This study was conducted to investigate the weaning practice of 198 infants in Taejon city in October, 1998. Information on infant feeding and weaning practices were obtained by interviewing mothers in gynecologist and pediatric clinics located in Taejon. The results obtained were as follows : In the survey 37.4% of the infants were breast-feeding, while 31.3% of them were bottle-feeding and 29.3% of them were mixed-feeding. The reason for bottled-feeding was due either to the lack of breast-milk secretion or motner’s job. The educational level of the mother and maternal job affected the feeding methods before weaning. Lower rates of breast-feeding were found among mothers witn a lover level of education. The breast-feeding rate was lower in full-time and part-time job worker groups than in housewife. There was no significant difference in the feeding methods according to family income. Among the subjects, 71.5% of infants began to be weaned within 7 months. The onset of weaning was delayed in the full-time worker group. There was no significant difference in the onset time of weaning according to feeding method, the educational level of the mother, and family income. 60.6% of infants received fruit juice and 29.6% of them received cereals for first-given-supplementary food. ‘For baby’s nutritional status’ was the most common motivation for the onset of weaning. Commercially prepared foods were used more than home-made food for supplementary food.
The weaning practice of infants from 5 to 12 months of age in the area of Chunchon, Kangwon-do was studied. Subjects were divided into 2 groups depending on residential area, monthly family income and mother's educational level. Parents of group 1 (n=90) received higher education and more monthly family income than those of group 2(n=32). The family income was significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2. Mother's educational level has been markedly improved over 10 years, which affected the feeding methods before weaning in both groups(P<0.05). Group 1 appeared to be bottle-fed. Bottle-and mixed-feeding were mainly due to lack of breast milk. 95.6% of group 1 and 71.9% of group 2 started weaning before the age of 6 months and only 16.4% were completely finished regardless of the groups. Commercially prepared foods were used more than home-made for first given-supplementary food. 82.2% of group 1 received fruits and 84.4% of group 2 cookies/crackers as their main supplementary foods. As the motivation of onset of weaning, 'for baby's health and nutritional status' was the most common. These results demonstrate that there are distinct differences between these 2 groups in 1) the feeding methods prior to weaning, 2) time of onset of weaning, and 3) main supplementary foods, influenced by mother's educational level, economic purchasing power, or subjects birth order.
Kim, Eun-Kyung;Lee, Sun-Hee;Park, Kye-Wol;Chi, Kyung-A
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
This study was executed for 300 mothers bringing up a child below 3 years in the area of Kangnung to assess the current weaning practice of infants. 24.6% of mother surveyed were breast-fed, 57.8% were formula-fed and 17.5% were mixed-fed. The rate of breast feeding was lower and the rate of bottle feeding was higher in infants whose mothers had more income or higher educational period or full-time job. Most of the respondents knew the significance of supplementary food. 41.4% of the subjects started weaning of their infants at 3-4 months, and 84.1% of them set on weaning in less than 7 months after babies were born. And 39.4% of the subjects finished weaning of their infants in less than one year. The infants of this study preferred the fruits and fishes to meats, vegetables and beans that served to them as supplementary food. Mothers showed deep interest in recipe of weaning food(48.5%), adequate quantity of weaning food(36.3%), information on commercial food for infants(32.2%), and sequence in which semi-solid food are introduced(31.9%). From these results, it is suggested that education program in primary health center for improvement of weaning practice of infants should be implemented reflecting needs of mothers.
The Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing Education
The main purpose of this study was to present the basic materials that help the nursing of the infants and consultation of childcare by examinating the knowledge and practice of the mothers about the weaning diet. The data for this study was collected from 205 mothers with infants(6-36 months) who visited two hospitals or one university hospital in Seoul, who were living in one apartment Suwon area between July. 7. and September 10, 2000. The 57 questionnaires were used for collecting the data and SAS program was used to analyse the data. The results are as follows. 1. The items of low score in the result of the knowledge data were as follows. [Initial weaning time, the important nutritional problem in infant, considering factor during feeding, the relation of proper weaning food & age, the time of used by cup, to apply of proper spicies in weaning food, the time of completing weaning, the time of stopping weaning at abnormal sign, and the inappopriate reason of dry mixed powdered food (Sunsik) as a weaning food.] 2. Higher educated mothers presented more high score than lower educated mothers in the knowledge about the weaning. (p<0.05) 3. Before the weaning, more mothers were using the commercial milk (51.2%) than the breast milk (13.2%). 4. Mothers get the knowledge about the weaning from the infants care book of cook books(26.4%). 68% of mothers had not received any consulting service with regard to the weaning, 10.2% of them consulted Pediatrician about the weaning and 0.5% of them with nurse. 5. Most mothers began supplymentary food, from four to six months (65.4%). the ratio was about the same as the ratio of mothers who knEw the appropriate time for the introduction of supplymentary food(83.2%) 6. The main solid food was commercial food, not home-prepared food. 7. Higher educated mothers used home-prepared weaning food more often than lower educated mothers(P<0.05). 8. The used rate by spoon was 57.4%, but the rate of mother's knowledge data was 95.0%. 9. The time of completing the weaning was in 12-18 months(53.8%). It is similar to the mother's knowledge data(52.7%) Conclusion ; According to knowledge data, it turns out that most mothers know moderatly about the weaning (everage 60/100). However their knowledge and practice on the methods & procedures on the weaning were inadquate. Especially, most mothers did not consult with those qualification about the weaning. Therefore, the role of the nurse as a provider of information on the weaning should be emphasized with varied educational programs in many health care center.
The principal objective of this study was to determine how weaning by mothers of preschool children between the ages of five and seven years influences the children's eating habits and food preferences. The results of this study will help to educate mothers about good weaning practices and facilitate the development of weaning programs by providing basic data on the subject. The results demonstrated significantly positive correlations between children's scores on eating habits and the level of vigorous weaning practices, the consistency of their practice, and the child's reaction to the foods provided (p<0.001). A positive correlation was noted between the frequency of providing solid food and the preference toward the food, with the exception of boiled rice and brightly colored vegetables. Thus, the results of this survey showed that the frequency and variety of solid foods that mothers try to actively provide their young children affect their food preferences and eating habits in general. These conclusions suggest that mothers should be educated about the significance of proper weaning so that their children can develop appropriate eating habits, and that there should be nutritional education for mothers, regarding the best weaning practices.
A study was designed to assess the current status of weaning practice and to serve as a guideline of a processed baby foods through the an in-depth survey focused on the Seoul and Kyunggi area. 16.I% mothers surveyed were breast-fed and 54.6% were formula-fed. They mostly wanted to obtain information about processed bady foods and the adequate amount and weaning method of bady foods and showed deep interest in recipe of weaning foods. The average score of weaning knowledge which is counted by mothers'responses was IS.S and was significantly high in the high-educated group. The average Period when those surveved began weaning was $4.3\pm1.8$months and hight-educated mothers began weaning earlier than low-educated group. 77.O% mothers prepared weaning foods at home. The most popular recipe were gruel with meats and vegetables(52.6%) and they usually used mashed or grinded fruits(69.7%). 36.6% of the mothers surveyed used processed baby foods on sale once a day on the ground that such a small package is very convinient to carry. The processed baby foods which the mothers wanted to develope was the already-cooked type and to be able store at room temperature.
