This study was conducted to investigate the weaning practice of 198 infants in Taejon city in October, 1998. Information on infant feeding and weaning practices were obtained by interviewing mothers in gynecologist and pediatric clinics located in Taejon. The results obtained were as follows : In the survey 37.4% of the infants were breast-feeding, while 31.3% of them were bottle-feeding and 29.3% of them were mixed-feeding. The reason for bottled-feeding was due either to the lack of breast-milk secretion or motner’s job. The educational level of the mother and maternal job affected the feeding methods before weaning. Lower rates of breast-feeding were found among mothers witn a lover level of education. The breast-feeding rate was lower in full-time and part-time job worker groups than in housewife. There was no significant difference in the feeding methods according to family income. Among the subjects, 71.5% of infants began to be weaned within 7 months. The onset of weaning was delayed in the full-time worker group. There was no significant difference in the onset time of weaning according to feeding method, the educational level of the mother, and family income. 60.6% of infants received fruit juice and 29.6% of them received cereals for first-given-supplementary food. ‘For baby’s nutritional status’ was the most common motivation for the onset of weaning. Commercially prepared foods were used more than home-made food for supplementary food.
The weaning practice of infants from 5 to 12 months of age in the area of Chunchon, Kangwon-do was studied. Subjects were divided into 2 groups depending on residential area, monthly family income and mother's educational level. Parents of group 1 (n=90) received higher education and more monthly family income than those of group 2(n=32). The family income was significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2. Mother's educational level has been markedly improved over 10 years, which affected the feeding methods before weaning in both groups(P<0.05). Group 1 appeared to be bottle-fed. Bottle-and mixed-feeding were mainly due to lack of breast milk. 95.6% of group 1 and 71.9% of group 2 started weaning before the age of 6 months and only 16.4% were completely finished regardless of the groups. Commercially prepared foods were used more than home-made for first given-supplementary food. 82.2% of group 1 received fruits and 84.4% of group 2 cookies/crackers as their main supplementary foods. As the motivation of onset of weaning, 'for baby's health and nutritional status' was the most common. These results demonstrate that there are distinct differences between these 2 groups in 1) the feeding methods prior to weaning, 2) time of onset of weaning, and 3) main supplementary foods, influenced by mother's educational level, economic purchasing power, or subjects birth order.
This study was executed for 300 mothers bringing up a child below 3 years in the area of Kangnung to assess the current weaning practice of infants. 24.6% of mother surveyed were breast-fed, 57.8% were formula-fed and 17.5% were mixed-fed. The rate of breast feeding was lower and the rate of bottle feeding was higher in infants whose mothers had more income or higher educational period or full-time job. Most of the respondents knew the significance of supplementary food. 41.4% of the subjects started weaning of their infants at 3-4 months, and 84.1% of them set on weaning in less than 7 months after babies were born. And 39.4% of the subjects finished weaning of their infants in less than one year. The infants of this study preferred the fruits and fishes to meats, vegetables and beans that served to them as supplementary food. Mothers showed deep interest in recipe of weaning food(48.5%), adequate quantity of weaning food(36.3%), information on commercial food for infants(32.2%), and sequence in which semi-solid food are introduced(31.9%). From these results, it is suggested that education program in primary health center for improvement of weaning practice of infants should be implemented reflecting needs of mothers.
