• Title/Summary/Keyword: Japanese Sex Culture

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Pornographic Animation's Sexuality through Japanese Sex Culture (일본의 성문화를 통해 본 포르노그래피 애니메이션의 선정성)

  • Choi, Eun-Hye;Oh, Jin-Hee
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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    • pp.281-302
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    • 2014
  • Human beings have advanced to release instinctive desire. Among the human desires, sexual desire is classed as a basic desire with appetite and has been expressed in many ways from prehistoric times to present. Despite the social and ethical restriction, expression of sexual image has been evolved with change of time and medium's development. Thanks to inventing the photograph technique, Change of pornographic image has showed a dramatic aspect since early 20th century. The video which delivers message more directly than the picture boosted this change, and the animation has experimented the expression methods and techniques numerously exceeding the limit of realistic image which reappeared by the device. In this thesis, I want to discuss how human beings express sexual desire in animation based on society's sex culture, and analyzed Japanese pornographic animation as its obvious cases. Japanese pornographic animation should be interpreted as the result of culture and society system's history. Through Heian, Edo and early Meiji period, Japanese sex culture has been kept very openly and preposterously. Transformation, metamorphosis, pedophilia, tentacle sex and exposure of specific body parts that are frequently appear in Japanese animation can be interpreted by ancient Japanese open sex culture like Wakashu, polygamy, sleeping in mixed sex group and pederasty. These Japanese odd sex culture is hard to find elsewhere and settled as intrinsic sexual expression in Japanese animation. This situation was institutionally severed by European Modernization's force at the end of World War II in 20th century. However, it seems they have been keeping their influence in a proper form until now. In this study, I discussed that pornographic animation should be interpreted in a frame of cultural phenomenon by researching the series of procedure that ancient Japanese open sex culture has been changed by the system. Sexuality which is found in general Japanese animation was started from their history, and the dichotomous expression about women can be understood that it is bent by institutionally regulated sexual opinion. Japanese history and culture can be understood that it is transformed to the dichotomy that are simultaneously according freedom of eroticism to the pornographic animation, and the fear and irresistible temptation about the woman's body as the other.

Determinants of Food Away From Home and Consumption Patterns (한국인의 외식소비성향과 외식선호유형의 결정요인)

  • Park, Young-Sun;Chung, Young-Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.118-127
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this study was to identify the preferred types and consumption patterns of food away from home by socio-demographic factors including cohort groups, sex. and consumption patterns consisting of 6 types. Data were collected from 412 respondents by questionnaire method in April through May 2002. Regression results indicate that sex, age, family income, family type and size as well as the consumption patterns were significant in explaining the determinants of food away from home expenditures. Four logit function (each for Korean, American, Japanese, and bunsik) results showed that each type of food away from home was likely to vary depending on socio-demographic factors (i.e., cohort groups and sex) and the consumption patterns (i.e., convenience and simple, distinction and variety, tradition oriented, foreign design, health and quality oriented, sensible taste and mood). Similarities and differences in food away from home types are discussed, and future implications for food and nutrition specialists as well as food industrial marketers are provided.

The Opinion about 'Hanllyu' and the Domestic Apparel Product Buying Behavior of Foreigners Residing in Seoul (국내 거주 외국인의 한류(韓流)에 대한 견해와 국내 의류 제품 구매 행동)

  • Kim, Sung-Pil;Lee, Hong-Sup;Park, Eun-Hae;Hwang, Choon-Sup
    • The Research Journal of the Costume Culture
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.580-592
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study is to analyse the foreigner's opinion about 'Hanllyu', and their buying behavior of clothes carried in Korean domestic market. The study was implemented through a normative-descriptive survey using self-administered questionnaires. The samples consisted of 75 foreigners residing in Korea. Data were analyzed by following statistical methods: frequency analysis, ${\chi}^2-test$, t-test, ANOVA, Scheffe's multiple range test. Results are as follows: There was no difference in the opinion about 'Hanllyu' between Chinese and Japanese. They regarded 'Hanllyu' as the phenomenon of the wave of Korean popular culture. Korean soap operas and movies were the main information sources on 'Hanllyu' stars for them. Significant differences were found in the behavior toward 'Hanllyu' stars according to sex and country, but there was no difference in the behavior according to their age. They mainly buy clothes in Dongdaemoon market and the main motivation of purchase were good design and price. The reason for dis-purchase was poor design. Respondents thought 'Hanllyu' fashion is gorgeous. There was significant difference in the behavior toward Korean culture according to sex.

