• Title, Summary, Keyword: potential therapeutic target

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Comprehensive Relevance of AMPK in Adaptive Responses of Physical Exercise, Skeletal Muscle and Neuromuscular Disorders

  • Lee, Jun-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Physical Medicine
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.141-150
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    • 2018
  • PURPOSE: This study was conducted to understand the adaptive responses of different modes of physical exercises utilizing skeletal muscle and the comprehensive relevance of AMPK signaling that can be activated by physical exercise as a potential molecular target in human health problems such as neuromuscular disorders (NMDs). METHODS: Most of the contents in this review article are based on recent publications concerning the main topics of interest. The reference literatures cited were obtained by basic searches of overseas academic databases such as PubMed and ScienceDirect using EndNote X7.8. RESULTS: The phenotypic adaptive responses of skeletal muscle during endurance- and resistance-based exercise training (ET and RT respectively) appear to be distinct. To explain the adaptive responses in each single mode of exercises (ET, RT) along with combined exercise training (CT), AMPK signaling is proposed as an important molecular link among those differential modes of exercise and a promising molecular target of NMDs. CONCLUSION: Based on the available evidence, intracellular AMPK signaling activated by diverse stimuli including physical exercise can be a potential and promising therapeutic target for the prevention, amelioration or cure of various human health problems including NMDs and may also be beneficial for physical rehabilitation and emergency situations that may elicit acute metabolic stresses.

Kv1.3 voltage-gated K+ channel subunit as a potential diagnostic marker and therapeutic target for breast cancer

  • Jang, Soo-Hwa;Kang, Kyung-Sun;Ryu, Pan-Dong;Lee, So-Yeong
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.42 no.8
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    • pp.535-539
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    • 2009
  • Voltage-gated $K^+$ (Kv) channels are widely expressed in the plasma membranes of numerous cells such as epithelial cells. Recently, it has been demonstrated that Kv channels are associated with the proliferation of several types of cancer cells. Specifically, Kv1.3 seems to be involved in cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis. In the present study, we examined the expression of Kv1.3 in immortalized and tumorigenic human mammary epithelial cells. We also evaluated the expression level of Kv1.3 in each stage of breast cancer using mRNA isolated from breast cancer patients. In addition, treatment with tetraethylammonium, a Kv channel blocker, suppressed tumorigenic human mammary epithelial cell proliferation. Therefore, Kv1.3 may serve as a novel molecular target for breast cancer therapy while its stage-specific expression pattern may provide a potential diagnostic marker for breast cancer development.

Strategies and Advancement in Antibody-Drug Conjugate Optimization for Targeted Cancer Therapeutics

  • Kim, Eunhee G.;Kim, Kristine M.
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.493-509
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    • 2015
  • Antibody-drug conjugates utilize the antibody as a delivery vehicle for highly potent cytotoxic molecules with specificity for tumor-associated antigens for cancer therapy. Critical parameters that govern successful antibody-drug conjugate development for clinical use include the selection of the tumor target antigen, the antibody against the target, the cytotoxic molecule, the linker bridging the cytotoxic molecule and the antibody, and the conjugation chemistry used for the attachment of the cytotoxic molecule to the antibody. Advancements in these core antibody-drug conjugate technology are reflected by recent approval of Adectris$^{(R)}$(anti-CD30-drug conjugate) and Kadcyla$^{(R)}$(anti-HER2 drug conjugate). The potential approval of an anti-CD22 conjugate and promising new clinical data for anti-CD19 and anti-CD33 conjugates are additional advancements. Enrichment of antibody-drug conjugates with newly developed potent cytotoxic molecules and linkers are also in the pipeline for various tumor targets. However, the complexity of antibody-drug conjugate components, conjugation methods, and off-target toxicities still pose challenges for the strategic design of antibody-drug conjugates to achieve their fullest therapeutic potential. This review will discuss the emergence of clinical antibody-drug conjugates, current trends in optimization strategies, and recent study results for antibody-drug conjugates that have incorporated the latest optimization strategies. Future challenges and perspectives toward making antibody-drug conjugates more amendable for broader disease indications are also discussed.