The main purpose of this study was to present the basic materials that help the nursing of the infants and consultation of childcare by examinating the knowledge and practice of the mothers about the weaning diet. The data for this study was collected from 205 mothers with infants(6-36 months) who visited two hospitals or one university hospital in Seoul, who were living in one apartment Suwon area between July. 7. and September 10, 2000. The 57 questionnaires were used for collecting the data and SAS program was used to analyse the data. The results are as follows. 1. The items of low score in the result of the knowledge data were as follows. [Initial weaning time, the important nutritional problem in infant, considering factor during feeding, the relation of proper weaning food & age, the time of used by cup, to apply of proper spicies in weaning food, the time of completing weaning, the time of stopping weaning at abnormal sign, and the inappopriate reason of dry mixed powdered food (Sunsik) as a weaning food.] 2. Higher educated mothers presented more high score than lower educated mothers in the knowledge about the weaning. (p<0.05) 3. Before the weaning, more mothers were using the commercial milk (51.2%) than the breast milk (13.2%). 4. Mothers get the knowledge about the weaning from the infants care book of cook books(26.4%). 68% of mothers had not received any consulting service with regard to the weaning, 10.2% of them consulted Pediatrician about the weaning and 0.5% of them with nurse. 5. Most mothers began supplymentary food, from four to six months (65.4%). the ratio was about the same as the ratio of mothers who knEw the appropriate time for the introduction of supplymentary food(83.2%) 6. The main solid food was commercial food, not home-prepared food. 7. Higher educated mothers used home-prepared weaning food more often than lower educated mothers(P<0.05). 8. The used rate by spoon was 57.4%, but the rate of mother's knowledge data was 95.0%. 9. The time of completing the weaning was in 12-18 months(53.8%). It is similar to the mother's knowledge data(52.7%) Conclusion ; According to knowledge data, it turns out that most mothers know moderatly about the weaning (everage 60/100). However their knowledge and practice on the methods & procedures on the weaning were inadquate. Especially, most mothers did not consult with those qualification about the weaning. Therefore, the role of the nurse as a provider of information on the weaning should be emphasized with varied educational programs in many health care center.
The principal objective of this study was to determine how weaning by mothers of preschool children between the ages of five and seven years influences the children's eating habits and food preferences. The results of this study will help to educate mothers about good weaning practices and facilitate the development of weaning programs by providing basic data on the subject. The results demonstrated significantly positive correlations between children's scores on eating habits and the level of vigorous weaning practices, the consistency of their practice, and the child's reaction to the foods provided (p<0.001). A positive correlation was noted between the frequency of providing solid food and the preference toward the food, with the exception of boiled rice and brightly colored vegetables. Thus, the results of this survey showed that the frequency and variety of solid foods that mothers try to actively provide their young children affect their food preferences and eating habits in general. These conclusions suggest that mothers should be educated about the significance of proper weaning so that their children can develop appropriate eating habits, and that there should be nutritional education for mothers, regarding the best weaning practices.
A study was designed to assess the current status of weaning practice and to serve as a guideline of a processed baby foods through the an in-depth survey focused on the Seoul and Kyunggi area. 16.I% mothers surveyed were breast-fed and 54.6% were formula-fed. They mostly wanted to obtain information about processed bady foods and the adequate amount and weaning method of bady foods and showed deep interest in recipe of weaning foods. The average score of weaning knowledge which is counted by mothers'responses was IS.S and was significantly high in the high-educated group. The average Period when those surveved began weaning was $4.3\pm1.8$months and hight-educated mothers began weaning earlier than low-educated group. 77.O% mothers prepared weaning foods at home. The most popular recipe were gruel with meats and vegetables(52.6%) and they usually used mashed or grinded fruits(69.7%). 36.6% of the mothers surveyed used processed baby foods on sale once a day on the ground that such a small package is very convinient to carry. The processed baby foods which the mothers wanted to develope was the already-cooked type and to be able store at room temperature.
For the purpose of investigating the weaning practice for infants, this study of 251 infants aged from 3 months to 2 years old was conducted in Daejeon City during the the period of August 9 through 23, 1978. The results obtained were as follows: About 60% of the infants were breast-fed, 27.6%, mixed-fed, and 12.0%, bottled-fed. The reason for bottle-feeding was either the lack of breast-milk secretion or ill-health of mothers. There was no significant difference in the feeding methods according to a level of mother's education. Sixty precent of the infants began to be weaned 6. months. The most of the infants were completely weaned within 18 months. The knowledge on weaning was mainly obtained from the publications, such as newspapers, journals for women, child care booklets, etc. The difficulties in the weaning practice were the shortage of knowledge on weaning and the unacceptability by the infants. Liquid or semi-liquid foods were firstly given to the more than 60% of the infants as introducing weaning foods, while 23.3% of the babies were given solid foods. Interestingly, the earlier the birth order was, the more babies were given liquid or semi-liquid foods, The motives for weaning was either the boby's demand for other foods than milk(41.3%) or the lack of breast-milk secretion (31.3%). In the selection of supplementary foods, the nutritional value was given the highest consideration) (54.9%). many mothers (64.2%) prepared supplementary foods for infants at home, while 23.1% used commercial body foods and 12.7% gave infants adult's meals as supplementary foods. The major materials for home-made supplementary foods were fruits and vegetables (41.5%) and cereals (37.5%). The commercial supplementary foods (mainly powdered from) were not used much (never used; 53.6%) and even in the babies, who had consumed them once, nearly half of the babies (42.9) did not eat well. Accordingly, the many mothers (68.8%) welcomed the development of the domestic supplementary foods in good quality and one-third (31.2%) responded that they would consume them regardless of the price.
