• Title, Summary, Keyword: energy content

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Analysis of Chemical Compositions and Energy Contents of Different Parts of Yellow Poplar for Development of Bioenergy Technology

  • Myeong, Soo-Jeong;Han, Sim-Hee;Shin, Soo-Jeong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.99 no.5
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    • pp.706-710
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    • 2010
  • Understanding of chemical composition and energy contents in tree is important to develope strategies of renewable energy policy to cope with climate change. Residual biomass as renewable energy source was evaluated and focused on the bark-containing branches. Chemical analysis studies were conducted for different part of yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera), which were partitioned to inner bark, outer bark, small branches, medium branches, big branches and trunk. The variations in hydrophobic extractives, hydrophilic extractives, lignin, carbohydrate compositions, energy contents (higher heating value) and the ash content were determined. The inner and outer bark had higher ash content, hydrophobic and hydrophilic extractives content, and higher energy content than those of tree trunk. Polysaccharides content in inner and outer bark was quite lower than those of stem or branches. Based on the energy content of residual biomass, replacement of fossil fuel and greenhouse gas emission abatement were calculated.

Estimating urinary energy value of rat from the urinary nitrogen content (쥐의 뇨질소함량(尿窒素含量)으로부터 뇨(尿) Energy 가(價)의 산출법(算出法))

  • Han, In-K.
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.7
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    • pp.29-33
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    • 1966
  • This experiment was conducted to study the relationship between the energy value and the nitrogen content in the rat urine. Thirteen rats for ad libitum feeding group and 16 rats for two-meal group were employed in this experiment. The experimental period consisted of 22 days with a preliminary period of 10 days. During the last eight days of the experiment the urine was collected quantitatively. The rats fed two-meal per day excreted significantly (p<0.005) more nitrogen and energy in the urine than those fed ad libitum. A linear relationship between the energy concentration and nitrogen content was found. The urinary energy value was increased as the urinary nitrogen content was increased. A prediction equation was derived to compute the energy value from the content of nitrogen as follows: Y=8.924X+0.182 $S_{y{\cdot}x}=0.788$ where Y=urinary energy(kcal/100 ml) X=urinary nitrogen(gm/100 ml) Since the standard deviation of estimate is in small magnitude (0.788 kcal) when it is compared with the amount of intake of gross energy, digestible energy or metabolizable energy, this equation can be used safely to estimate the energy value from nitrogen content. Consequently, considerable amound of time and labor for the actual determination of energy can be saved. The ratio of energy to nitrogen was found to be 9.4 for ad adlibitum group and 8.6 for two-meal group. No significant difference between two group in this respect was observed.

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Energy Content of Quercus mongolica Stands in Korea with Respect to Latitude and Altitude (위도와 해발고에 따른 신갈나무림의 에너지 고정량)

  • Kwon, Ki-Cheol;Lee, Don Koo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.95 no.3
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    • pp.299-308
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    • 2006
  • This study was conducted to investigate differences in energy content of Quercus mongolica stands in the Republic of Korea with respect to latitude and altitude. Study sites were located in Mt. Joongwang, Pyeongchang-gun, Gangwon-do (altitude 1,300 m, 1,000 m, 800 m), Mt. Taehwa, Gwangju-gun, Gyeonggi-do (altitude 350 m), Mt. Wolak, Jecheon-si, Chungcheongbuk-do (altitude 300 m), Mt. Baekwoon, Gwangyang-gun, Jeollanam-do (altitude 800 m), and Mt. Halla, Jeju-do (altitude 1,000 m) by northern and southern aspect. Total energy content and annual energy fixation of Q. mongolica stands were 2,916-6,550 GJ/ha and 250-440 GJ/ha, respectively during the study period, Lower latitude (NE) stands of Q. mongolica showed more energy contents and annual energy fixation than higher latitude stands. Energy content and annual energy fixation of Q. mongolica stands were increased in low altitude. Energy content of Q. mongolica stands were higher in northern aspect than southern aspect. However, there were no significant differences in annual energy fixation between the aspects. Annual energy fixation of Q. mongolica stands was highly correlated with warm index and followed by descending orders: altitude, stand age, aspect, annual solar radiation and latitude.

