• Title, Summary, Keyword: Double randomization method

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THE RANDOM SIGNALS SATISFYING THE PROPERTIES OF THE GAUSSIAN WHITE NOISE

  • Moon, Byung-Soo;Beasley, Leroy B.
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.9-16
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    • 2005
  • The random signals defined as sums of the single frequency sinusoidal signals with random amplitudes and random phases or equivalently sums of functions obtained by adding a Sine and a Cosine function with random amplitudes, are used in the double randomization method for the Monte Carlo solution of the turbulent systems. We show that these random signals can be used for studying the properties of the Johnson noise by proving that constant multiples of these signals with uniformly distributed frequencies in a fixed frequency band satisfy the properties of the Gaussian white noise.

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A Markovian queue with two serial servers and its application to the double tollbooth system (M/M/2 직렬-서어버 모형의 분석 및 응용)

  • 양원석;채경철
    • Journal of the Korean Operations Research and Management Science Society
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.1-12
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    • 1997
  • We consider an M/M/2 queue with two servers placed in series. System performance measures that we present in closed expressions are the first and the second moments for the system size, the queue walting time and the sojourn time. We also present an algorithm for computing the queue waiting time distribution function based on the randomization method. As an application, we analyze the double tollbooth system and compare its performance with the conventional single tollbooth system's.

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Music for Pediatric Patients in Medical Settings: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials (소아환자를 위한 음악: 무작위 임상연구의 체계적인 문헌고찰)

  • Lee, Jin Hyung
    • Journal of Music and Human Behavior
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.1-33
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    • 2013
  • The aim of this study was to systematically review the latest clinical trials in music medicine and medical music therapy for pediatric patients. Thirteen databases were searched to obtain randomized controlled/crossover design studies published between the year 2000 and 2012 in English language. Out of 1012 articles retrieved in the initial search, fifteen studies were identified based on an exclusion criteria. Overall, selected articles involved children 1 month to 18 years, sample size of 11 to 150, and total participants of 987. Studies were classified and compared as music medicine or music therapy studies through a systematic synthesis assessing general characteristics, methodological quality, measured outcomes, types of interventions and the study results. Seven music medicine and eight music therapy studies measured seven dependent variables using thirty-six different measurement tools with a large heterogeneity in the selection, type, and method of music interventions. Evaluation of the methodological quality revealed that many studies did not provide a full report of the research method, and did not meet some or most methodological standards, such as randomization, allocation concealment, double or partial blinding, and intention to treat analysis. Although overall research results were positive if not significant, poor methodological quality and heterogeneity in design and intervention strategies raise the question of research bias and trustworthiness issues. The systematic review concluded that music may have a valuable clinical effect in addressing the physical and psychosocial needs of hospitalized children, although more rigorous, homogeneous and replicable studies are greatly needed.

A review of herbal medicines for chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (한약을 이용한 chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) 치료 관련 무작위 배정 임상 시험에 대한 고찰)

  • Park, Bongki
    • Journal of Korean Traditional Oncology
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.51-61
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    • 2016
  • Background : Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common adverse effect in cancer patients who were exposed to chemotherapy. CIPN impacts on the quality of life and could delay chemotherapy. The aim of this review was to assess the therapeutic effectiveness of herbal medicine in CIPN patients. Methods : Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included in this review. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane database, EMBASE, CNKI, Wanfang and four Korean databases without restrictions on time or language. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results : Eleven RCTs involving 706 patients met the inclusion criteria. Eleven different herbal medicines were examined in the included trials. Almost RCTs showed insufficiency in the reporting randomization method and allocation concealment. One trial used allocation concealment and a double-blinding method. Five studies reported that participants dropped out of RCTs and conducted an 'as-treated analysis'. One trials reported adverse effects of herbal medicine. In ten of the eleven trials, the use of herbal medicine had shown significant differences in clinical symptoms or nerve conduction velocity. Conclusions : The use of herbal medicines for CIPN showed significant improvements in the management of CIPN. However, conclusions cannot be drawn because of the generally low quality of methodology and low quantity of data for each single herbal medicine. Further rigorous trials are needed.

The Recent Trends of Clinical Research on General Anxiety Disorder in Chinese Herbal Medicine (범불안장애의 중의학 약물 임상시험 최신 동향)

  • No, Dong-Jin;Lee, Sang-Ryong;Jung, In-Chul
    • Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.79-89
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    • 2009
  • Objectives : To address suitable method for designing clinical trial intervening Traditional Korean Herbal Medicine on General anxiety disorder through the recent clinical research in Chinese Herbal Medicine. Methods : Randomized, controlled trials(RCTs) of treatment of general anxiety disorder intervening herbal medicine were searched through CNKI databases. We examined several item of studies and evaluated using Jadad scale. We searched articles in CNKI with the key word "General anxiety disorder or 廣範性焦慮症", among them we selected the clinical trial studies related with herbal medicine except for case reports, studies of acupuncture therapy or west medicines. Results : 11 RCT studies of herbal medicine met inclusion criteria. The Studies used CCMD-3, HAMA as inclusion tool and mainly HAMA as a evaluation tool. Studies were progressed for 2-8 weeks, mostly used various positive control. Experiment medicine were mainly 理氣劑, 安神劑. In most studies, experiment group made similar or higher efficacy in comparison with control group. Mean Jadad score of studies was $1.3{\pm}0.67$, and only one study was double-blinded among 11 studies. Conclusions : RCT studies on general anxiety disorder of chinese herbal medicine tend to focus on investigating effect of herbal medicine through setting positive control group with CCMD-3 and HAMA. But, most studies had low quality of trial, for lack of pattern identification, evaluation and inclusion tool of chinese medicine. Clinical trials of general anxiety disorder should provide good quality by randomization, double-blinding, and multi-site trial.