foods. The most popular recipe of weaning foods at home was rice pudding with meats and vegetables(28.3%). The second popular recipe was mashed or grinded fruits(25.5%). The commercial weaning foods used by mothers were a various kinds of grinded cereals and bottle of puddings. And most of mothers get information through some materials such as books, TV and radio, etc.
This study was carried out to investigate the lactation and weaning practice of infants and their mothers' attitude on infant nutrition. We interviewed 152 mothers in three pediatric clinics located in Sokcho city. From this survey, $76.3\%$ of infants was fed colostrum milk during first one week of life. During the first 4 months, $31.6\%$ of infants was fed breast-milk, while $42.8\%$ of them was fed bottled-milk. More housewives fed their babies with breast milk than the working mothers. Infants ate first weaning food at 5.73$\pm$1.86 months of life. Highly educated mothers showed positive response to the questionnaire : Breast-feeding is good for baby but it requires mother's sacrifice, and Breast-feeding may ruin the good shape of mothers. Highly income mothers responded negatively to the statement : Breast-feeding is not a must for infants since bottled-milk is a good substitution for breast-milk. Comparing with the mothers whose income was about 1 -2 million won per month, with ones who got paid less than 1 million won per month the former responded positively to : Breast-feeding is good for baby but it requires mother's sacrifice. Mothers recognized the importance of weaning in the following order : Supply of nutrition, Enforcement of digestion and absorption capability, Variety of taste, Disease prevention, Development of self-reliance, and Development of baby tooth. To improve the infants' nutritional status, education program on infant nutrition should be organized and run for the pregnant and lactating women in obstetrician and pediatric clinics and through the mass media as well.
Thirty second parity sows of the synthetic Nepalese Pakhribas genotype were used to investigate factors which might improve the occurrence and expression of estrus. The experiment had two sequential elements. In part 1, a change in suckling pattern was applied during lactation, and in part 2, different estrus detection methods were evaluated after weaning. All sows received the same pattern of weaning, which imitated the progressive weaning system used in Nepalese villages. Piglets from each litter were weaned at three ages (6, 7 and 8 weeks of age) in the proportion of 0.5 at 6 weeks followed by 0.25 at each of the subsequent weanings. In the first lactation treatment, the suckling pattern was left undisturbed, similar to the practice used in the villages in which the remaining piglets after first weaning are allowed continuous suckling. In the other treatment, the remaining piglets after first weaning were allowed to suckle their sows only during the night, whilst in the day time (09:00-16:00) they were excluded from the sow but left free to roam around. After weaning, estrus detection procedures were carried out in the absence or presence of two different boar stimuli: a synthetic boar pheromone spray or fresh boar urine. These were applied sequentially in a sequence of testing that alternated for each sow on a daily basis. The weaning to re-mating interval was significantly longer for the unrestricted suckling treatment. All sows were re-mated within 30 days after first weaning in the restricted suckling treatment groups, whereas only 71% of sows were re-mated within 30 days after weaning in the unrestricted suckling treatment groups ($x^2=3.877$, 1df, p<0.05). Both boar pheromone spray and boar urine increased the estrus detection probability, with no significant differences between the two stimuli treatments.
본 웹사이트에 게시된 이메일 주소가 전자우편 수집 프로그램이나
그 밖의 기술적 장치를 이용하여 무단으로 수집되는 것을 거부하며,
이를 위반시 정보통신망법에 의해 형사 처벌됨을 유념하시기 바랍니다.
[게시일 2004년 10월 1일]
제 1 장 총칙
제 1 조 (목적)
이 이용약관은 KoreaScience 홈페이지(이하 “당 사이트”)에서 제공하는 인터넷 서비스(이하 '서비스')의 가입조건 및 이용에 관한 제반 사항과 기타 필요한 사항을 구체적으로 규정함을 목적으로 합니다.
