• Title/Summary/Keyword: panel zone

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Panel Zone Behavior of Steel Box Connections (Box단면 접합부의 Panel Zone 거동특성)

  • Hwang, Won Sup
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.683-695
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    • 1997
  • This paper presents the shear behavior of panel zone in steel frame piers. The results of loading tests on twenty box connections and three types of analysis model are reported herein. It is indicate that the major cause of the reduction of strength and shear deformation capacity (ductility) is the sectional-area ratio and the shear buckling of panel zone. Based on the results, some new proposals are presented for the evalution of strength and ductility of panel zone. This paper is also discussed the ductility of connections by current design procedure.

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Relative Panel Zone Strength in Seismic Steel Moment Connections for Prevention of Panel Zone Shear Buckling (내진철골모멘트접합부 패널존의 전단좌굴 방지를 위한 패널존 상대강도)

  • Kim, So-Yeon;Lee, Cheol-Ho
    • Proceedings of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute Conference
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    • pp.845-850
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    • 2007
  • The empirical AISC panel zone thickness provision$(t_z\geq(d_z+w_z)$/90) to prevent the cyclic shear buckling of the panel zone was proposed based on the test data of Krawinkler et al. (1971) and Bertero et al. (1973) However, no published records of the equation development or any other background information appear to be available. The calibrated finite element analysis results of this study indicated that the AISC provision was not reasonable. In this study, through including the effects of the column axial force and the aspect ratio of the panel zone, a new equation for the relative strength between the beam and the panel zone was proposed such that the proposed equation can prevent the panel zone shear buckling and reduce the potential fracture associated with the kinking of the column flanges.

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A mathematical steel panel zone model for flanged cruciform columns

  • Saffari, Hamed;Sarfarazi, Sina;Fakhraddini, Ali
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.851-867
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    • 2016
  • Cruciform sections are an appropriate option for columns of orthogonal moment resisting frames for equal bending strength and stiffness about two main axes and the implementation is easier for continuity plates. These columns consist of two I-shaped sections, so that one of them is cut out in middle and two generated T-shaped sections be welded into I-shaped profile. Furthermore, in steel moment frames, unbalance moment at the beam-column connection leads to shear deformation in panel zone. Most of the obtained relations for panel zone strength derived from experimental and analytical results are on I-shaped columns with almost thin flanges. In this paper, a parametric study has been carried out using Finite Element Method (FEM) with effective parameters at the panel zone behavior. These parameters consist of column flange thickness, column web thickness, and thickness of continuity plates. Additionally, a mathematical model has been suggested to determine strength of cruciform column panel zone and has been shown its accuracy and efficiency.

Strengthening of the panel zone in steel moment-resisting frames

  • Abedini, Masoud;Raman, Sudharshan N.;Mutalib, Azrul A.;Akhlaghi, Ebrahim
    • Advances in Computational Design
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.327-342
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    • 2019
  • Rehabilitation and retrofitting of structures designed in accordance to standard design codes is an essential practice in structural engineering and design. For steel structures, one of the challenges is to strengthen the panel zone as well as its analysis in moment-resisting frames. In this research, investigations were undertaken to analyze the influence of the panel zone in the response of structural frames through a computational approach using ETABS software. Moment-resisting frames of six stories were studied in supposition of real panel zone, different values of rigid zone factor, different thickness of double plates, and both double plates and rigid zone factor together. The frames were analyzed, designed and validated in accordance to Iranian steel building code. The results of drift values for six stories building models were plotted. After verifying and comparing the results, the findings showed that the rigidity lead to reduction in drifts of frames and also as a result, lower rigidity will be used for high rise building and higher rigidity will be used for low rise building. In frames with story drifts more than the permitted rate, where the frames are considered as the weaker panel zone area, the story drifts can be limited by strengthening the panel zone with double plates. It should be noted that higher thickness of double plates and higher rigidity of panel zone will result in enhancement of the non-linear deformation rates in beam elements. The resulting deformations of the panel zone due to this modification can have significant influence on the elastic and inelastic behavior of the frames.

Seismic Design of Steel Frame Model Considering the Panel Zone and Viscous Dampers (패널존과 점성감쇠기를 고려한 강골조 구조물의 내진 설계 모델)

  • Park, Sun-Eung;Lee, Tack-Woo
    • Journal of Korean Association for Spatial Structures
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.87-94
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    • 2020
  • The present study is aimed to calculate the optimal damping according to the seismic load on the structure with a non-seismic design to perform structure analysis considering the deformation of structural joint connection and panel zone; to develop design program equipped with structural stability of the steel frame structures reinforced with the panel zone and viscous dampers, using the results of the analysis, in order to systematically integrate the seismic reinforcement of the non-seismic structures and the analysis and design of steel frame structures. The study results are as follows: When considering the deformation of the panel zone, the deformation has been reduced up to thickness of the panel double plate below twice the flange thickness, which indicates the effect of the double plate thickness on the panel zone, but the deformation showed uniform convergence when the ration is more than twice. The SMRPF system that was applied to this study determines the damping force and displacement by considering the panel zone to the joint connection and calculating the shear each floor for the seismic load at the same time. The result indicates that the competence of the damper is predictable that can secure seismic performance for the structures with non-seismic design without changing the cross-section of the members.

