 7.5 version을 사용하였다. 1. 뇌졸중 환자의 사상의학적인 분포는 태음인이 56.3%로 가장 많았고, 소양인이 28.1%, 소음인이 12.5%, 태양인이 3.1%이었으며, 연령별로는 50대가 32.6%로 가장 많았으며, 평균연령은 60.9세였다. 2. 경과시간에 따른 사상체질간의 MBI, MAS 평균점수변화는 MBI, MAS 모두 반복측정 분산분석 결과 입원당시와 2주 후, 입원당시와 4주 후에서 모두 P<0.001의 범위에서 통계학적으로 유의하게 증가하였고, 경과시간과 사상체질간의 교호작용은 없었다. 3. MBI, MAS 모두 각 항목과 기능별 분류군에서도 경과시간에 따른 평균점수의 변화는 P<0.001 범위에서 통계학적으로 유의하게 증가하여 한방치료의 효과가 있음을 보여주었다. 4. MBI와 MAS의 경과시간별 Pearson 상관성 분석결과 입원당시의 MBI와 입원당시의 MAS에서, 2주 후의 MBI와 입원당시, 2주 후, 4주 후의 MAS에서, 4주 후의 MBI와 입원당시, 2주, 4주 후의 MAS에서 모두 높은 상관성을 보여, 두 평가방법 간에는 상관성이 높다고 본다.

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동태적 SCM을 통한 식품유통의 합리화

  • 탁승호;설봉식
    • Proceedings of the Korean DIstribution Association Conference
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    • pp.47-54
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    • 2003
  • 그 동안 바코드와 POS 시스템은 SCM이나 ERP 및 CRM등 여러 가지 기법의 경영성과를 얻는 데 이바지해 왔다. 그러나 지금 널리 사용되고 있는 바코드에 상품의 제조연월일 등에 관한 정보를 포함한 새로운 개념의 타임 바코드(Time stamp barcode)를 도입한다면 보다 나은 경영성과를 얻을 수 있을 것이다. 이 논문은 이와 같은 동태적 SCM 즉, 타임 바코드를 이용하여 개선된 SCM에 관한 이론적 배경과 그 기법 및 적용범위 등에 관하여 논의하고 있다. POS 시스템에서 타임 바코드를 통하여 경과시간별 판매/재고정보를 실시간으로 제공하여 각 매장에서 판매되고 남아 있는 경과시간별 재고량을 토대로 생산량을 최적화하고 또 최적의 머천다이징도 가능하다. 그리고 유통기한 경과에 따른 폐기손실의 규모를 줄이고 재고처리 전략도 큰 성과를 기대할 수 있다.

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A Study on the Main Characteristics and Factors of the Process of Beginning Egress during the Fire at the Buildings - Focus on Overseas Fire Cases including the Japanese - (건축물 화재 시 피난개시과정의 주요 특성 및 요소에 관한 연구 - 일본 등 해외 화재사례를 중심으로 -)

  • Park, Jae-Sung
    • Fire Science and Engineering
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.59-68
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    • 2012
  • Predicting occupants' behaviors from the start of the fire to egress and reducing the time required for such process are critical matters that can decide success and failure of safe egress. In this research, research literatures and theories and fire cases were compared and analyzed so as to prepare logical grounds that could predict the process of beginning egress. As a result of this research, there was a significant difference in the time elapsed until people start evacuating due to spatial positions and quarantine from the place from which the fire originated and their auditive and olfactory signs did not recognize the fire instantly and they showed a strong tendency to recognize the fire by visual sign, warning announcement for egress and notice by others. And the results also showed that only a very small minority of occupants evacuated as soon as they perceived the fire and that variation in the time elapsed until evacuation begun for occupants were wider as the size of building was bigger and that accommodations such as hotel had wider variation in the time elapsed regardless of the size of buildings.

Anaesthetic Effects of Lidocaine-HCl as an Anaesthetic on the Webfoot Octopus, Octopus ocellatus (주꾸미, Octopus ocellatus에 대한 마취제 염산리도카인의 마취효과)

