• Title/Summary/Keyword: HPBW

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A Study on the Beam-forming of the Linear Array Antenna using Grating Lobe (Grating Lobe를 이용한 선형 배열 안테나의 Beam-forming에 관한 연구)

  • 신정록;송우영
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.806-812
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    • 2000
  • In this paper, we theoretically studied on the large antenna array whose element had wider than one wavelength. And we also verified the adaptedness through the experiments. Using grating lobes, we could make antenna have sharp HPBW. Not only HPBW but also SLL could be controlled by giving optimal space for antenna array. In order to verify this method, we designed 4 horn antenna array and measured the radiation patterns at 9 GHz. Each horn antenna has the dimension of 64.3$\times$82.5$\textrm{mm}^2$ and HPBW of 27$^{\circ}$. The space between antennas is longer than one wavelength so that it may have the grating lobes in visible region. As a result of experiments, we could get HPBW of 4.3$^{\circ}$, 3.3$^{\circ}$ and 1.7$^{\circ}$when giving 2.5λ, 2.7λ and 3.0λ of the spacing respectively. We concluded this could be useful making the antenna with narrow HPBW.

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Underwater E-plane Attenuation Model of Omnidirectional Antenna Using Half Power Beam Width (HPBW) (반전력빔폭을 이용한 전방향성 안테나의 수중 환경 수직 평면 감쇠 모델)

  • Kwak, Kyungmin;Park, Daegil;Kim, Younghyeon;Chung, Wan Kyun;Kim, Jinhyun
    • Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems
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    • v.21 no.11
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    • pp.1050-1056
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    • 2015
  • In this paper, we use the characteristics of electromagnetic waves underwater attenuation for estimating linear distance between a transmitting node and receiving node, and research underwater vertical plane attenuation model for constructing the underwater localization system. The underwater localization of 2 dimensional with the plane attenuation model in the horizontal plane (H-plane) was proposed previous research. But for the 3 dimensional underwater localization, the additional vertical plane (E-plane) model should be considered. Because the horizontal plane of omnidirectional antenna has the same attenuation tendency in x-y plane according to the distance, whereas in vertical plane shows an irregular pattern in x-z plane. For that reason, in the vertical plane environment, the attenuation should be changed by the position and inclination. Hence, in this paper the distance and angle between transmitting and receiving node are defined using spherical coordinate system and derive an antenna gain pattern using half power beam width (HPBW). The HPBW is called a term which defines antenna's performance between isotropic and other antennas. This paper derives omnidirectional antenna's maximum gain and attenuation pattern model and define vertical plane's gain pattern model using HPBW. Finally, experimental verifications for the proposed underwater vertical plane's attenuation model was executed.

Performance Analysis of Double Circular Array Antenna (이중 원형 배열 안테나의 성능 분석)

  • 이봉수;송우영
    • Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.51-59
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    • 2001
  • In this paper, performance of the double circular array antenna was analyzed, which has sharp directivity with specific direction and is compatible to shape pencil beam. The character of each array geometry which N numbers of isotropic point source is arranged in planar with type of a square, circular and double circular was compared and analyzed. As a result, we fined that double circular geometry was good performance rather than square and circular array geometry in the point of directivity. SLL and HPBW.

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The Design of a K-Band 4$\times$4 Microstrip Patch Array Antennas with High Directitvity (고지향성 구현을 갖는 K-밴드 4$\times$4 마이크로스트립 패치 어레이 안테나의 설계)

  • Lee, Ha-Young;Kim, Hyeong-Seok
    • The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers
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    • v.56 no.1
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    • pp.161-166
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    • 2007
  • In this paper, two 4$\times$4 rectangular patch array antennas operating at 20 GHz are implemented for the satellite communication. The sixteen patch antennas and microstrip feeding line are printed on a single-layered substrate. The design goal is to achieve high directivity and gain by optimizing design parameters through permutations in element spacing. The spacing between the array elements is chosen to be 0.736$\lambda$. Numerical simulation results indicate that the HPBW(Half-Power Beam Width) of the 4$\times$4 patch array antenna is 18.78 degrees in the E-plane and 18.48 degrees in the H-plane with a gain of 17.18 dBi. Numerical simulations of a 4$\times$4 recessed patch array antenna yield a HPBW of 18.71 degrees in the E-plane and 17.82 degrees in the H-plane with a gain of 19.43 dBi.

Miniaturization of Microstrip Antenna Using the folded Structure (폴디드 구조를 이용한 마이크로스트립 안테나의 소형화)

  • Heo Hee-Moo;Jang Yon-Jeong;Woo Jong-Myung
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.526-533
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    • 2005
  • In this paper, the miniaturized the linear polarization and the circular polarization microstrip antennas, which are the two ends in the resonance length direction or all the four-ends were folded are designed and fabricated at the resonant frequency of 1.575 GHz(fur GPS system). For the linear polarization microstrip antenna, the antenna was bent. downward so that the visible length(=L) was reduced by $31.7\%(\varepsilon_r=1.06)$. The folded antenna was folded toward the center of the antenna once again. In this case, the visible length reduction rate, gain, -10 dB bandwidth, E-plane and H-plane HPBW were $73.9\%$, 5.12 dBd, $64MHz(4\%),\;151^{\circ}\;and\;79.2^{\circ}$, respectively. For the circular polarization microstrip antenna, the folded structure of the linear polarization antenna was applied to all the few directions. For the most efficiency the folded bottom surfaces were designed in a triangular shape. In this case, the visible area reduction rate, gain, -10 dB bandwidth, and HPBW in horizontal polarization of the z-x plane and the z-y plane were $71.5\%,\;3.96dBd,\;84MHz(5.3\%),\;80.6^{\circ}\;and\;82.1^{\circ}$, respectively. Therefore, we have confirmed that the folded structure is suitable fer the miniaturization of the microstrip antenna.

