• Title/Summary/Keyword: Omega-3

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Dietary ${\omega}6/{$\omega}3$ ratios on the preneoplastic lesions and lipid peroxidation in diethylnitrosamine initiated rat hepatocarcinogenesis (화학적 발암과정에서 식이의 ${\omega}6/{$\omega}3$비율이 쥐간의 전암성병변 및 지질과산화물 형성에 미치는 영향)

  • 지선경;최혜미
    • Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.109-116
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    • 1996
  • To study the effect of dietary $\omega 6/\omega 3$ fatty acid ratios on the preneoplastic lesions and lipid peroxidation in rat hepatocellular chemical carcinogenesis, placental glutathione S-transferase(GST-P) positive foci area and numbers, glucose 6-phosphatase(G6Pase) activity, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed 5 different diets-low $\omega 6/\omega 3$ ratio with fish oil (Low-F), low $\omega 6/\omega 3$ ratio with perilia oil(Low-P), moderate ratio with perilia oil(Moderate), blend of 10 different commercial fats and oils(High-BL) and high $\omega 6/\omega 3$ ratio(High)-for 8 weeks. Hepatocarcinogenesis was induced by modified Ito model. The area of GST-P positive loci was the lowest in Moderate group and in ascending order of Low-F < Low-P < High-BL < High. But statistically, only Moderate and High groups were significantly different. The number of GST-P positive foci showed the same trend as foci area. The activities of G6Pase, membrane stability marker, were increased as $\omega 6/\omega 3$ ratio decreased. Lipid peroxidation values (TBARS) were the lowest in Low-F group and it is significantly different from Moderate, High-BL and High groups. When dietary $\omega 6/\omega 3$ ratio was moderate(4.06), hepatocarcinogenesis was suppressed compared with high or low $\omega 6/\omega 3$ ratios. Blend fat, commonly consumed among Koreans, did not show any suppressive effect on carcinogenesis because of high ratio(6.7). These results suggest that dietary $\omega 6/\omega 3$ ratio influences hepatocellular chemical carcinogenesis. It is recommended that appropriate $\omega 6/\omega 3$ ratio should be around 4.0. and we recommend to use more $\omega 3$ fatty acid in food preparation to reduce the risk of hepatocarcinogenesis.

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Improving the Skin Penetration of Cosmetics Containing Omega 3 Fatty Acids

  • KIM, Han-Sook;HAN, Sien-Ho
    • Journal of Wellbeing Management and Applied Psychology
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.15-25
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    • 2021
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to form a new cosmetic market through the development of a composition with high skin permeability after adding omega 3 to Aloe Vera soothing gel products. Research design, data and methodology: In this study, omega-3 fatty acids were added to cosmetic products in the form of soothing gels. By applying nanoparticle technology to rapidly increase the penetration of raw materials into the skin, characteristics related to skin moisture and regeneration were determined. Omega-3 was used as a raw cosmetic material. Then 5% and 15% nanoparticle aqueous products containing omega-3 were prepared. The developed water hydrate was subjected to skin permeability test using artificial skin. Results: 53 hours of artificial transdermal penetration of the developed composition, the ethanol-based omega-3 containing nanoparticle solubilized raw material was about three times higher penetration than the ethanol-based omega-3 containing nanoparticle solubilized raw material. Conclusions: The raw material product (SR-1901) containing 5% of omega-3 nanoparticle water hydrate has skin regeneration ability and pain reduction effect. It can be expected that the skin cosmetics market will be reorganized into a new distribution structure and opportunity through omega-3 supplemented soothing gel cosmetics with improved efficacy than existing cosmetics.

Characteristics of Squid Viscera Oil (오징어 내장의 지방질조성)