Cyclic test for beam-to-column abnormal joints in steel moment-resisting frames

  • Liu, Zu Q.;Xue, Jian Y.;Peng, Xiu N.;Gao, Liang
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.1177-1195
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    • 2015
  • Six specimens are tested to investigate the cyclic behavior of beam-to-column abnormal joints in steel moment-resisting frames, which are designed according to the principle of strong-member and weak-panel zone. Key parameters include the axial compression ratio of column and the section depth ratio of beams. Experimental results indicate that four types of failure patterns occurred during the loading process. The $P-{\Delta}$ hysteretic loops are stable and plentiful, but have different changing tendency at the positive and negative direction in the later of loading process due to mechanical behaviors of specimens. The ultimate strength tends to increase with the decrease of the section depth ratio of beams, but it is not apparent relationship to the axial compression ratio of column, which is less than 0.5. The top panel zone has good deformation capacity and the shear rotation can reach to 0.04 rad. The top panel zone and the bottom panel zone don't work as a whole. Based on the experimental results, the equation for shear strength of the abnormal joint panel zone is established by considering the restriction of the bottom panel zone to the top panel zone, which is suitable for the abnormal joint of H-shaped or box column and beams with different depths.

Experiment and bearing capacity analyses of dual-lintel column joints in Chinese traditional style buildings

  • Xue, Jianyang;Ma, Linlin;Wu, Zhanjing;Zhai, Lei;Zhang, Xin
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.641-653
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    • 2018
  • This paper presents experiment and bearing capacity analyses of steel dual-lintel column (SDC) joints in Chinese traditional style buildings. Two SDC interior joints and two SDC exterior joints, which consisted of dual box-section lintels, circular column and square column, were designed and tested under low cyclic loading. The force transferring mechanisms at the panel zone of SDC joints were proposed. And also, the load-strain curves at the panel zone, failure modes, hysteretic loops and skeleton curves of the joints were analyzed. It is shown that the typical failure modes of the joints are shear buckling at bottom panel zone, bending failure at middle panel zone, welds fracturing at the panel zone, and tension failure of base metal in the heat-affected zone of the joints. The ultimate bearing capacity of SDC joints appears to decrease with the increment of axial compression ratio. However, the bearing capacities of exterior joints are lower than those of interior joints at the same axial compression ratio. In order to predict the formulas of the bending capacity at the middle panel zone and the shear capacity at the bottom panel zone, the calculation model and the stress state of the element at the panel zone of SDC joints were studied. As the calculated values showed good agreements with the test results, the proposed formulas can be reliably applied to the analysis and design of SDC joints in Chinese traditional style buildings.

Stress Evaluation Procedure for Connection of Steel Frame Pier (강제라멘교각 접합부의 응력평가법)

  • Hwang, Won Sup;Kim, Young Pil
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.327-338
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    • 1998
  • This paper presents the elastic behavior for panel zone and flange of connection in steel frame pier. The results of stress distributions on a series of experiments and FEM analysis models are reported herein. The investigations show that the shear stresses in the panel zone are varied with sectional-area ratio$(A_f/A_w)$ and also indicate that the nomal stresses in the flange due to the shea lag are significantly higher than the current design procedure. Based on the results, some new proposals considering the design parameters affecting connecting behavior are presented for the evaluations of stresses of panel zone and flange in connection.

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The Analytical Model Considering the Deformation of Panel Zone with Linear Element (선형요소를 사용하여 판넬존 변형을 고려한 해석 모텔)

  • 조소훈;박찬헌;이동근
    • Proceedings of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute Conference
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    • pp.293-300
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    • 2004
  • As the structure is taller and its member is larger, the effect of the deformation of Panel zone on the displacement of structure becomes larger. The analysis using the centerline dimensions in the steel moment frame structure can not consider the accurate effect of panel ton And the finite element analysis using infinitesimal solid and shell element is impractical for the total tall building structure. Therefore, this paper proposes the analytical model using linear element in order to be able to evaluate the reasonable deformation of panel zone. the proposed analytical model makes the analysis of the building structure simple and ease because it uses the only linear elements. In addition it can easily incorporate the various parameters affecting the deformation of panel zone. In order to prove the validith of the prosed analytical model, the analysis result using the proposed analytical model is compared with the result using finite element analysis with shell element

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Seismic behavior of post-tensioned precast reinforced concrete beam-to-column connections

  • Cheng, Chin-Tung
    • Computers and Concrete
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    • v.5 no.6
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    • pp.525-544
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    • 2008
  • In this research, the self-centering effect in precast and prestressed reinforced concrete structures was investigated experimentally. The reinforced concrete beams and columns were precast and connected by post-tensioning tendons passing through the center of the beams as well as the panel zone of the connections. Three beam-to-interior-column connections were constructed to investigate parameters such as beam to column interfaces (steel on steel or plastic on plastic), energy dissipating devices (unbonded buckling restrained steel bars or steel angles) and the spacing of hoops in the panel zone. In addition to the self-centering effect, the shear strength in the panel zone of interior column connections was experimentally and theoretically evaluated, since the panel zone designed by current code provisions may not be conservative enough to resist the panel shear increased by the post-tensioning force.