For the purpose of investigating the weaning practice for infants, this study of 251 infants aged from 3 months to 2 years old was conducted in Daejeon City during the the period of August 9 through 23, 1978. The results obtained were as follows: About 60% of the infants were breast-fed, 27.6%, mixed-fed, and 12.0%, bottled-fed. The reason for bottle-feeding was either the lack of breast-milk secretion or ill-health of mothers. There was no significant difference in the feeding methods according to a level of mother's education. Sixty precent of the infants began to be weaned 6. months. The most of the infants were completely weaned within 18 months. The knowledge on weaning was mainly obtained from the publications, such as newspapers, journals for women, child care booklets, etc. The difficulties in the weaning practice were the shortage of knowledge on weaning and the unacceptability by the infants. Liquid or semi-liquid foods were firstly given to the more than 60% of the infants as introducing weaning foods, while 23.3% of the babies were given solid foods. Interestingly, the earlier the birth order was, the more babies were given liquid or semi-liquid foods, The motives for weaning was either the boby's demand for other foods than milk(41.3%) or the lack of breast-milk secretion (31.3%). In the selection of supplementary foods, the nutritional value was given the highest consideration) (54.9%). many mothers (64.2%) prepared supplementary foods for infants at home, while 23.1% used commercial body foods and 12.7% gave infants adult's meals as supplementary foods. The major materials for home-made supplementary foods were fruits and vegetables (41.5%) and cereals (37.5%). The commercial supplementary foods (mainly powdered from) were not used much (never used; 53.6%) and even in the babies, who had consumed them once, nearly half of the babies (42.9) did not eat well. Accordingly, the many mothers (68.8%) welcomed the development of the domestic supplementary foods in good quality and one-third (31.2%) responded that they would consume them regardless of the price.
foods. The most popular recipe of weaning foods at home was rice pudding with meats and vegetables(28.3%). The second popular recipe was mashed or grinded fruits(25.5%). The commercial weaning foods used by mothers were a various kinds of grinded cereals and bottle of puddings. And most of mothers get information through some materials such as books, TV and radio, etc.
This study was carried out to investigate the lactation and weaning practice of infants and their mothers' attitude on infant nutrition. We interviewed 152 mothers in three pediatric clinics located in Sokcho city. From this survey, $76.3\%$ of infants was fed colostrum milk during first one week of life. During the first 4 months, $31.6\%$ of infants was fed breast-milk, while $42.8\%$ of them was fed bottled-milk. More housewives fed their babies with breast milk than the working mothers. Infants ate first weaning food at 5.73$\pm$1.86 months of life. Highly educated mothers showed positive response to the questionnaire : Breast-feeding is good for baby but it requires mother's sacrifice, and Breast-feeding may ruin the good shape of mothers. Highly income mothers responded negatively to the statement : Breast-feeding is not a must for infants since bottled-milk is a good substitution for breast-milk. Comparing with the mothers whose income was about 1 -2 million won per month, with ones who got paid less than 1 million won per month the former responded positively to : Breast-feeding is good for baby but it requires mother's sacrifice. Mothers recognized the importance of weaning in the following order : Supply of nutrition, Enforcement of digestion and absorption capability, Variety of taste, Disease prevention, Development of self-reliance, and Development of baby tooth. To improve the infants' nutritional status, education program on infant nutrition should be organized and run for the pregnant and lactating women in obstetrician and pediatric clinics and through the mass media as well.
Thirty second parity sows of the synthetic Nepalese Pakhribas genotype were used to investigate factors which might improve the occurrence and expression of estrus. The experiment had two sequential elements. In part 1, a change in suckling pattern was applied during lactation, and in part 2, different estrus detection methods were evaluated after weaning. All sows received the same pattern of weaning, which imitated the progressive weaning system used in Nepalese villages. Piglets from each litter were weaned at three ages (6, 7 and 8 weeks of age) in the proportion of 0.5 at 6 weeks followed by 0.25 at each of the subsequent weanings. In the first lactation treatment, the suckling pattern was left undisturbed, similar to the practice used in the villages in which the remaining piglets after first weaning are allowed continuous suckling. In the other treatment, the remaining piglets after first weaning were allowed to suckle their sows only during the night, whilst in the day time (09:00-16:00) they were excluded from the sow but left free to roam around. After weaning, estrus detection procedures were carried out in the absence or presence of two different boar stimuli: a synthetic boar pheromone spray or fresh boar urine. These were applied sequentially in a sequence of testing that alternated for each sow on a daily basis. The weaning to re-mating interval was significantly longer for the unrestricted suckling treatment. All sows were re-mated within 30 days after first weaning in the restricted suckling treatment groups, whereas only 71% of sows were re-mated within 30 days after weaning in the unrestricted suckling treatment groups ($x^2=3.877$, 1df, p<0.05). Both boar pheromone spray and boar urine increased the estrus detection probability, with no significant differences between the two stimuli treatments.
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