  • KIM Eun-Mi;JO Jin-Ho;OH Se-Wook;KIM Young-Myoung
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.595-600
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    • 1997
  • The oil content and composition of squid visera were determined to obtain data for utilization of this by-product. There was no significant difference in the glycolipid (GL) and phospholipid (PL) content in Illex argentinus and Todarodes pacificus, but neutral lipid (NL) was different (p<0.05). The viscera oil of I. argentinus contained $30.50\%$ total lipid which consisted of $96.24\%$ NL, $2.63\%$ GL, $2.37\%$ PL, and contained $644mg\%$ cholesterol. The viscera oil of T. pacificus contained $30.20\%$ total lipid which consisted of $94.82\%$ NL, $2.85\%$ GL, $2.34\%$ PL, and contained $1,224\;mg\%$ cholesterol. The NL, GL and PL of viscera oil in I. argentinus mainly consist of triglyceride $(44.01\%)$, esterified steryl glycosides $(58.95\%)$ and phosphatidyl cholines $(32.36\%)$, respertively. Those of viscera oil in T. pacificus mainly consist of triglyceride $(39.63\%)$, monogalactosyl diglycerides $(51.67\%)$ and phosphatidyl cholines $(31.98\%)$, respectively. The major fatty acids of the viscera oil of I. argentinus and T. pacificus were C16 : 0, $C16\;:\;0,\;C18\;:\;1\omega9,\;C20\;:\;4\omega6,\;C20\;:\;5\omega3,\;C22\;:\;6\omega3$. In Illex argentinus, the fatty acids of NL mainly were $C16\;:\;0,\;C18\;:\;1\omega9,\;C20\;:\;4\omega6,\;C20\;:\;5\omega3,\;C22\;:\;6\omega3$. PL were $C16\;:\;1\omega7,\;C20\;:\;5\omega3,\;C22\;:\;6\omega3$ and GL were $C18\;:\;1\omega9,\;C20\;:\;5\omega3,\;22\;:\;6\omega3$. The major fatty acids of NL in T. pacificus were $C16\;:\;0,\;C18\;:\;1\omega9,\;C20\;:\;4\omega6,\;C20\;:\;5\omega3,\;C22\;:\;6\omega3$, PL were $C16\;:\;1\omega7,\;C20\;:\;5\omega3,\;C22\;:\;6\omega3$, and GL were $C18\;:\;1\omega9,\;C20\;:\;5\omega3,\;C22\;:\;6\omega3$.

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Association between dietary omega-3 fatty acid intake and depression in postmenopausal women

  • Chae, Minjeong;Park, Kyong
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.468-478
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    • 2021
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to analyze the association between dietary omega-3 fatty acid intake and depression in postmenopausal women using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) VI. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The KNHANES is a cross-sectional nationwide health and nutrition survey. Dietary data, including omega-3 fatty acids, were assessed using the 24-h recall method. Depression was evaluated using a survey questionnaire. The association between dietary omega-3 fatty acids and depression was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Depression, according to the dietary omega-3 fatty acid intake, was expressed as the odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). A total of 4,150 postmenopausal women were included in the analysis. RESULTS: In the fully-adjusted model, the group with the highest dietary omega-3 fatty acid intake significantly showed lower prevalence of depression than the group with the lowest intake (OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.33-0.83); a significant linear trend was detected (P for trend = 0.04). According to the dose-response analysis using cubic restricted spline regression, this association was linear and monotonic (P for non-linearity = 0.32). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the dietary omega-3 fatty acid intake in postmenopausal women was inversely proportional to depression in a dose-response manner. Large cohort studies are needed to verify the causality between omega-3 fatty acids and depression in Korean postmenopausal women.

Variation in Muscle Lipids and Fatty Acid Composition of Neutral and Phospholipids of Mudskipper (Boleophthalmus pectinirostris) during Hibernation (동면중 짱뚱어 근육유(筋肉油)의 지방질과 중성 및 인지질 조성의 변화)