EFFECTS OF LYSINE AND ENERGY LEVELS ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE THIGH MUSCLE COMPOSITION AND UTILIZATION OF NUTRIENTS IN BROILER CHICKS

  • Park, B.C.;Han, I.K.;Choi, Y.J.;Yun, C.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.129-138
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    • 1992
  • The effects of dietary levels of lysine and energy on growth performance, the content of DNA, RNA and protein in liver, thigh muscle composition and nutrient utilization in broiler chicks were investigated in an experiment involvies with 2 levels of dietary energy : 3,200 (2900) 2,900 (2700) kcal ME/kg) and 6 levels of lysine : 0.6(0.5), 0.8(0.7), 1.0(0.9), 1.2(1.1), 1.4(1.3), and 1.6(1.5)% was carried out. A total number of 384 male broiler chicks was used for a period of 7 weeks. Body weight gain of 1.0(0.9)% lysine level group was significantly (p < 0.01) higher than that of any other groups. Interaction between lysine and energy in the feed intake was observed (p < 0.05). Present data indicate that the content of DNA in liver tissues was significantly (p < 0.05) different by the levels of lysine, namely, 1.0(0.9)% or 1.2(1.1)% lysine level groups showed higher content than other groups (p < 0.01). Dietary levels of 1.2(1.1)% or 1.6(1.5)% lysine groups showed the highest protein content in thigh muscle tissues than that of any other groups (p < 0.05). Interaction between energy and lysine in the content of protein of thigh muscle tissues was shown (p < 0.01). The level of 0.6% lysine group showed the highest fat content in thigh muscle tissues than any other groups. Interaction between lysine and energy in the content of crude ash and crude fat of thigh muscle tissues was observed (p < 0.01). Apparent amino acid availability of arginine, glycine and threonine (p < 0.01), phenylalanine (p < 0.05) were significantly affected by the levels of lysine and interaction between lysine and energy was found only in arginine (p < 0.01).

Supercritical Water Gasification of Low Rank Coal with High Moisture Content (고함수 저등급 석탄의 초임계수 가스화 특성)

  • Yoon, Sang Jun;Lee, Jae Goo;Ra, Ho Won;Seo, Myung Won
    • Transactions of the Korean hydrogen and new energy society
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.340-346
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    • 2013
  • Study on clean and efficient utilization technology for low rank coal with high moisture content is actively ongoing due to limited reserves of petroleum and of high grade coal and serious climate change caused by fossil fuel usage. In the present study, supercritical water gasification of low rank coal was performed. With increasing reaction temperature, content of combustible gases such as $H_2$ and $CH_4$ in the syngas increased while the $CO_2$ content decreased. As the reaction pressure increased from 210 to 300 bar, the $CO_2$ content in the syngas increased while the hydrocarbon gas content decreased. The $H_2$ and $CH_4$ content in the syngas increased slightly with pressure. With the addition of Pd, Pt, and Ru catalysts, it was possible to improve the production of $H_2$. Moreover, the increase of active metal content in the catalyst increased the $H_2$ productivity. The Ru catalyst shows the best performance for increasing the $H_2$ content in the syngas, while decreasing the $CO_2$ content.

Study on the Prediction of the Work-Energy to the Maximum Load and Impact Bending Energy from the Bending Properties (국산 소경재의 휨 성질을 이용한 충격에너지와 최대하중까지 일-에너지 예측연구)

  • Cha, Jae-Kyung
    • Journal of the Korea Furniture Society
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.350-357
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    • 2008
  • This research investigates the bending properties to predict the work-energy to maximum load and impact bending energy from static bending and impact bending test. Specimens were prepared from lumber made of thinning crop-trees. Matched specimens were used for MC 12% and green moisture specimens to measure the effect of moisture content on the absorbed energy from static and impact bending tests. The bending properties such as MOE, MOR, etc. is a good predictor to investigate the work-energy and work-energy per unit volume from static bending and impact bending test. The impact bending energy is increased with increasing moisture content. However, the work to maximum load from static bending test is increasing with increasing the MC only for higher density species.

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Comparison of Daily Soil Water Contents Obtained by Energy Balance-Water Budget Approach and TDR

  • Rim, Chang-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Hydrosciences
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    • v.8
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    • pp.57-68
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    • 1997
  • The daily soil water contents were obtained from the time domain reflectometry(TDR) method and energy balance-water budget approach with eddy correlation at the two small semiarid watersheds of Lucky Hills and Kendall during the summer rainy period. There was a comaprison of daily soil water content measured and estimated from these two different approaches. The comparison is valuable to evaluate the accuracy of current soil water content measuring system using TDR and energy balance-water budget approach using eddy correlation method at a small watershed scale. The degree of simiarity between the regressions of these two methods of measuring soil water content was explained by determining the correlations between these methods. Simple linear regression analyses showed that soil water content measured from TDR method was responsible for 58% and 63% of the variations estimated from energy balance-water budget approach with edy correlation at Lucky Hills and Kendall, respectively. The scatter plots and the regression analyses revealed that two different approaches for soil water content measurement at a small watershed scale have no significant difference.