  • Kim, Byung-Gyun;Jun, Je-Cheon;Chung, Ee-Yung;Sim, Doo-Saing;Seo, Hyung-Chul
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.71-79
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    • 2003
  • After the juvenile octopus individuals being discharged, it is hard to separately capture them because they attach strongly to the wall of the aquarium by the suckers on the arms. Therefore, anaesthetics (MS-222 or lidocaine-HCl) are usually used for capture from attachment. The anaesthetized time of the octopus by lidocaine-HCl was more faster 1.6 to 4.5 times under 200 ppm and 6.0 to 6.5 times in 300 to 500 ppm than those in MS-222. In the anaesthetized and recovery rates (%) by the exposed time, the juvenile octopuses were anesthetized by lower concentrations of lidocaine-HCl within the short time, and rapidly recovered from anesthesia. In the secondary anesthesia of the juvenile octopuses exposed with lidocaine-HCl by the elapsed time after the primary anesthesia, the anesthetized time was later in case of lower concentrations and long elapsed times, However, the anesthetized time was faster when their concentrations were higher and the elapsed time after anesthesia were shorter. Recovery from the secondary anesthesia was faster when the elapsed time was long in lower concentration, and was later when the elapsed time was shorter. In case of Octopus ocellatus, anaesthetic effects by lidocaine-HCl concentrations were better than those of MS-222. Doses of lidocaine-HCl and critical time for works at the indoor laboratory were proper in concentration of 100 ppm within 15 min.

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Studies on the Improvement of the Productivity of the Purse Seine Fishery - The characteristics on the motion of purse seine in the experimental operation of one boat system - (선망어업의 생산성 향상에 관한 연구 - 단선식 시험조업에 있어서 선망의 운동특성 -)

  • 김석종;최찬문;정용진
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.99-111
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    • 2003
  • The fundamental studies on the productivity improvement of the purse seine fishery are presented in this paper. The experiment on net shooting and hauling was carried out in the near sea of Jeju Island (33$^{\circ}$37.8' N, 126$^{\circ}$31.1' E) by using the Cheju national university training ship (A-Ra, 990tons) which was constructed for the one boat system operation of purse seine. The corkline and leadline of the purse seine used for the experiment were 829.1m and 995.7m in length, respectively. Micro data recorder system, net sonde, and tensiometer were used to measure the depth of leadline and the tension of purse seine. Based on the measurement data, the motion and tension of purse seine at the time of shooting, hauling, and pursing were characterized. The experimental results are summarized as follows ; 1. The shooting and hauling of net were found to be possible in the one boat system experimental operation. 2. At the time of purse seine shooting, the relationship between the depth (Dp) of leadline and elapsed time (Et) was found to be Dp=7.58Et-6.48. 3. At the time of pursing, the relationship between the depth (Dp) of leadline and elapsed time (Et) was found to be Dp=-0.8Et$^2$+7.42Et+92.04. 4. At the time of pursing, the tension (metric tons) of purse seine attained its maximum value (14.7tons) when the elapsed time is 8 minutes. The relationship with the elapsed time was found to be T=-0.13Et$^2$+3.23Et-5.72.

Effects of Increasing Moisture Content with or without Supplementing Inoculant (Lactobacillus plantarum) in TMR on Its Feed Value (TMR 제조 시 수분 함량 및 발효제 (Lactobacillus plantarum) 첨가유무가 사료가치에 미치는 영향)

  • Ki, Kwang-Seok;Kim, Hyeon-Shup;Lee, Hyun-June;Lee, Wang-Shik;Baek, Kwang-Soo;Kim, Sang-Bum;Lim, Keun-Bal;Jeo, Joon-Mo;Kim, Yong-Kook
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.197-208
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    • 2007
  • This study was carried out to investigate effects of increasing moisture content with or without supplementing inoculant (Lactobacillus plantarum) in TMR (total mixed ration) on its feed value. In case of exposing TMR to air, the lower the moisture level of TMR was, the less its apparent condition was changed. The time of spreading of molds tended to be faster in TMR with the higher moisture level. And also the odor was influenced by moisture content and inoculant supplement that is, sour odor was smelled from 24 hour after exposing TMR containing 35% and 50% moisture to air, but TMR supplemented with inoculant had sweet odor. The inner temperature of TMR containing 35% and 50% moisture without inoculant tended to increase continually after the lapse of 6 hours when the TMR was exposed to air. The inner temperature of TMR containing 35% moisture with inoculant tended to increase dramatically after the lapse of 48 hours when exposed to air, but that of TMR containing 50% moisture with inoculant tended to increase after 6 hours. The pH of TMR containing 15% was consistent regardless of exposing time to air, but that of TMR containing 35% and 50% moisture considerably increased after 12 and 24 hours, respectively. The concentration of $NH_3-N$ of TMR supplemented with inoculant was increased from 6 hours after exposure to air, while that or TMR without inoculant increased from 12 hours. Nutrient content or TMR tended to be increased with the increase of exposing time to air and storage time under sealed condition.