• Title, Summary, Keyword: external pressure coefficient

Search Result 65, Processing Time 0.03 seconds

Characteristic of Wind Pressure Distribution on the Roof of Hyperbolic Paraboloid Spatial Structures (쌍곡선포물선 대공간 구조물의 측벽개구율에 따른 지붕의 풍압특성)

  • You, Jang-Youl;You, Ki-Pyo
    • Journal of Korean Association for Spatial Structures
    • /
    • v.13 no.1
    • /
    • pp.51-57
    • /
    • 2013
  • There can be diverse causes in the destruction of a large space structure by strong wind such as characteristics of construction materials and changes in internal and external wind pressure of the structure. To evaluate the wind pressure of roof against the large space structure, wind pressure experiment is performed. However, in this wind pressure experiment, peak internal pressure coefficient is set according to the opening of the roof in Korea wind code. In this article, it was tried to identify the change of internal pressure coefficient and the characteristics of wind pressure coefficient acting on the roof by two kinds of opening on the side of the structure with Hyperbolic Paraboloid Spatial Structures roof. When analyzing internal pressure coefficient according to roof shape, it was found that minimum (52%) and maximum (30%~80%) overestimation was made comparing to partial opening type proposed in the current wind load. It is judged that evaluation according to the opening rate of the structure should be made to evaluate the internal pressure coefficient according to load.

Analysis of the Characteristics of Peak External Pressure Coefficient Working on Roof Surface according to the Shape and Layout of Green Houses (비닐하우스의 형태와 배치에 따른 지붕면 피크외압계수 특성분석)

  • You, Ki-Pyo;Paek, Sun-Young;Kim, Young-Moom
    • Journal of Korean Association for Spatial Structures
    • /
    • v.10 no.1
    • /
    • pp.59-66
    • /
    • 2010
  • Among the protected horticulture facilities in Korea, 99.2% are pipe-framed green houses and most of them are structurally vulnerable single-span type green houses. This study examined peak external pressure coefficient for the roof surface of a green house group composed of single-span and a multiple-span green houses. According to the results of the experiment, the distribution of peak external pressure coefficient was around 30% higher in the single-span greenhouse than in the multi-span ones. The external pressure coefficient for the roof surface of the vinyl house group was, in all of the three vinyl houses, was around 20%-30% higher than that for single-span greenhouses.

  • PDF

Correlation of internal and external pressures and net pressure factors for cladding design

  • Bodhinayake, Geeth G.;Ginger, John D.;Henderson, David J.
    • Wind and Structures
    • /
    • v.30 no.3
    • /
    • pp.219-229
    • /
    • 2020
  • Net pressures on roofs and walls of buildings are dependent on the internal and external pressure fluctuations. The variation of internal and external pressures are influenced by the size and location of the openings. The correlation of external and internal pressure influences the net pressures acting on cladding on different parts of the roof and walls. The peak internal and peak external pressures do not occur simultaneously, therefore, a reduction can be applied to the peak internal and external pressures to obtain a peak net pressure for cladding design. A 1:200 scale wind tunnel model study was conducted to determine the correlations of external and internal pressures and effective reduction to net pressures (i.e., net pressure factors, FC) for roof and wall cladding. The results show that external and internal pressures on the windward roof and wall edges are well correlated. The largest ${\mathcal{C}}_{{\check{p},net}$, highest correlation coefficient and the highest FC are obtained for different wind directions within 90° ≤ θ ≤ 135°, where the large openings are on the windward wall. The study also gives net pressure factors FC for areas on the roof and wall cladding for nominally sealed buildings and the buildings with a large windward wall opening. These factors indicate that a 5% to 10% reduction to the action combination factor, KC specified in AS/NZS 1170.2(2011) is possible for some critical design scenarios.