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A Study on the T-Panty Formativeness of the Contemporary Women - Focused on the U.S.A., France, England and Japanese Market - (현대 여성의 T-팬티 조형성 연구 - 미국, 프랑스, 영국, 일본 시장을 중심으로 -)

  • Yang, A-Rang;Lee, Hyo-Jin
    • The Research Journal of the Costume Culture
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.947-959
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    • 2009
  • This study aims to analyze contemporary women's sense of fashion aesthetic by looking into the design and trend of T-panties, which have now carved out a new niche in the world's 21st century female underwear markets. By this, I'd like to reassure readers of the importance of T-panties, which has only been recently recognized, and more generally suggests the future direction of prominent T-panty design development. First, western urban chic, Japanese minimalism and domestic modern feminine images all have common modern urban sense and simple designs. However, each image is not a simple image in itself. For example, in the case of western style they often seek to convey a sophisticated and stylish street sense, while Koreans add a more cute, lovely, and feminine touch. Second, western restrained eroticism, Japanese fetishism and domestic mono-bosom images all have a common interest in sex. They is something, however, which they all express this differently. In Japan, they prefer a stimulating image. In the West, however, this is restrained by controlling and limiting overt sexual elements, while in Korea, we seek to capture a more simple sensual beauty. Third, western couture luxury, Japanese orientalism and Korean utopia narcissism have classy images in common including splendid materials and decorations with embroidery. They all differ depending on their nationality. This study is baseds on the documents study. This study is baseds on the documents study.

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A Comparative Study on the Symbolism of the Combination of Animals One Another in East Asian Comedic Stories and Proverbs (동아시아 소화(笑話)·속담(俗談)속의 동물조합 상징성 비교)

  • Keum, Young-Jin
    • Cross-Cultural Studies
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    • v.42
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    • pp.205-240
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    • 2016
  • The combination of animals has been developed in each of the cultural spheres as a method of metaphor and symbolism of the cultural code. However, its symbolism is not a fixed constant, but a variable and relative constant. This work focused on its features in comparison with East Asian cultural spheres comedic stories and proverbs. Consequently, several features were identified. First, the combinations of animals in similar comedic stories and proverbs among Korea, Japan and China show a difference in point of view. Korean focuses on the difference of the two animals, but Chinese and Japanese focus on the differences in value and level. Second, the method of anthropomorphization is relatively more developed in China and Japan than Korea. The combinations of animals of Chinese comedic stories and proverbs particularly in the field of anthropomorphization, are most focused on age and sex of the animal. The animal's age or sex remains mostly undetermined in Korean animal's proverbs, unlike Chinese proverbs. On the other hand, two animals in Japanese comedic stories and proverbs are usually of the male and female gender from. Third, the combinations of animals of Chinese and Japanese focus on the animal's body and its characteristics of action. Chinese and Japanese combine the characteristics of the two animal's bodies and actions. This feature apparently caused the resultant combinations of the animal's body parts, for example, the Dragon. Understanding of the combinations of two animals is a good portal into the features of East Asian culture sphere.

Study on Restaurant Images through Korea-Japan Video Text - and (식당을 매개로 한 한일 영상텍스트 연구 - <윤식당>과 <카모메 식당>을 중심으로)

  • Chin, Eun-kyung;Ahn, Sang-Won
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.17 no.11
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    • pp.567-576
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    • 2017
  • Foods are cultural texts. Recipes, cultural peculiarities, and relationships between people. Foods can expand into narratives. This study will compare and analyze the characteristics of the Korean - Japanese visual texts, and . The aim of this study is to examine the between-space and gender, and to examine the universality and specificity of the text of Korean - Japanese image culture. If the movie reproduces the world of reality fictionally from the viewpoint of the between-space, it can be seen that the artistic has differentiation by realistically reproducing the fictional world, but universally creates the hyper reality. Second, in the dimension of gender, both images suggest universality in which the dissolution of sex role becomes paradoxical product. However, has differentiation from the fact that it presents the aspect of gender equality more specifically.

A Study on Make-up Culture of Korea, China and Japan (한국.중국.일본 여성의 색조대장문화)