제 2 조 (용어의 정의)
① "이용자"라 함은 당 사이트에 접속하여 이 약관에 따라 당 사이트가 제공하는 서비스를 받는 회원 및 비회원을
② "회원"이라 함은 서비스를 이용하기 위하여 당 사이트에 개인정보를 제공하여 아이디(ID)와 비밀번호를 부여
받은 자를 말합니다.
③ "회원 아이디(ID)"라 함은 회원의 식별 및 서비스 이용을 위하여 자신이 선정한 문자 및 숫자의 조합을
④ "비밀번호(패스워드)"라 함은 회원이 자신의 비밀보호를 위하여 선정한 문자 및 숫자의 조합을 말합니다.
제 3 조 (이용약관의 효력 및 변경)
① 이 약관은 당 사이트에 게시하거나 기타의 방법으로 회원에게 공지함으로써 효력이 발생합니다.
② 당 사이트는 이 약관을 개정할 경우에 적용일자 및 개정사유를 명시하여 현행 약관과 함께 당 사이트의
초기화면에 그 적용일자 7일 이전부터 적용일자 전일까지 공지합니다. 다만, 회원에게 불리하게 약관내용을
변경하는 경우에는 최소한 30일 이상의 사전 유예기간을 두고 공지합니다. 이 경우 당 사이트는 개정 전
내용과 개정 후 내용을 명확하게 비교하여 이용자가 알기 쉽도록 표시합니다.
제 4 조(약관 외 준칙)
① 이 약관은 당 사이트가 제공하는 서비스에 관한 이용안내와 함께 적용됩니다.
② 이 약관에 명시되지 아니한 사항은 관계법령의 규정이 적용됩니다.
제 2 장 이용계약의 체결
제 5 조 (이용계약의 성립 등)
① 이용계약은 이용고객이 당 사이트가 정한 약관에 「동의합니다」를 선택하고, 당 사이트가 정한
온라인신청양식을 작성하여 서비스 이용을 신청한 후, 당 사이트가 이를 승낙함으로써 성립합니다.
② 제1항의 승낙은 당 사이트가 제공하는 과학기술정보검색, 맞춤정보, 서지정보 등 다른 서비스의 이용승낙을
제 6 조 (회원가입)
서비스를 이용하고자 하는 고객은 당 사이트에서 정한 회원가입양식에 개인정보를 기재하여 가입을 하여야 합니다.
제 7 조 (개인정보의 보호 및 사용)
당 사이트는 관계법령이 정하는 바에 따라 회원 등록정보를 포함한 회원의 개인정보를 보호하기 위해 노력합니다. 회원 개인정보의 보호 및 사용에 대해서는 관련법령 및 당 사이트의 개인정보 보호정책이 적용됩니다.
제 8 조 (이용 신청의 승낙과 제한)
① 당 사이트는 제6조의 규정에 의한 이용신청고객에 대하여 서비스 이용을 승낙합니다.
② 당 사이트는 아래사항에 해당하는 경우에 대해서 승낙하지 아니 합니다.
- 이용계약 신청서의 내용을 허위로 기재한 경우
- 기타 규정한 제반사항을 위반하며 신청하는 경우
제 9 조 (회원 ID 부여 및 변경 등)
① 당 사이트는 이용고객에 대하여 약관에 정하는 바에 따라 자신이 선정한 회원 ID를 부여합니다.
② 회원 ID는 원칙적으로 변경이 불가하며 부득이한 사유로 인하여 변경 하고자 하는 경우에는 해당 ID를
해지하고 재가입해야 합니다.
③ 기타 회원 개인정보 관리 및 변경 등에 관한 사항은 서비스별 안내에 정하는 바에 의합니다.
제 3 장 계약 당사자의 의무
제 10 조 (KISTI의 의무)
① 당 사이트는 이용고객이 희망한 서비스 제공 개시일에 특별한 사정이 없는 한 서비스를 이용할 수 있도록
② 당 사이트는 개인정보 보호를 위해 보안시스템을 구축하며 개인정보 보호정책을 공시하고 준수합니다.
③ 당 사이트는 회원으로부터 제기되는 의견이나 불만이 정당하다고 객관적으로 인정될 경우에는 적절한 절차를
거쳐 즉시 처리하여야 합니다. 다만, 즉시 처리가 곤란한 경우는 회원에게 그 사유와 처리일정을 통보하여야
제 11 조 (회원의 의무)
① 이용자는 회원가입 신청 또는 회원정보 변경 시 실명으로 모든 사항을 사실에 근거하여 작성하여야 하며,
허위 또는 타인의 정보를 등록할 경우 일체의 권리를 주장할 수 없습니다.