Characteristics of Peak External Pressure Acting on the Roof and Wall of the Low-Rise Buildings with Gable Roofs (박공지붕형 저층건축물의 지붕 및 벽면에 작용하는 피크외압의 분포 특성)

  • Jo, Won Geun;Won, Jong Ho;Ha, Young Cheol
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
    • /
    • v.21 no.3
    • /
    • pp.245-255
    • /
    • 2009
  • The low-rise buildings with gable roofs are commonly used in a number of industries. In order to study the characteristics of peak external pressure coefficient on low-rise buildings with gable roofs, wind-tunnel test have been carried out. Wind-induced pressures were measured simultaneously at many points on wind-pressure models, typical of simple low-rise buildings with gable roofs, which have seven different roof slope with constant width(D), height(H), and length(D). The pressure measurements were made in one kind of turbulent boundary layer, which simulated the natural winds over typical suburban terrains at a geometric scale of 1/150. The results indicate that peak external pressure coefficient on the roof and wall edges were increased. The results compared with wind standard of KBC-2005 and standards of various nations. The comparative resultant, experimental result appeared very similar at AIJ-2004. But the results were somewhat larger then wind standard of KBC-2005.

Limit analysis of rectangular cavity subjected to seepage forces based on Hoek-Brown failure criterion

  • Yang, X.L.;Qin, C.B.
    • Geomechanics and Engineering
    • /
    • v.6 no.5
    • /
    • pp.503-515
    • /
    • 2014
  • On the basis of Hoek-Brown failure criterion, a numerical solution for the shape of collapsing block in the rectangular cavity subjected to seepage forces is obtained by upper bound theorem of limit analysis. The seepage forces obtained from the gradient of excess pore pressure distribution are taken as external loadings in the limit analysis, and the pore pressure is easily calculated with pore pressure coefficient. Thus the seepage force is incorporated into the upper bound analysis as a work rate of external force. The upper solution of the shape of collapsing block is derived by virtue of variational calculation. In order to verify the validity of the method proposed in the paper, the result when the pore pressure coefficient equals zero, and only hydrostatic pressure is taken into consideration, is compared with that of previous work. The results show good effectiveness in calculating the collapsing block shape subjected to seepage forces. The influence of parameters on the failure mechanisms is investigated.

A Study on Slip Behavior of Fiber Preform by High Speed Resin Flow in High Pressure Resin Transfer Molding (고압 RTM 공정에서 고속 수지 유동에 의한 섬유 보강재의 변형 거동에 관한 연구)

  • Ahn, Jong-Moo;Seong, Dong-Gi;Lee, Won-Oh;Um, Moon-Kwang;Choi, Jin-Ho
    • Composites Research
    • /
    • v.27 no.1
    • /
    • pp.31-36
    • /
    • 2014
  • This paper presents the slip behavior of composite fabrics by high speed resin flow in high pressure resin transfer molding. In order to observe the fiber deformation behavior, we constructed the measuring equipment for friction coefficient between fiber and mold, and the monitoring system for deformation of fiber preform in high-pressure RTM process. Coulomb friction coefficient and hydrodynamic friction coefficient between fiber preform and mold were measured and the external force induced by fluid flow causing the deformation of fiber preform was measured. Friction force calculated by friction coefficient and the external force upon fiber deformation were compared, which showed that preform deformation occurred when the external force was bigger than the friction force. The slip behavior of the fiber preform was mainly influenced by the volume fraction of fiber preform and the friction coefficient.

Analysis of the Wind Pressure Coefficient Characteristic of Livestock Shed Roof Surface according to the Opening of Side Walls (측벽 개방유무에 따른 축사지붕면의 풍압계수 특성분석)

  • You, Ki-Pyo
    • Journal of Korean Association for Spatial Structures
    • /
    • v.11 no.2
    • /
    • pp.63-70
    • /
    • 2011
  • Livestock buildings are rural facilities as vulnerable to natural disasters as vinyl houses. Many of livestock buildings have a roof but without side walls. The roof of such structures is easily blown away by a typhoon and this results in a heavy loss. Therefore, farmers install winch curtains on the sides to prevent damages caused by typhoons. This study purposed to examine the distribution of wind pressure coefficient among different positions of livestock shed roof according to the opening of side walls. It was found that according to the distribution of peak external pressure coefficient on the roof surface of livestock shed, the wind blowing at wind angle $0^{\circ}$ was disadvantageous to roof surface regardless of the presence of side walls. However, it was confirmed that the peak external pressure coefficient was affected by wind angle and the length of eave depending on the presence of side walls.

