• Title/Summary/Keyword: Species distribution models

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Predicting the Potential Distribution of an Invasive Species, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), under Climate Change using Species Distribution Models

  • SUNG, Sunyong;KWON, Yong-Su;LEE, Dong Kun;CHO, Youngho
    • Entomological Research
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    • v.48 no.6
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    • pp.505-513
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    • 2018
  • The red imported fire ant is considered one of the most notorious invasive species because of its adverse impact on both humans and ecosystems. Public concern regarding red imported fire ants has been increasing, as they have been found seven times in South Korea. Even if red imported fire ants are not yet colonized in South Korea, a proper quarantine plan is necessary to prevent their widespread distribution. As a basis for quarantine planning, we modeled the potential distribution of the red imported fire ant under current climate conditions using six different species distribution models (SDMs) and then selected the random forest (RF) model for modeling the potential distribution under climate change. We acquired occurrence data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and bioclimatic data from WorldClim. We modeled at the global scale to project the potential distribution under the current climate and then applied models at the local scale to project the potential distribution of the red imported fire ant under climate change. Modeled results successfully represent the current distribution of red imported fire ants. The potential distribution area for red imported fire ants increased to include major harbors and airports in South Korea under the climate change scenario (RCP 8.5). Thus, we are able to provide a potential distribution of red imported fire ant that is necessary to establish a proper quarantine plan for their management to minimize adverse impacts of climate change.

A Detection of Novel Habitats of Abies Koreana by Using Species Distribution Models(SDMs) and Its Application for Plant Conservation (종 분포 모형을 활용한 새로운 구상나무 서식지 탐색, 그리고 식물보전 활용)

  • Kim, Nam-Shin;Han, DongUk;Cha, Jin-Yeol;Park, Yong-Su;Cho, Hyeun-Je;Kwon, Hye-Jin;Cho, Yong-Chan;Oh, Seung-Hwan;Lee, Chang-Seok
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.135-149
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    • 2015
  • Korean fir(Abies koreana E.H.Wilson 1920), endemic tree species of Korean peninsula, is considered as vulnerable and endangered species to recent rapid environmental changes such as land use and climate change. There are limited activities and efforts to find natural habitats of Korean fir for conservation of the species and habitats. In this study, by applying SDMs (Species Distribution Models) based on climate and topographic factors of Korean fir, we developed Korean fir's predicted distribution model and explored novel natural habitats. In Mt. Shinbulsan, Youngnam region and Mt. Songnisan, we could find korean fir's two novel habitat and the former was the warmest($13^{\circ}C$ in annual mean temperature), the driest(1,200mm~1,600mm in annual rainfall) and relatively low altitude environment among Korean fir's habitats in Korea. The result of SDMs did not include mountain areas of Gangwon-do as habitats of A. nephrolepis, because there were different contributions of key habitat environment factors, summer rainfall, winter mean temperature and winter rainfall, between A. koreana and A. nephrolepis. Our results raise modification of other distribution models on Korean fir. Novel habitat of Korean fir in Mt. Shinbulsan revealed similar habitat affinity of the species, ridgy and rocky site, with other habitats in Korea. Our results also suggest potential areas for creation of Korea fir's alternative habitats through species reintroduction in landscape and ecosystem level.

Environmental features of the distribution areas and climate sensitivity assesment of Korean Fir and Khinghan Fir (구상나무와 분비나무분포지의 환경 특성 및 기후변화 민감성 평가)

  • Park, Hyun-Chul;Lee, Jung-Hwan;Lee, Gwan-Gyu;Um, Gi-Jeung
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.260-277
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    • 2015
  • The object of this study was the climate change sensitivity assessment of Korean Fir and Khinghan Fir as a representative subalpine plant in South Korea. Using species distribution models, we predicted the probability of current and future species distribution. According to this study, potential distribution that have been predicted based on the threshold (MTSS) is, Khinghan Fir was higher loss rate than Korean Fir. And in the climate change sensitivity assessment using the scalar sensitivity weight ($W_{is}$), $W_{is}$ of Korean Fir was higher relatively than the sensitivity of Khinghan Fir. When using the species distribution models as shown in this study may vary depending on the probability of presence data and spatial variables. Therefore should be prior decision studies on the ecological environment of the study species. Based on this study, if it is domestic applicable climate change sensitivity assessment method is developed. it would be important decision-making to climate change and biological diversity of adaptation policy.