Brain somatic mutations in MTOR leading to focal cortical dysplasia

  • Lim, Jae Seok;Lee, Jeong Ho
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.49 no.2
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    • pp.71-72
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    • 2016
  • Focal cortical dysplasia type II (FCDII) is a focal malformation of the developing cerebral cortex and the major cause of intractable epilepsy. However, since the molecular genetic etiology of FCD has remained enigmatic, the effective therapeutic target for this condition has remained poorly understood. Our recent study on FCD utilizing various deep sequencing platforms identified somatic mutations in MTOR (existing as low as 1% allelic frequency) only in the affected brain tissues. We observed that these mutations induced hyperactivation of the mTOR kinase. In addition, focal cortical expression of mutant MTOR using in utero electroporation in mice, recapitulated the neuropathological features of FCDII, such as migration defect, cytomegalic neuron and spontaneous seizures. Furthermore, seizures and dysmorphic neurons were rescued by the administration of mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin. This study provides the first evidence that brain somatic activating mutations in MTOR cause FCD, and suggests the potential drug target for intractable epilepsy in FCD patients.

Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes 4 is a Predictor of Survival and a Novel Therapeutic Target in Colorectal Cancer

  • Feng, Xiao-Dong;Song, Qi;Li, Chuan-Wei;Chen, Jian;Tang, Hua-Mei;Peng, Zhi-Hai;Wang, Xue-Chun
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.21
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    • pp.9459-9465
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    • 2014
  • Background: Structural maintenance of chromosomes 4 (SMC-4) is a chromosomal ATPase which plays an important role in regulate chromosome assembly and segregation. However, the role of SMC-4 in the incidence of malignancies, especially colorectal cancer is still poorly understood. Materials and Methods: We here used quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis to examine SMC-4 mRNA and protein levels in primary colorectal cancer and paired normal colonic mucosa. SMC-4 clinicopathological significance was assessed by immunohistochemical staining in a tissue microarray (TMA) in which 118 cases of primary colorectal cancer were paired with noncancerous tissue. The biological function of SMC-4 knockdown was measured by CCK8 and plate colony formation assays. Fluorescence detection has been used to detect cell cycling and apoptosis. Results: SMC-4 expression was significantly higher in colorectal cancer and associated with T stage, N stage, AJCC stage and differentiation. Knockdown of SMC-4 expression significantly suppressed the proliferation of cancer cells and degraded its malignant degree. Conclusions: Our clinical and experimental data suggest that SMC-4 may contribute to the progression of colorectal carcinogenesis. Our study provides a new therapeutic target for colorectal cancer treatment.

MicroRNA-497 Suppresses Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cells

  • Wang, Li;Li, Bo;Li, Lei;Wang, Te
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.3499-3502
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    • 2013
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenously expressed small, non-coding, single-stranded RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression, mainly by binding to 3'- untranslated regions (3'UTR) of their target messenger RNAs (mRNAs), which cause blocks of translation and/or mRNA cleavage. Recently, miRNAprofiling studies demonstrated the microRNA-497 (miR-497) level to be down-regulated in all prostate carcinomas compared with BPH samples. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential role of miR-497 in human prostate cancer. Proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis assays were conducted to explore the potential function of miR-497 in human prostate cancer cells. Results showed that miR-497 suppressed cellular growth and initiated G0/G1 phase arrest of LNCaP and PC-3 cells. We also observed that miR-497 increased the percentage of apoptotic cells by increasing caspase-3/7 activity. Taken together, our results demonstrated that miR-497 can inhibit growth and induce apoptosis by caspase-3 activation in prostate cancer cells, which suggest its use as a potential therapeutic target in the future.

Molecular Diagnosis for Personalized Target Therapy in Gastric Cancer

  • Cho, Jae Yong
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.129-135
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    • 2013
  • Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In advanced and metastatic gastric cancer, the conventional chemotherapy with limited efficacy shows an overall survival period of about 10 months. Patient specific and effective treatments known as personalized cancer therapy is of significant importance. Advances in high-throughput technologies such as microarray and next generation sequencing for genes, protein expression profiles and oncogenic signaling pathways have reinforced the discovery of treatment targets and personalized treatments. However, there are numerous challenges from cancer target discoveries to practical clinical benefits. Although there is a flood of biomarkers and target agents, only a minority of patients are tested and treated accordingly. Numerous molecular target agents have been under investigation for gastric cancer. Currently, targets for gastric cancer include the epidermal growth factor receptor family, mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor axis, and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-AKT-mammalian target of rapamycin pathways. Deeper insights of molecular characteristics for gastric cancer has enabled the molecular classification of gastric cancer, the diagnosis of gastric cancer, the prediction of prognosis, the recognition of gastric cancer driver genes, and the discovery of potential therapeutic targets. Not only have we deeper insights for the molecular diversity of gastric cancer, but we have also prospected both affirmative potentials and hurdles to molecular diagnostics. New paradigm of transdisciplinary team science, which is composed of innovative explorations and clinical investigations of oncologists, geneticists, pathologists, biologists, and bio-informaticians, is mandatory to recognize personalized target therapy.