Calculated external pressure coefficients on livestock buildings and comparison with Eurocode 1

  • Kateris, D.L.;Fragos, V.P.;Kotsopoulos, T.A.;Martzopoulou, A.G.;Moshou, D.
    • Wind and Structures
    • /
    • v.15 no.6
    • /
    • pp.481-494
    • /
    • 2012
  • The greenhouse type metal structures are increasingly used in modern construction of livestock farms because they are less laborious to construct and they provide a more favorable microclimate for the growth of animals compared to conventional livestock structures. A key stress factor for metal structures is the wind. The external pressure coefficient ($c_{pe}$) is used for the calculation of the wind effect on the structures. A high pressure coefficient value leads to an increase of the construction weight and subsequently to an increase in the construction cost. The EC1 in conjunction with EN 13031-1:2001, which is specialized for greenhouses, gives values for this coefficient. This value must satisfy two requirements: the safety of the structure and a reduced construction cost. In this paper, the Navier - Stokes and continuity equations are solved numerically with the finite element method (Galerkin Method) in order to simulate the two dimensional, incompressible, viscous air flow over the vaulted roofs of single span and twin-span with eaves livestock greenhouses' structures, with a height of 4.5 meters and with length of span of 9.6 and 14 m. The simulation was carried out in a wind tunnel. The numerical results of pressure coefficients, as well as, the distribution of them are presented and compared with data from Eurocodes for wind actions (EC1, EN 13031-1:2001). The results of the numerical experiment were close to the values given by the Eurocodes mainly on the leeward area of the roof while on the windward area a further segmentation is suggested.

An Experimental Study on the Spray Characteristics of Deflector Nozzle (충돌형 노즐의 분무특성에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Kim K. H.;Choi Y. H.;Yoon S. J.
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.291-294
    • /
    • 2002
  • This study describes the external spray characteristics of deflector nozzle such as the breakup procedures of liquid sheet, spray angle, discharge coefficient and bubble behaviors of spray and SMD at deflector nozzle. In order to visualize the spray behaviors shadow graphy technique were used. According to the increase of injection pressure, development of the spray passes through the dribbling, distoted jet, closed bubble due to the contraction by surface tension forces, the bubble opens into hollow tulip shape, and the curved surface straightened to form a conical sheet like as the simplex swirl atomizer. Spray cone angle was nearly 90 deg. Variations of SMD were examined in order to describe the dependency of SMD on the injection pressure and orifice diameter. The shape of deflector and oriffice diameter had an effect on the discharge coefficient.

  • PDF

The loss coefficient for fluctuating flow through a dominant opening in a building

  • Xu, Haiwei;Yu, Shice;Lou, Wenjuan
    • Wind and Structures
    • /
    • v.24 no.1
    • /
    • pp.79-93
    • /
    • 2017
  • Wind-induced fluctuating internal pressures in a building with a dominant opening can be described by a second-order non-linear differential equation. However, the accuracy and efficiency of the governing equation in predicting internal pressure fluctuations depend upon two ill-defined parameters: inertial coefficient $C_I$ and loss coefficient $C_L$, since $C_I$ determines the un-damped oscillation frequency of an air slug at the opening, while $C_L$ controls the decay ratio of the fluctuating internal pressure. This study particularly focused on the value of loss coefficient and its influence factors including: opening configuration and location, internal volumes, as well as wind speed and approaching flow turbulence. A simplified formula was presented to predict loss coefficient, therefore an approximate relationship between the standard deviation of internal and external pressures can be estimated using Vickery's approach. The study shows that the loss coefficient governs the peak response of the internal pressure spectrum which, in turn, will directly influence the standard deviation of the fluctuating internal pressure. The approaching flow characteristic and opening location have a remarkable effect on the parameter $C_L$.