  • 박보영;황춘섭
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.39
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    • pp.217-237
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    • 1998
  • The present research is to study the make-up culture of Korea and its neighboring countries such as China and Japan during the period from the prehistoric age to the 19th cen-tury. The research was made by documents analysis. The results are summerised as follows : (1) A man has a basic instinct to beautify himself. There was not a significant difference between the make-up behavior of men and women in its primal stage. It was by the start of farming and the division of labor that made the make-up behavior as a feminine culture. The difference of sexual role caused the con-ceptual difference between manly beauty and womanly beauty. It was very natural for women to regard the make-up as the best way for showing their feminine beauty. In Korea, China and Japan, there were vari-ous kinds of primal actions such as tattooing, body-painting, and tooth make-up which were used in the purpose of body protection, incantation, ornament, and so on. Ass their ornamental purpose was becoming more important, these primal actions became the basis of the feminine make-up culture. Nowadays make-up, having mental and emo-tional function, is helpful to increasing self-satisfaction, promoting good personal relation-ship, and attracting attention from the other sex. It also has other functions of showing social status, wealth, age, sex, courage, power, and so on. (2) The representative make-up product used widely in the three countries was Boon (powder) which decides the overall color of face. The key point in the production of Boon was to increase its power of adsorption. The invention of Yunboon (power mixed with lead) solved this major problem of Boon. Yeonji which decides the color of cheek was the mixture of Boon and the powder of Honghwa (a kind of red-colored flower or tree). Mimook (eyebrow pencil) was developed to match up with the various and changing currencies of penciling eyebrows in each nation and times, Yeonji and Joosa (red sand) were used as Jinji (lip stick). The predominant color of Jinji was red. As miscellaneous methods of partial make-up, there were Kon-ji used in a wedding cer-emony in korea, Aek-hwang, Hwa-jeon, Sa-hong, and Myun-yup in China, and Chi-heuk, a peculial method of partial make-up in japan. (3) There were various factors which decided the characteristics of make-up culture usually reflects international atmosphere, the form of government, economic situation, re-ligious and social ideology, aesthetic sense, symbolizing meanings of colors, and so on. The up and down of an influentian country was one of the major factors which decided the characteristics of the make-up culture of its neighboring countries. When a country took a liberal form of government, it had diverse and splendid tendencies in its make-up culture. The better a nation's economic situation is, the more abandant and various its make-up culture is, and sometimes, the more eccentric and decadents it was. In the field of make-up production, the three countries had their own characteristics. But, as a whole, China was the leading nation who spread the culture and products of make-up to Korea and Japan. Though the Chinese make-up culture and products were usually spread to Japan through Korean, there was some evidence of direct exchanges between China and Japan through its dispatches of Kyun-Tang-Sa(Japanese delegation to the Tang Dynasty). While religion had a positive influence on the development of make-up culture by introducing new methods of make-up, Confucianism exercised strict control over the make-up cul-ture. The currencies in arts and changes of esthetic sense introduced new methods and booms to the make-up culture. Literature made people pay increasing attentions to the countenances of women and changed the standards of esthetic sense. We can find out that the social status of woman was also reflected in the make-up culture. As the social status of women became higher, the feminine make-up culture also developed more then ever. As mentioned above, the make-up cultures of the three countries reflected their social values, esthetic senses, and emotional feelings. Through their cultural exchanges, the three countries could develop various make-up products and methods.

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A Study on the Changes of the Recommended Dietary Allowances for the Koreans (한국인(韓國人)의 영양권장량 변천(變遷)에 관(關)한 분석적(分析的) 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Sung-Mee;Lee, Sung-Woo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.197-206
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    • 1988
  • Age, sex and the amount of activity determine recommended dietary allowances. So the method of developing RDA and their levels have been revised according as the physical condition of a nation improves and the amount of activity changes along with the variety of social situations. It can be seen from records that in Korea the absolute nutrient requirements for the people in Chosun Dynasty were first published in 1922. After that, in 1941 Gui Dong Han expressed his view that the standard health diets for the Japanese would be suitable for the people in Chosun Dynasty. In 1960, the temporary nutrition standards for the Koreans were established by the Ministry of the Health and Social Affairs. For these standards, males and females were respectively divided into three groups by age and nine nutrients were recommended for each group. In 1962, The Korean Association to FAO published the RDA for the Koreans. Since then, regular researches have been done. For these allowances, there were 16 age groups of men and women and ten nutrients recommended for each group. On the first revision in 1967, the fat allowance was presented at the ratio (12%) of fat calorie to total calories with no change in the number of age catagories and in the kinds of nutrients. And the basis of the riboflavin allowance was changed from the level of protein intake to that of energy intake. On the socond revision in 1975, there was brought 19 are catagories and ten nutrients recommended. On the third revision in 1980, age catagories increased to 22, and ten nutrients were recommended. On the fourth revision in 1985, there remained 21 groups by uniting the early and later periods of pregency. On the first revision in 1967, the recommended energy allowance was 3000 kcal, the highest level. Since then it has gradually been reduced. And it can be noticed that the protein allowance was high when food was difficult to obtain.