② 당 사이트가 관계법령 및 개인정보 보호정책에 의거하여 그 책임을 지는 경우를 제외하고 회원에게 부여된
ID의 비밀번호 관리소홀, 부정사용에 의하여 발생하는 모든 결과에 대한 책임은 회원에게 있습니다.
③ 회원은 당 사이트 및 제 3자의 지적 재산권을 침해해서는 안 됩니다.
제 4 장 서비스의 이용
제 12 조 (서비스 이용 시간)
① 서비스 이용은 당 사이트의 업무상 또는 기술상 특별한 지장이 없는 한 연중무휴, 1일 24시간 운영을
원칙으로 합니다. 단, 당 사이트는 시스템 정기점검, 증설 및 교체를 위해 당 사이트가 정한 날이나 시간에
서비스를 일시 중단할 수 있으며, 예정되어 있는 작업으로 인한 서비스 일시중단은 당 사이트 홈페이지를
통해 사전에 공지합니다.
② 당 사이트는 서비스를 특정범위로 분할하여 각 범위별로 이용가능시간을 별도로 지정할 수 있습니다. 다만
이 경우 그 내용을 공지합니다.
제 13 조 (홈페이지 저작권)
① NDSL에서 제공하는 모든 저작물의 저작권은 원저작자에게 있으며, KISTI는 복제/배포/전송권을 확보하고
② NDSL에서 제공하는 콘텐츠를 상업적 및 기타 영리목적으로 복제/배포/전송할 경우 사전에 KISTI의 허락을
③ NDSL에서 제공하는 콘텐츠를 보도, 비평, 교육, 연구 등을 위하여 정당한 범위 안에서 공정한 관행에
합치되게 인용할 수 있습니다.
④ NDSL에서 제공하는 콘텐츠를 무단 복제, 전송, 배포 기타 저작권법에 위반되는 방법으로 이용할 경우
저작권법 제136조에 따라 5년 이하의 징역 또는 5천만 원 이하의 벌금에 처해질 수 있습니다.
제 14 조 (유료서비스)
① 당 사이트 및 협력기관이 정한 유료서비스(원문복사 등)는 별도로 정해진 바에 따르며, 변경사항은 시행 전에
당 사이트 홈페이지를 통하여 회원에게 공지합니다.
② 유료서비스를 이용하려는 회원은 정해진 요금체계에 따라 요금을 납부해야 합니다.
제 5 장 계약 해지 및 이용 제한
제 15 조 (계약 해지)
회원이 이용계약을 해지하고자 하는 때에는 [가입해지] 메뉴를 이용해 직접 해지해야 합니다.
제 16 조 (서비스 이용제한)
① 당 사이트는 회원이 서비스 이용내용에 있어서 본 약관 제 11조 내용을 위반하거나, 다음 각 호에 해당하는
경우 서비스 이용을 제한할 수 있습니다.
- 2년 이상 서비스를 이용한 적이 없는 경우
- 기타 정상적인 서비스 운영에 방해가 될 경우
② 상기 이용제한 규정에 따라 서비스를 이용하는 회원에게 서비스 이용에 대하여 별도 공지 없이 서비스 이용의
일시정지, 이용계약 해지 할 수 있습니다.
제 17 조 (전자우편주소 수집 금지)
회원은 전자우편주소 추출기 등을 이용하여 전자우편주소를 수집 또는 제3자에게 제공할 수 없습니다.
제 6 장 손해배상 및 기타사항
제 18 조 (손해배상)
당 사이트는 무료로 제공되는 서비스와 관련하여 회원에게 어떠한 손해가 발생하더라도 당 사이트가 고의 또는 과실로 인한 손해발생을 제외하고는 이에 대하여 책임을 부담하지 아니합니다.
제 19 조 (관할 법원)
서비스 이용으로 발생한 분쟁에 대해 소송이 제기되는 경우 민사 소송법상의 관할 법원에 제기합니다.
1. (시행일) 이 약관은 2016년 9월 5일부터 적용되며, 종전 약관은 본 약관으로 대체되며, 개정된 약관의 적용일 이전 가입자도 개정된 약관의 적용을 받습니다.