Application of genome engineering for treatment of retinal diseases

  • Jo, Dong Hyun;Kim, Jeong Hun
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.51 no.7
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    • pp.315-316
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    • 2018
  • Genome engineering with clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system can be used as a tool to correct pathological mutations or modulate gene expression levels associated with pathogenesis of human diseases. Owing to well-established local administration methods including intravitreal and subretinal injection, it is relatively easy to administer therapeutic genome engineering machinery to ocular tissues for treating retinal diseases. In this context, we have investigated the potential of in vivo genome engineering as a therapeutic approach in the form of ribonucleoprotein or CRISPR packaged in viral vectors. Major issues in therapeutic application of genome engineering include specificity and efficacy according to types of CRISPR system. In addition to previous platforms based on ribonucleoprotein and CRISPR-associated protein 9 derived from Campylobacter jejuni, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of a CRISPR RNA-guided endonuclease derived from Lachnospiraceae bacterium ND2006 (LbCpf1) in regulating pathological angiogenesis in an animal model of wet-type age-related macular degeneration. LbCpf1 targeting Vegfa or Hif1a effectively disrupted the expression of genes in ocular tissues, resulting in suppression of choroidal neovascularization. It was also notable that there were no significant off-target effects in vivo.

Angiogenesis and vasculogenic mimicry as therapeutic targets in ovarian cancer

  • Lim, Dansaem;Do, Yeojin;Kwon, Byung Su;Chang, Woochul;Lee, Myeong-Sok;Kim, Jongmin;Cho, Jin Gu
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.53 no.6
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    • pp.291-298
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    • 2020
  • Tumor angiogenesis is an essential process for growth and metastasis of cancer cells as it supplies tumors with oxygen and nutrients. During tumor angiogenesis, many pro-angiogenic factors are secreted by tumor cells to induce their own vascularization via activation of pre-existing host endothelium. However, accumulating evidence suggests that vasculogenic mimicry (VM) is a key alternative mechanism for tumor vascularization when tumors are faced with insufficient supply of oxygen and nutrients. VM is a tumor vascularization mechanism in which tumors create a blood supply system, in contrast to tumor angiogenesis mechanisms that depend on pre-existing host endothelium. VM is closely associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis in many cancers. Therefore, inhibition of VM may be a promising therapeutic strategy and may overcome the limitations of anti-angiogenesis therapy for cancer patients. In this review, we provide an overview of the current anti-angiogenic therapies for ovarian cancer and the current state of knowledge regarding the links between microRNAs and the VM process, with a focus on the mechanism that regulates associated signaling pathways in ovarian cancer. Moreover, we discuss the potential for VM as a therapeutic strategy against ovarian cancer.

Current Drugs and Drug Targets in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Limitations and Opportunities

  • Daga, Aditi;Ansari, Afzal;Patel, Shanaya;Mirza, Sheefa;Rawal, Rakesh;Umrania, Valentina
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.10
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    • pp.4147-4156
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    • 2015
  • Lung cancer is a serious health problem and leading cause of death worldwide due to its high incidence and mortality. More than 80% of lung cancers feature a non-small cell histology. Over few decades, systemic chemotherapy and surgery are the only treatment options in this type of tumor but due to their limited efficacy and overall poor survival of patients, there is an urge to develop newer therapeutic strategies which circumvent the problems. Enhanced knowledge of translational science and molecular biology have revealed that lung tumors carry diverse driver gene mutations and adopt different intracellular pathways leading to carcinogenesis. Hence, the development of targeted agents against molecular subgroups harboring critical mutations is an attractive approach for therapeutic treatment. Targeted therapies are clearly more preferred nowadays over systemic therapies because they target tumor specific molecules resulting with enhanced activity and reduced toxicity to normal tissues. Thus, this review encompasses comprehensive updates on targeted therapies for the driver mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and the potential challenges of acquired drug resistance faced i n the field of targeted therapy along with the imminent newer treatment modalities against lung cancer.