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Role of the Strain Energy in Diffuse Phase Transition of (Pb, Ba)(Zr, Ti)O3 ((Pb, Ba) (Zr, Ti)O3계의 확산된 상전이에 있어서 Strain Energy의 역할)

  • 이재찬;주웅길
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.586-592
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    • 1987
  • The role of the strain energy and phase stability in the diffuse phase transition have been investigated in the highly disordered solid solution, (Pb1-xBax)(Zr0.4Ti0.6)O3 (0.2 x 0.4). X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that tetragonality (c/a) decreases with the increasing Ba content. Also as the Ba content increases, phase transition becomes more diffuse and at the same time dielectric relaxation as a function of measured frequencies in the 1KHz-10MHz range occurs very pronouncedly. In the Ba content range, 0.2 x 0.35, hysteresis loops are routinely observed and the loop is observed to narrow shape as the Ba content increases but becomes very slim at 40mol% Ba content. Moreover thermal analysis shows that there is no abrupt change in the thermal expansion coefficient below the apparent transition temperature at which dielectric constant becomes maximum. From the above results, it has been concluded that creation of the strain energy due to the distorthion that occurred during the phase transition suppresses diffuse phase transition.

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Assessment of Nutrient Content for Providing Nutrition Information of Dishes in Restaurant and Food Service Institutions -About Korean dishes - (외식의 영양정보 제공을 위한 영양 평가 -한식을 대상으로-)

  • Kye, Seung-Hee;Moon, Hyun-Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.9 no.5
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    • pp.447-455
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    • 1995
  • The purpose of the present study is to assess nutrient content for providing nutrition information such as nutrition labeling on Korean dishes in restaurant and food service institutions. The content of nutrients was calculated in recipies used to prepare dishes which has been frequently consumed in such four groups as the literature, foodservice institutions of industries, restaurants, and households. The numbers of dishes surveyed were 15. Total numbers of literture used for recipies analysis are 20. Recipies used in foodservice institutions of industries were abstracted from the journal 'Guk-Min Young-Yang' published in Korea dietetic association and obtained with the help of dietitians working in those institutions. Also, recipies has been using in restaurants were given from the Korea restaurant association. Recipies in households was calculated from the secondary analysis of the Korean National Nutrition Survey. Nutrient content from foods except steamed rice and side dishes in each dish was calculated using data of Korean food composition table published. The content of energy and protein in 'Gal-bi tang' (beef-rib soup) were highest in recipes used at restaurants, vitamin C in recipes of food service institutions of industries due to the generous use of meats and vegetables than other recipies. 'Doen-jang chigae' (soybean paste stew) showed the lowest content of energy in results analyzing recipes presented on the literature and varied protein level by four groups for difference of protein source used. The content of energy in 'Gop-chang jeongol' (small intestines stew) is 150 kcal more than 'Soegogi jeongol' (beef stew) in general. The energy level of 'Daeji-galbi' jim (braised pork ribs) and 'Dak jim' (braised chicken) turned out to be the highest in recipies presented on literature. Variation of each nutrient content including energy and protein was relatively high, since some of foods used in 'Pibimbab' (mixed rice) varied with four groups. Amounts of energy and protein in 'Naeng-myeun' (cold noodles) is the highest in recipies of foodservice institution of industries because much amounts of noodle and meats were used comparing to other groups. The average content of energy in 'Pulgogi' (grilled meat with sauce) was 50% to Korea recommended amounts of one meal, 833.3 kcal. Content of vitamin $B_1$ in 'Jeuk pyeunuk' (boiled pork), which is made of pork meat, was higher than other dishes. The ingredients of frequently consumed Korean dishes were highly variable among the four groups which inevitably results in variation of nutrient content in each dishes. The high variation of nutrient content in each dish according to study requires careful collecting of the large number of recipies in presenting representative nutrient content for nutrition labeling on dishes in restaurant and food service institutions effectively.

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Anti-obesity Effects of Kochujang in Rats Fed on a High-fat Diet (고지방 식이를 섭취시킨 흰쥐에서 고추장의 항비만효과)

  • 주종재
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.33 no.8
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    • pp.787-793
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of the present study was to investigate effects of kochujang and red pepper on energy intake, body fat content and energy expenditure in rats fed on high-fat(30%) diet. Kochujang and red pepper power were added in the high-fat diet, adjusting the level to 95 and 22g/kg diet, respectively, The level of red pepper addition was corresponding was corresponding to the level of the content of red pepper powder in the kichujang-added diet. Kochujang induced a 30% reduction in body fat gain which was associated with a significant increase in energy expenditure. However, red pepper reduced body fat gain by only 15%. Furthermore, energy expenditure was not affected by red pepper. Metabolizable energy intake, apparent digestibility and body protein gain were not affected by either kochujang or red pepper. It has been known that capsaicin, a pungent component of red pepper, enhances activity of brown adipose tissue through increasing protein content. In the present study, in addition of protein content, DNA content of interscapular brown adipose tissue was also increased by kochujang. Therefore, it appeared that the anti-obesity effects of kochujang was greater than those of red pepper, indicating more than red pepper was involved in the expression of the anti-obesity effects of kochujang(Korean J Nutrition 33(8) : 787-793, 2000)

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