Estimating Korean Pine(Pinus koraiensis) Habitat Distribution Considering Climate Change Uncertainty - Using Species Distribution Models and RCP Scenarios - (불확실성을 고려한 미래 잣나무의 서식 적지 분포 예측 - 종 분포 모형과 RCP시나리오를 중심으로 -)

  • Ahn, Yoonjung;Lee, Dong-Kun;Kim, Ho Gul;Park, Chan;Kim, Jiyeon;Kim, Jae-uk
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.51-64
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    • 2015
  • Climate change will make significant impact on species distribution in forest. Pinus koraiensis which is commonly called as Korean Pine is normally distributed in frigid zones. Climate change which causes severe heat could affect distribution of Korean pine. Therefore, this study predicted the distribution of Korean Pine and the suitable habitat area with consideration on uncertainty by applying climate change scenarios on an ensemble model. First of all, a site index was considered when selecting present and absent points and a stratified method was used to select the points. Secondly, environmental and climate variables were chosen by literature review and then confirmed with experts. Those variables were used as input data of BIOMOD2. Thirdly, the present distribution model was made. The result was validated with ROC. Lastly, RCP scenarios were applied on the models to create the future distribution model. As a results, each individual model shows quite big differences in the results but generally most models and ensemble models estimated that the suitable habitat area would be decreased in midterm future(40s) as well as long term future(90s).

Selecting Protected Area Using Species Richness

  • Kwon, Hyuksoo;Kim, Jiyoen;Seo, Changwan
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.14-20
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    • 2015
  • We created species richness maps of mammals, birds and plants using "Nnational Ecosystem Survey" data and identified correlations between species richness maps of each taxa. We examine the distribution of species richness of each taxa and calculated conservation priority rank through plotting species-area curves using an additive benefit function in Zonation. The conclusions of this study are as follows. First, plant showed high species richness in Gangwon province and Baekdudaegan, and mammals showed high species richness at eastern slope of Baekdudaegan in Gangwon province unusually and the species richness of mammals distributed equally except Gyeonggi and Chungnam province. However, birds showed high species richness in the west costal because the area is the major route of winter migratory birds. Second, correlation of each taxa's distribution is not significant. Correlation between mammals and birds is positive but correlations between birds and others are negative. Because mammals inhabit in forest but birds mostly live in coastal wetlands and rivers. Therefore, bird's habitats are not shared with other habitats. Third, the probability of mammals occurrence is very low under 25% in species-area curve, others increase proportionally to area. Birds increase dramatically richness at 10% because bird's habitat is concentrated in coastal wetlands and rivers. Plants increased gently species richness due to large forest in Gangwon province. We can calculate the predicted number of species in curves and plan various conservation strategies using the marginal number of species. Finally, high priority ranks for conservation distributed mainly in Gangwon province and Baekdudaegan. When we compared with priority map and terrestrial national parks, the parks were evaluated as high priority ranks. However, the rank of parks away from Baekdudaegan was low. This study has the meaning of selecting conservation priority area using National Ecosystem Survey. In spite of the omission of survey data in national parks and Baekdudaegan, the results were good. Therefore, the priority rank method using species distribution models is useful to selecting protected areas and improving conservation plans. However, it is needed to select protected areas considering various evaluation factors, such as rarity, connectivity, representativeness, focal species and so on because there is a limit to select protected area only using species richness.

Analysis on the Relationship between Number of Species and Survey Area of Benthic Macroinvertebrates Using Weibull Distribution Function (와이블 분포함수를 이용한 저서성 대형무척추동물의 종수-조사면적 관계 해석)

  • Kong, Dongsoo;Kim, Ah Reum
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.142-150
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    • 2015
  • The relationship between the number of benthic macroinvertebrate species and the accumulated survey area were investigated in a clean stream and an impaired stream of Korea. Five models to characterize species-area functions were compared, and the Weibull model fitted species-area data well. The other models (Arrhenius, Romell-Gleason, Kylin, Lognormal model) had small or notable bias. The maximum number of species and half-saturation area derived from the Weibull model may be used as the indicators of the carrying capacity and the habitat complexity respectively.

Predicting the potential distribution of the subalpine broad-leaved tree species, Betula ermanii Cham. under climate change in South Korea

  • Shin, Sookyung;Dang, Ji-Hee;Kim, Jung-Hyun;Han, Jeong Eun
    • Journal of Species Research
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.246-254
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    • 2021
  • Subalpine and alpine ecosystems are especially vulnerable to temperature increases. Betula ermanii Cham. (Betulaceae) is a dominant broad-leaved tree species in the subalpine zone and is designated as a 'Climate-sensitive Biological Indicator Species' in South Korea. This study aimed to predict the potential distribution of B. ermanii under current and future climate conditions in South Korea using the MaxEnt model. The species distribution models showed an excellent fit (AUC=0.99). Among the climatic variables, the most critical factors shaping B. ermanii distribution were identified as the maximum temperature of warmest month (Bio5; 64.8%) and annual mean temperature (Bio1; 20.3%). Current potential habitats were predicted in the Baekdudaegan mountain range and Mt. Hallasan, and the area of suitable habitat was 1531.52 km2, covering 1.57% of the Korean Peninsula. With global warming, future climate scenarios have predicted a decrease in the suitable habitats for B. ermanii. Under RCP8.5-2070s, in particular, habitat with high potential was predicted only in several small areas in Gangwon-do, and the total area suitable for the species decreased by up to 97.3% compared to the current range. We conclude that the dominant factor affecting the distribution of B. ermanii is temperature and that future temperature rises will increase the vulnerability of this species.