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The effect of Chiljehyangbuhwan on the abdominal temperature in the primary dysmenorrhea patients (칠제향부환(七製香附丸)이 원발성(原發性) 월경통(月經痛) 환자(患者)의 복부(腹部) 온도(溫度)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Lee, Chang-Hoon;Cho, Jung-Hoon;Jang, Jun-Bock;Lee, Kyung-Sub;Yoon, Young-Jin
    • Journal of Oriental Medical Thermology
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.29-38
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    • 2005
  • Purpose: We intended to observe the relations between Chiljehyangbuhwan and abdominal temperature according to primary dysmenorrhea severity. Methods: We selected the 100 primary dysmenorrhea patients by the screening tests (first screening test-inquiry, second screening test-clinical test, additionally WHR (Waist-to-Hip ratio) by Inbody 2.0). By the fixed blocked randomization and double blind method, Chiljehyangbuhwan or placebo was administered for 1 menstration period. Finally, 69 patients remainded. Before and after administration, we measured 4 points abdominal temperature (Chon-jung(CV17), Chung-wan(CV12), Kwan-won(CV4), Chung-guk(CV3)) by DITI (DOREX Inc., USA). And then we checked the difference of temperature $({\Delta}T)$ between CV17 and CV12 / CV17 and CV4 / CV17 and CV3 / CV12 and CV4 / CV12 and CV3. After that, we compared ${\Delta}T$ with primary dysmenorrhea severity evaluated by VRS (verbal rating scale) and MVRS (multidimensional verbal rating scale). In dysmenorrhea severity, we standardized scale score and 3-group-severity by score (mild, moderate, severe). For statistics, we used Pearson correlations and Spearman's rho correlations, SPSS 11.0 for windows. Results: In case of MVRS, Chiljehyangbuhwan was correlated to ${\Delta}T$ (CV12 and CV3 / CV12 and CV4). In case of VRS, Chiljehyangbuhwan was not correlated to ${\Delta}T$. Statistically they showed significant result (p<0.05). Conclusion: The primary dysmenorrhea patients showed that severity by MVRS was connected with ${\Delta}T$ (CV12 and CV3 / CV12 and CV4) after Chiljehyangbuhwan administration. So we can consider Chiljehyangbuhwan effects the abdominal temperature according primary dysmenorrhea severity.

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The effect of Chiljehyangbuhwan on the abdomial & palmar temperature in the primary dysmenorrhea patients (칠제향부환(七製香附丸)이 원발성(原發性) 월경통(月經痛) 환자(患者)의 복부(腹部) 및 수장부(手掌部) 온도(手掌部 溫度)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Lee, Chang-Hoon;Cho, Jung-Hoon;Jang, Jun-Bock;Lee, Kyung-Sub;Yoon, Young-Jin
    • Journal of Oriental Medical Thermology
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.46-58
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    • 2006
  • Purpose: We intended to observe the relations between Chiljehyangbuhwan and abdominal & palmar temperature according to primary dysmenorrhea severity. Methods: We selected the 100 primary dysmenorrhea patients by the screening tests (first screening test-inquiry, second screening test-clinical test. additionally WHR (Waist-to-Hip ratio) by Inbody 2.0). By the fixed blocked randomization and double blind method, Chiljehyangbuhwan or placebo was administered for 1 menstration period. Finally, 69 patients remainded. Before and after administration, we measured 4 points abdominal temperature (Chon-jung (CV17), Chung-wan(CV12), Kwan-won(CV4). Chung-guk(CV3)) by DITI(DOREX Inc., USA). And then we checked the difference of temperature $({\Delta}T)$ between CV17 and CV12/CV17 and CV4/CV17 and CV3/CV12 and CV4/CV12 and CV3. Also, we measured 2 points (palmar region, upper front of forearm) for the difference of palmar temperature $({\Delta}T)$. Then, we checked palmar temperature minus upper front of forearm temperature and took an average of right and left ${\Delta}T.$ After that. we compared ${\Delta}T$ with primary dysmenorrhea severity evaluated by VRS (verbal rating scale) and MVRS (multidimensional verbal rating scale). In dysmenorrhea severity. we standardized scale score and 3-group-severity by score (mild, moderate. severe). Besides, we compared palmar ${\Delta}T$ with abdominal ${\Delta}T$. For statistics, we used ANOVA and Spearman's rho correlations. SPSS 13.0 for windows. Results: In case of MVRS, though Chiljehyangbuhwan was correlated to abdominal ${\Delta}T$(CV12 and CV3/CV12 and CV4). it was not correlated to palmar ${\Delta}T$. In case of VRS, though Chiljehyangbuhwan was not correlated to abdominal ${\Delta}T$. it was correlated to palmar ${\Delta}T$. However. palmar ${\Delta}T$ was not correlated to abdominal ${\Delta}T$. Statistically they showed significant result (p<0.05). Conclusion: The primary dysmenorrhea patients showed that severity by MVRS was connected with abdominal ${\Delta}T$ (CV12 and CV3/CV12 and CV4) and severity by VRS was connected with palmar ${\Delta}T$ after Chiljehyangbuhwan administration. So we can consider Chiljehyangbuhwan partially effects the abdominal & palmar temperature according primary dysmenorrhea severity. However, palmar temperature was not correlated to abdominal temperature. Therefore, we need further study.

