• Title, Summary, Keyword: Primary clay

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Assessment of long-term behaviour of a shallow tunnel in clay till

  • Wang, Z.;Wong, R.C.K.;Heinz, H.
    • Geomechanics and Engineering
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.107-123
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    • 2010
  • Ground settlements and pore pressure changes were monitored around a shallow tunnel constructed in clay till during the excavation and primary lining installation. The settlements above the tunnel continued to develop for up to 100 days after the primary lining installation. Triaxial compression tests were carried out to estimate the short-term and long-term deformation characteristics of the till. Numerical simulation was conducted to history match the field measurements, and thus, to quantify the settlements induced by ground stress relief, consolidation and creep. It was found that the surface settlements due to ground stress relief, consolidation and creep are 17, 12 and 71% of total settlement (about 44 mm), respectively. In addition, early installation of rigid concrete lining could be an effective means to reduce the settlement due to creep.

Characteristics of Specimens Made from Primary Clay and Red Hwangto with MSWI Fly Ash by Sintering Process (Sintering process에 의한 MSWI fly ash를 혼합한 일차점토(一次粘土)와 적황토(赤黃土) 공시체(公試體)의 특성(特性))

  • Yoo, Seung-Chol;Kwon, Moon-Sun;Park, Sang-Min
    • Resources Recycling
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.10-18
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    • 2010
  • This research investigates the feasibility of ceramic specimens made from Primary clay and Red Hwangto with MSWI fly ash. Specimens preduced by mix-design maximum 20 wt% MSWI fly ash were analysed by SEM, UTM, ICP, etc. As a result of measurement,$P_{10}$ specimen was improved on bending strength and $R_5$ specimen was improved on compressive and bending strength. Also amount of extracted heavy metal was suitable for regulatory limits. This indicates that MSWI fly ash is indeed suitable for the partial replacement of ceramic materials in bricks.

General Properties and Ferric Oxide Content of Hwangtoh(Yellow Ochre) (황토의 일반적 특성 및 산화철 함량)

  • Kim, In-Kyu;Seo, Seong-Hoon;Kang, Chin-Yang
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.219-222
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this research was to investigate the general properties and main ingridients of Hwangtoh, which is the Korean loess. It is well known as a raw material of pottery shown to be widely scattered on the earth, especially in Korea. It belongs to primary clay that was found to be rich on mountain surface or field. In this study, XRF Spectral method was employed to analyze the chief ingredients of Hwangtoh, being found to consist of $43{\sim}50%\;SiO_2,\;2{\sim}34%\;Al_2O_3,\;2{\sim}3%\;Mg,\;2{\sim}3%\;Na\;and\;1{\sim}2%\;K$. The ferric oxide contents of Hwangtoh from San Chung, Ha Dong, Ko Ryung, Ouk Chong, Bang Gae and Song Kwang were 6.46, 7.96, 11.26, 9.36, 9.06 and 9.28 %, respectively. The general characteristics of Hwangtoh from different places were studied by determining the content of water and the capacity to maintain temperature. Based on the above results, Hwangtoh could be said to have better quality than primary clay of Kaolin dose, and also would be able to find an application in construction formulations.

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Effect of Matrix Viscosity on Clay Dispersion in Preparation of Polymer/Organoclay Nanocomposites

  • Ko, Moon-Bae;Jho, Jae-Young;Jo, Won-Ho;Lee, Moo-Sung
    • Fibers and Polymers
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.103-108
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    • 2002
  • The viscosity effect of matrix polymer on melt exfoliation behavior of an organoclay in poly($\varepsilon$-caprolactone) (PCL) was investigated. The viscosity of matrix polymer was controlled by changing the molecular weight of poly($\varepsilon$-eaprolactone), the processing temperature, and the rotor speed of a mini-molder. Applied shear stress facilitates the diffusion of polymer chains into the gallery of silicate layers by breaking silicate agglomerates down into smaller primary particles. When the viscosity of PCL is lower, silicate agglomerates are not perfectly broken into smaller primary particles. At higher viscosity, all of silicate agglomerates are broken down into primary particles, and finally into smaller nano-scale building blocks. It was also found that the degree of exfoliation of silicate layers is dependent upon not only the viscosity of matrix but thermodynamic variables.