A Comparative Study on Species Richness and Land Suitability Assessment - Focused on city in Boryeong - (종풍부도와 세분화된 관리지역 비교 연구 - 보령시를 대상으로 -)

  • Shin, Manseok;Jang, Raeik;Seo, Changwan;Lee, Myungwoo
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.35-50
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    • 2015
  • The purposes of this study are to apply species distribution modeling in urban management planning for habitat conservation in non-urban area and to provide a detailed classification method for management zone. To achieve these objectives, Species Distribution Model was used to generate species richness and then to compare with the results from land suitability assessment. 59 species distribution models were developed by Maxent. This study used 15 model variables (5 topographical variables, 4 vegetation variables, and 6 distance variables) for Maxent models. Then species richness was created by sum of predicted species distributions. Land suitability assessment was conducted with criteria from type I of "Guidelines for land suitability assessment". After acquiring evaluation values from species richness and land suitability assessment, the results from these two models were compared according to the five grades of classification. The areas with the identical grade in Species richness and land suitability assessment are categorized and then compared each other. The comparison results are Grade1 10.92%, Grade2 37.10%, Grade3 34.56%, Grade4 20.89% and Grade5 1.73%. Grade1 and Grade5 showed the lowest agreement rate. Namely, development or conservation grade showed high disagreement between two assessment system. Therefore, the areas located between urban, agriculture, forest, and reserve have a tendency to change easily by development plans. Even though management areas are not the core area of reserve, it is important to provide a venue for species habitat and eco-corridor to protect and improve biodiversity in terms of landscape ecology. Consequently, adoption of species richness in three levels of management area classification such as conservation, production, planning should be considered in urban management plan.

Residual spatial autocorrelation in macroecological and biogeographical modeling: a review

  • Gaspard, Guetchine;Kim, Daehyun;Chun, Yongwan
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.191-201
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    • 2019
  • Macroecologists and biogeographers continue to predict the distribution of species across space based on the relationship between biotic processes and environmental variables. This approach uses data related to, for example, species abundance or presence/absence, climate, geomorphology, and soils. Researchers have acknowledged in their statistical analyses the importance of accounting for the effects of spatial autocorrelation (SAC), which indicates a degree of dependence between pairs of nearby observations. It has been agreed that residual spatial autocorrelation (rSAC) can have a substantial impact on modeling processes and inferences. However, more attention should be paid to the sources of rSAC and the degree to which rSAC becomes problematic. Here, we review previous studies to identify diverse factors that potentially induce the presence of rSAC in macroecological and biogeographical models. Furthermore, an emphasis is put on the quantification of rSAC by seeking to unveil the magnitude to which the presence of SAC in model residuals becomes detrimental to the modeling process. It turned out that five categories of factors can drive the presence of SAC in model residuals: ecological data and processes, scale and distance, missing variables, sampling design, and assumptions and methodological approaches. Additionally, we noted that more explicit and elaborated discussion of rSAC should be presented in species distribution modeling. Future investigations involving the quantification of rSAC are recommended in order to understand when rSAC can have an adverse effect on the modeling process.

Distribution Patterns of Biodiversity Hotspot using Birds Data from the 3rd National Ecosystem Survey in South Korea (제3차전국자연환경조사의 조류자료를 활용한 생물다양성 우수지역 분포 연구)

  • Kwon, Hyuk-Soo;Lee, Yun-Kyoung;Yoo, Seung-Hwa;Kim, Dong-Won;Kim, Jang-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.81-89
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    • 2020
  • The grid-based analysis is useful for conservation planning, species distribution study, education, and others'. On the west coast of Korea, it was high in species richness, rarity and endangered species richness. Our results also showed that coordinated species data can be applied to develop species distribution models due to the high correlation between total species richness and coordinated species 0richness. In hot spot analysis, high species richness areas are concentrated around the west coast, while species richness is relatively low in Gangwon and Gyeongnam. Endangered species and rarity were also concentrated on the west coast and islands. Through the complementary analysis, we selected areas which are efficient to protect species; protecting more species while minimizing the conservation effort. Our result demonstrated that simply protecting Baengyueong island, Gageo island and a part of Jeju island can conserve over 50% of bird species in South Korea. However, the validity of our analysis was limited by the absence of data from national parks, and Baekdudaegan protected areas as well as inconsistent capacity among field researchers.