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Efficacy and safety of vitamin D3 B.O.N intramuscular injection in Korean adults with vitamin D deficiency

  • Choi, Han Seok;Chung, Yoon-Sok;Choi, Yong Jun;Seo, Da Hea;Lim, Sung-Kil
    • Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia
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    • v.2 no.4
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    • pp.228-237
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    • 2016
  • Objective: There has been no prospective study that examined intramuscular injection of high-dose vitamin D in Korean adults. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of high-dose vitamin $D_3$ after intramuscular injection in Korean adults with vitamin D deficiency. Method: This study was a 24-week, prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. A total of 84 subjects ${\geq}19$ and <65 years of age were randomly allocated to either the vitamin $D_3$ or placebo group in a 2:1 ratio. After randomization, a single injection of plain vitamin $D_3$ 200,000 IU or placebo was intramuscularly administered. If serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations were <30 ng/mLon week 12 or thereafter, a repeat injection was administered. Results: After a single intramuscular injection of vitamin $D_3$ to adults with vitamin D deficiency, the proportion of subjects with serum 25(OH)D concentrations ${\geq}30ng/mL$ within 12 weeks was 46.4% in the vitamin $D_3$ group and 3.6% in the placebo group (p<0.0001). The proportion of subjects with serum 25(OH)D concentrations ${\geq}30ng/mL$ within 24 weeks was 73.2% in the vitamin $D_3$ group and 3.6% in the placebo group (p<0.0001). Mean change in serum 25(OH)D concentrations at weeks 12 and 24 after vitamin $D_3$ injection was $12.8{\pm}8.1$ and $21.5{\pm}8.1ng/mL$, respectively, in the vitamin $D_3$ group, with no significant changes in the placebo group. Serum parathyroid hormone concentrations showed a significant decrease in the vitamin $D_3$ group but no change in the placebo group. Conclusion: Intramuscular injection of vitamin $D_3$ 200,000 IU was superior to placebo in terms of its impact on serum 25(OH)D concentrations, and is considered to be safe and effective in Korean adults with vitamin D deficiency.

The Systematic Review of Clincal Trial(s) Intervening Traditional Korean Herbal Medicine: Extension of Developing Clinical Guideline for Hwa-byung (화병 진료지침 개발을 위한 한약 임상시험 방법론 연구)

  • Kim, Seok-Hwan;Park, Bo-Ra;Choi, Keum-Ae;Lim, Hyun-Ju;Lee, Sang-Ryong;Jung, Dae-Gyu;Kim, Rak-Hyung;Kim, Tae-Hun;Kim, Kyung-Ok;Jung, In-Chul
    • Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.163-176
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    • 2009
  • Objectives : To address most probable and suitable method for designing clinical trial intervening Traditional Korean Herbal Medicine on hwa-byung. Study Design : A systematic review of research studies of complementary and/or alternative medical(CAM) treatment of depression, and of domestic clinical trials of Traditional Korean Medicine, and of Chinese clinical trials of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Methods : Randomized, controlled trials(RCTs) of treatment of depression intervening herbal medicine were searched through MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and CNKI databases. Also, domestic RCTs intervening Traditional Korean Herbal Medicine were searched through Korean Traditional Knowledge Portal and Korean studies Information Service System(KISS). Studies were evaluated using Iadad scale and self-designed tool for this study. Results : Thirty four RCT studies( 10 from MEDLINE, 16 from CNKI, 8 domestic studies) of herbal medicine met inclusion criteria. Mean Jadad score of studies published in English was 2.8${\pm}$0.79, in Chinese 1.94${\pm}$0.77, and in Korean 2.75${\pm}$0.71. Twenty one percent of studies included pattern differentiation in their inclusion criteria. Twenty nine percent of studies used combined treatment of herbal and conventional medicine. Among studies on depression, 9% included Complementary Medical assessing tools. Conclusions : There is shortage of domestic clinical trial involving herbal medicine. In China, studies tend to focus on investigating effect of Combined treatment of herbal and conventional medicine on depression. Clinical trial(s) of hwa-byung should provide good internal validity by describing methodology for randomization, double-blinding, and attrition. Also, specific guideline for clinical trial, including Traditional Korean Medical aspects across inclusion criteria, and assessing tools is needed.

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