Reconfigurable Beam Steering Antenna Using Superposed Beam of Double Loops (이중 루프의 중첩 빔을 이용한 재구성 빔 조향 안테나)

  • Kim, Jae-Young;Jung, Chang-Won
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
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    • v.22 no.10
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    • pp.934-940
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    • 2011
  • A novel reconfigurable beam steering antenna using double loops is proposed. The double loop antenna has a superposed beam which is produced by combining the in-phase beam in the inner loop with the out-of-phase beam in the outer loop. Also, the doble loop antenna uses two artificial switches to connect between inner loop and outer loop, and has the beam directions of three separate cases(Case 1, Case 2, Case 3) by changing ON/OFF states of switches. The operation frequency of the antenna is 14.5 GHz, and three maximum beam directions of the antenna are ${\phi}_{max}=0^{\circ}$, ${\theta}_{max}=0^{\circ}$(Case 1), ${\phi}_{max}=230^{\circ}$, ${\theta}_{max}=40^{\circ}$(Case 2) and ${\phi}_{max}=130^{\circ}$, ${\theta}_{max}=40^{\circ}$ (Case 3). The peak gains of each case are 6.5 dBi(Case 1), 7.6 dBi(Case 2) and 7.8 dBi(Case 3). The half power beam width(HPBW) of each case is $86{\sim}104^{\circ}$, and the overall HPBW is $160^{\circ}$.

Analysis of Axially Displaced Ellipse Gregorian Dual Reflector Antennas (축이동 그레고리안 이중 반사경 안테나의 해석)

  • 임성빈;최경국;최학근
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
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    • v.14 no.11
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    • pp.1161-1169
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    • 2003
  • In this paper, ADE(Axially Displaced Ellipse) Gregorian dual reflector antennas, which are the special form of Gregorian dual reflector antennas, were analyzed. In the procedure of antenna analysis, the aperture field distribution was obtained by using the geometrical optics and their far-field radiation characteristics were analyzed by using the aperture field method. The analysis results such as antenna efficiency, HPBW(Half Power Beam Width), FNBW(First Null Beam Width), and FSL(First Sidelobe Level) were presented as functions of edge taper and size of main reflector and subreflector. From the results in this paper, we could confirm that ADE reflector antennas have the different radiation characteristics from the classical dual reflector antennas.

The Design of $4{\times}4$ Microstrip Patch Array Antenna of K-Band for the High Gain (고이득 구현을 위한 K-밴드 $4{\times}4$ 마이크로스트립 패치 어레이 안테나의 설계)

  • Lee Ha-Young;Braunstein Jeffrey;Kim Hyeong-Seok
    • 한국정보통신설비학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.193-196
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    • 2006
  • In this paper, two $4{\times}4$ rectangular patch array antennas operated at 20 GHz are implemented for the satellite communication. Two $2{\times}2$ sub-arrays are designed and used for the design of $4{\times}4$ patch array. The sixteen patch antennas and microstrip feeding line are printed on the single-layered substrate. The spacing between the array elements is chosen to be $0.736{\lambda}$. The HPBW(Half Power Beam Width) of the $4{\times}4$ microstrip patch array is 17.01 degrees in the E-plane and 17.71 degrees in the H-plane with a gain of 11.6dB in the experimental results. The HPBW of the recessed $4{\times}4$ microstrip patch array is 18.66 degrees in E-plane and 17.12 degrees in the H-plane with a gain of 12.55dB in the experimental results.

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Miniaturization of Microstrip Antenna using Iris (Iris를 이용한 마이크로스트립 안테나의 소형화)

  • Seo Jeong-Sik;Woo Jong-Myung
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
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    • v.15 no.10
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    • pp.922-930
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    • 2004
  • In this paper, the 3-dimensional microstrip antenna, where the lis is attached near the patch, on the pound and both patch and ground in zigzag, is designed and fabricated to miniaturize size of antenna. The path of surface current and permittivity in patch are increased because of attached Iris near the patch, on the pound and patch and found. In particula., the maximum size reduction effect among the three-type of $79.1\%$(17 mm$\times$90 mm) was presented in zigzag-type compared with the rectangular microstrip patch antenna(MPA) with a height of 9 mm at the resonant frequency of 1.575 GHz. The gain showed -1.15 dBd, -10 dB bandwidth showed 6.2$\%$(98 MHz), and HPBW of E-plane showed $154^{\circ}$. As that result we could confirm that the 3-dimensional structure with attached Irises is the proper form for the miniaturization of microstrip antenna.

Optimal Shape Design of Dual Reflector Antenna Based on Genetic Algorithm (유전 알고리즘 기반의 이중 반사경 안테나 형상최적화 기법)

  • Park, Jung-Geun;Chung, Young-Seek;Kang, Won-June;Shin, Jin-Woo;So, Joon-Ho;Cheon, Chang-Yul
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.445-454
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    • 2015
  • In this paper, we propose an optimal design method for a dual reflector antenna(DRA) using the Genetic algorithm. In order to reduce the computational burden during the optimal design, we exploit the iterative physical optics(IPO) to calculate the surface current distribution at each reflector antenna. To improve the accuracy, we consider the shadow effect by the structure and the coupling effect by the multi-reflection based on the iterative MFIE(Magnetic Field Integral Equation). To reduce the number of design variables and generate a smooth surface, we use the Bezier function with the control points, which become the design variables in this paper. We adopt the HPBW(Half Power Beam Width), the FNBW(First Null Beam Width), and the SLL(Side Lobe Level) as the objective or cost functions. To verify the results, we compare them with the those of the commercial tool.