Characterization of Clay Minerals in Ranch Pasture

  • Kang, Sangjae;Jang, Jeonghun;Park, Nayun;Park, Junhong;Choi, Seyeong;Park, Man;Lee, Changhee;Lee, Donghoon;Zhang, Yongseon
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.53-59
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    • 2016
  • This study deals with the distribution of the clay minerals separated from clay fractions of ranch pastures in Korea and their chemical and mineralogical properties. Crystalline phases of the clay minerals were identified by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and FT-IR spectra, and their relative chemical compositions were also analyzed by X-ray flourescence spectrometry (XRF). Primary minerals consisted mainly of quartz and mica and chlorite and kaolinite along with a trace of swelling micas were identified as secondary clay minerals. However, the relative content of these clay minerals was different with the locations, which led to significant effects on physical and chemical properties of soils like inorganic elemental composition. In particular, $SiO_2$ content was higher in Gochang ranch pasture than in other ranch pasture. Infrared (IR) spectra did not indicate any significant differences in organic functional groups among the locations. This study clearly showed that ranch pastures had different relative content of clay minerals and chemical properties depending on the location and consequently that those properties are worthy to be taken into account for soil amendment.

$C_a/C_c$ for Soft Clay at the Southern Port of Korea by Laboratory Consolidation Tests (실내압밀시험에 의한 남해안지역 연약점토의 $C_a/C_c$ 평가)

  • 김규선;임형덕;이우진
    • Proceedings of the Korean Geotechical Society Conference
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    • pp.70-77
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    • 1999
  • Consolidation settlements on soft clay are often large and potentially damaging to structures. Currently, large-scale projects are in progress in Korea. These structures will be constructed on both thick and soft clay layers, and so the accurate evaluation of magnitude of settlement is required at every step in design and construction. Especially, secondary compression play an important role in consolidation settlements on soft clay. Generally, the magnitudes of secondary compression are evaluated by laboratory and in-situ consolidation tests or by empirical $C_{a/}$ $C_{c}$ relationships. The empirical $C_{a/}$ $C_{c}$ may not be only economical, but a fast and powerful tool in estimating secondary consolidation settlement. However, databases of the $C_{a/}$ $C_{c}$ relationship for sites in Korea are currently insufficient. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship of $C_{a/}$ $C_{c}$, on marine clay near the southern sea in Korea. In this study a series of incremental loading consolidation tests (measuring base pore water pressure) are performed. It was found that the $C_{a/}$ $C_{c}$ on undisturbed marine clay equaled 0.0397. This value is similar to the value proposed by Mesri and Castro(1987) for inorganic clay and silt. and silt. and silt.

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Characterization and Distribution of Clay Minerals in Corn Field Soils in Korea

  • Jang, Jeonghun;Park, Nayun;Lee, Donghoon;Choi, Seyeong;Park, Junhong;Park, Man
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.49 no.6
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    • pp.813-818
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    • 2016
  • Distribution of clay minerals separated from clay fraction of corn fields in Korea has been investigated along with their characterization. Crystalline phases of the clay minerals were identified by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, and their relative chemical compositions were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). The soils were found to have pH 6.4, organic matter $37.2g\;kg^{-1}$, available $P_2O_5$ $599mg\;kg^{-1}$, respectively, and exchangeable K, Ca and Mg were 1.2, 7.3 and $1.8cmol_c\;kg^{-1}$, respectively. Major primary minerals consisted mainly of quartz and mica, and kaolinite and chlorite were identified as major secondary clay minerals. For most of soils, mica phase was identified to be muscovite rather than biotite. The average contents of $SiO_2$, $Al_2O_3$ and $Fe_2O_3$ were 43.7, 23.6 and 8.8%, respectively, although they were different with the locations.