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Trend of conclusive expressions in Post-Modern Edo-language (근세후기 에도어에 나타나는 단정표현(断定表現)의 양상(樣相))

  • Um, phil kyo
    • Cross-Cultural Studies
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    • v.25
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    • pp.775-798
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    • 2011
  • From Post-Modern Edo-language of Japan, it is possible to find expression formats related to current Tokyo language. However, in some cases, Tokyo language and Edo-language has the same format but different usage. One example is the ending portion of a sentence. This research investigates conclusive expressions of Edo-language in literary works excluding the usage of "ダ". Various formats of conclusive expressions appear in a conversation, and the usage is closely related to the speaker's sex, age, and social status. Also from the study, it was possible to see that the social relationship between a speaker and a listener and a conversation circumstance has an effect on the usage of conclusive expressions. In addition, usage does not conform to the current standard Japanese. 1. Currently "である(dearu)" format is seldom used in speaking, it is used with "だ" only in writing. The study found no case of "である(dearu)" in conclusive expressions but some use of "であろうて(dearoute) であらうな(dearouna)" "であったのう(deattanou) であったよ(deattayo)" only in old aged male. 2. "であります(dearimasu)" format is a typical Edo-language used by society-women (Japanese hostess who has a good education and an elegant speaking skills). This format was used once in "浮世風呂"(ukiyoburo) and 14 times in "梅?"(umegoyomi), but speakers were always a female. The reason for 14 occurrences in "梅?" is closely related to the fact that the main characters are society-women and genre is "人情本(ninjoubourn)" which is popular type of cultural literature (based on humanity and romance) in late Edo period. 3. "でござる" format is originally used as a respect-language but later changed to a polite language. The format is always used by male. It is a male language used by old aged people with a genteel manner such as a medical doctor, a retired man, or a funny-song writer. 4. "ございます(gozaimasu) ごぜへます(gozeemasu)" The study found the speaker's social status has a connection with the use of "ごぜへます(gozeemasu)" format. Which is "ございます(gozaimasu)" format but instead of [ai], long vowel [eː] is used. "ごぜへます(gozeemasu)" is more used by a female than a male and only used by young and mid-to-low class people. The format has a tough nuance and less elegant feel, therefore high class and/or educated ladies have a clear tendency to avoiding it

Health Promotion Lifestyle Profiles of the Korean Elderly in Japan (일본에 거주하는 한국 노인의 건강증진 생활양식)

  • Jaung, Ae-Hwa;Park, Kyung-Min;Ryu, Mi-Kyung
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.470-485
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate health promotion lifestyle profiles of the Korean elderly in Japan. The subjects of this study were 202 elders in Aichi prefecture. The method of this study questionnaires interviews, and a self-administered questionnaire from the 1st to the 20th of April in 2000. This study tool was based on Walker et al. (1987)'s Health Promotion lifestyle Profiles (HPLP). Analysis of the data used an SPSS/pc+ WIN 9.0 program. Data analyses were conducted by using frequency, percentage, t-test, ANOVA. Pearson correlation, Kendal tau and Stepwise Multiple Regression. The results were as follows: 1. The average score of Health Promotion Lifestyle Profiles of Korean elderly in Japan was 2.72(SD=0.40). On the sub-scale of Health Promotion Lifestyle Profiles: nutrition(M = 3. 06), self-actualization(M =2.99), interpersonal support (M=2.81), stress management (M=2.68) revealed higher scores, whereas the scores of health responsibility(M=2.52), and exercise(M=1.92) were lower. 2. Health Promotion Lifestyle Profiles were significantly different by age (F = 11. 02, p = .000), religion(F=2.96, p=.033), occupation(F=6.91, p=.000), living family status(F=13.07, p=.000), living family number(F=11.74, p=.000), monthly pocket money(F=18.79, p=.000), the source of pocket money (F=7.18, p=.000), and the length of residence(F=9.79, p=.000). 3. Health Promotion Lifestyle Profiles was significantly predicted by monthly pocket money($r^2$ change =0. 188, p=.000), sex($r^2$ change= 0.066, p= .000), the length of residence($r^2$ change = 0.059, p = .000), the source of pocket money($r^2$ change=0.036, p= .000), age ($r^2$ change=0.018, p=.000). These variables showed a positive correlation with health promotion lifestyle profiles of the Korean elderly in Japan. These variables explained 36.7% of the variance of Health Promotion Lifestyle Profiles. On the basis of the above findings, Health Promotion Lifestyle Profiles programs for Korean elderly in Japan needs be to developed with Japanese social-culture perspectives and needs to develop an intervention method to improve Health Promotion Lifestyle Profiles. It is also suggested that further research is required.

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