$C_a/C_c$ for Marine Clay at Southern Part of Korea (남해안 해성점토의 $C_a/C_c$)

  • 김규선;임형덕;이우진
    • Proceedings of the Korean Geotechical Society Conference
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    • pp.373-380
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    • 1999
  • Consolidation settlements of soft clay are often large and potentially damaging to the structures. Currently, large-scale construction projects for airport and harbor etc. are in progress in Korea and many of these structures will be constructed on thick and soft clay layers. For this kind of ground condition, evaluation of consolidation settlement is required at every design and construction stages, and the magnitude of secondary compression appears to be larger than expected. Generally, the magnitude of secondary compression is evaluated by laboratory and in-situ consolidation tests or by empirical $C_{a/}$ $C_{c}$, relationship. The use of empirical value $C_{a/}$ $C_{c}$ may be economical, fast and powerful tool in estimating secondary consolidation settlement. However, the databases of the $C_{a/}$ $C_{c}$, for typical soft clays in Korea are insufficient. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship of $C_{a/}$ $C_{c}$ on marine clay near the southern sea in Korea. A series of incremental loading consolidation tests with measurement of pore water pressure were performed. It was found that the $C_{a/}$ $C_{c}$ of undisturbed marine clay is 0.0397. This value is similar to that proposed by Mesri and Castro(1987) on inorganic clay and silt. and silt. and silt.

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Geotechnical characteristics and consolidation properties of Tianjin marine clay

  • Lei, Huayang;Feng, Shuangxi;Jiang, Yan
    • Geomechanics and Engineering
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.125-140
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    • 2018
  • Tianjin, which is located on the west shore of the Bohai Sea, is part of China's Circum-Bohai-Sea Region, where very weak clay is deposited. From the 1970s to the early $21^{st}$ century, Tianjin marine clay deposits have been the subject of numerous geotechnical investigations. Because of these deposits' geological complexity, great depositional thickness, high water content, large void ratio, excessive settlement, and low shear strength, the geotechnical properties of Tianjin marine clay need to be summarized and evaluated based on various in situ and laboratory tests so that Tianjin can safely and economically sustain more infrastructure in the coming decades. In this study, the properties of Tianjin marine clay, especially its consolidation properties, are summarized, evaluated and discussed. The focus is on establishing correlations between the geotechnical property indexes and mechanical parameters of Tianjin marine clay. These correlations include the correlations between the water content and the void ratio, the depth and the undrained shear strength, the liquid limit and the compression index, the tip resistance and the constrained modulus, the plasticity index and the ratio of undrained shear strength and the preconsolidation pressure. In addition, the primary consolidation properties of Tianjin marine clay, such as the intrinsic compression line (ICL), sedimentation compression line (SCL), compression index, $C_c$, coefficient of consolidation, $C_v$, and hydraulic conductivity change index, $C_{kv}$, are evaluated and discussed. A secondary consolidation property, i.e., the secondary compression index, $C_a$, is also investigated, and the results show that the ratio of $C_a/C_c$ for Tianjin marine clay can be used to calculate $C_a$ in secondary consolidation settlement predictions.

Influence of Sewage Sludge Application on Soil Nitrate Distribution in a Clay Soil

  • Lee, Sang-Mo
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.70-73
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    • 2003
  • Nitrate contamination in the aquatic systems is the primary indicator of poor agricultural management. The influence of sewage sludge application rates (0, 10, 25, 50 and 100 dry Mg/ha) on distribution of nitrate originating from the sewage sludge in soil profiles was investigated. Soil profile monitoring of nitrate was carried out with a Lakeland clay soil in 1997. Irrespectively of the sewage sludge application rates up to 50 dry Mg/ha, the concentration of $NO_3$-N at the 120 cm depth was below 10 mg/kg and the difference due to the amount of sewage sludge application was negligible at this depth. There was virtually no $NO_3$-N below 120 cm depth and this was confirmed by a deep sampling up to 300 cm depth. Most of the nitrate remained in the surface 60 cm of the soil. Below 120 cm depth nitrate concentration was very low because of the denitrification even at high sewage sludge rate of 100 dry Mg/ha. The $NO_3$-N concentrations in the soil fluctuated over the growing season due to plant uptake and denitrification. The risk of groundwater contamination by nitrate from sewage sludge application up to high rate of 100 dry Mg/ha was very low in a wheat grown clay soil with high water table ( < 3 m).