  • Kim, Myung-Kon;Baek, Seung-Hwa;Choe, Sun-Nam;Kim, Jong-Bae;Park, Il-Woong
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.41 no.7
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    • pp.533-538
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    • 1998
  • In order to gain fundamental information on the utilization of lipids as energy source in mud-skipper, muscle lipids and their fatty acid composition were investigated with respect to life cycle-maturation (Aug), before-hibernation (Nov), and after-hibernation (Apr). Crude and neutral lipid were found to decrease from 1.2, 68.3% (Aug) via 0.7, 53.8% (Nov) to 0.4, 42.6% (Apr), respectively, whilst phospholipids and glycolipids increased from 29.5 and 2.2% (Aug) to 52.1 and 5.3% (Apr), respectively. In neutral lipids, TG contents gradually decreased from 53.8% (Aug) via 33.6% (Nov) to 23.1% (Apr), while FFA and sterol contents increased from 13.5 and 14.2% (Aug) to 22.3 and 24.5% (Apr), respectively. In phospholipids, PC content decreased from 61.2% (Aug) to 50.6% (Apr), while changes in PS and PE contents, as a whole, showed the opposite trends. In neutral lipids, the levels of some fatty acids such as 16:0, 16:1, 18:0, 18:1 and 20:5 $({\omega}3)$ were analyzed to be high, with the 20 : 5 being predominant, and the levels of saturated and monoene-acids gradually decreased, while polyene-acids increased in before and after hibernation. In before hibernation, 16:0, 16:1, 18:1 mainly decreased but 18:2, 18:3 $({\omega}3)$ and most of saturated and monoene acids such as 14:0, 14:1, 16:1, 18:0, 18:1 slightly decreased in after hibernation. From these findings, it was suggested that those fatty acids decreased during hibernation were used as a energy source, particularly 16:1 and 18:1 being most preferentially used. In phospholipids, the levels of 16:0, 18:0, 20:5 $({\omega}3)$, 22:5 $({\omega}3)$ and 22:6 $({\omega}3)$ were found to be high. Throughout the life cycle, the levels of monoene-acids in phospholipids stayed constant, whilst those of 18:2, 18:3 $({\omega}3)$ and saturated acids such as 16:0, 18:0 were found to be decreased gradually in before and after hibernation, whereas those for the high degree of polyene-acids such as 20:4 $({\omega}6)$, 20:5 $({\omega}3)$, 22:5 $({\omega}3)$, 22:6 $({\omega}3)$ increased, particularly 20:4 $({\omega}6)$, 20:5 $({\omega}3)$ being most increased.

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Use of Lipid Extracts from Various Oil Grains to Supply Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Dairy Foods - A Preliminary Study

  • Jin, Long;Sim, Jeong Seok;Song, Kwang-Young;Kim, Dong-Hyeon;Chon, Jung-Whan;Kim, Hyunsook;Seo, Kun-Ho
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.32-38
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    • 2018
  • The objective of this research was to determine the grain oil most suitable for the production of omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) in China, in order to supply dietary omega-3 FAs. This study focused on the nutritional significance of omega-3 FAs and the wide search of sources of dietary omega-3 FA from oil grains produced in China. Five oil grains produced in the Yanbian region, namely sesame, flax, peanut, soybean, and corn, were selected and analyzed for their fat content and FA composition. Results showed that the lipid content in sesame, flax, and peanut, which was more than 30%, was higher than that in soybean and corn. The polyunsaturated FA content was found to be directly proportional to omega-3 FA content. Flax showed a considerably higher omega-3 FA content (53.43%) than other samples, suggesting its potential as a source of dietary omega-3 FA. The optimal daily intake of flax for males and females was determined to be 2.99 g (over one table spoon) and 2.06 g (nearly one table spoon), respectively. Flax showed the lowest ratio of omega-6 and omega-3 FA (0.32%), which can help reduce this ratio in the human body; the intake of equal amounts of flax and corn could achieve an optimum ratio of 1:1. These results can prove to be valuable in the preparation of various functional dairy foods in the future.

The combination of canagliflozin and omega-3 fatty acid ameliorates insulin resistance and cardiac biomarkers via modulation of inflammatory cytokines in type 2 diabetic rats

  • Safhi, Mohammed Mohsen;Anwer, Tarique;Khan, Gyas;Siddiqui, Rahimullah;Sivakumar, Sivagurunathan Moni;Alam, Mohammad Firoz
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.493-501
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    • 2018
  • The present study was carried out with the hypothesis that combination of canagliflozin and omega-3 fatty acid may have potential effect on insulin level, insulin resistance, cardiac biomarkers, inflammatory cytokines and histological studies in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Type 2 DM was induced by injecting nicotinamide (120 mg/kg, i.p.) 15 min before STZ (60 mg/kg) injection. Canagliflozin (5 and 10 mg/kg) and omega-3 fatty acid (300 mg/kg) were given for 28 days after confirmation of diabetes. Biochemical estimations revealed elevated levels of glucose, insulin, HOMA-R and inflammatory cytokines in diabetic group. Daily dosing of alone canagliflozin and omega-3 fatty acid slightly reduced elevated levels of glucose, insulin, HOMA-R and inflammatory cytokines ($IL-1{\beta}$, IL-2, and $TNF{\alpha}$), whereas canagliflozin and omega-3 fatty acid combination has reduced these biochemical parameters significantly when compared with diabetic group. Similarly in diabetic group the levels of cardiac biomarkers such as lipid profile, LDH, CKMB and troponin were significantly increased. Elevated levels of cardiac biomarkers were significantly reduced after daily dosing of alone canagliflozin and omega-3 fatty acid. Canagliflozin and omega-3 fatty acid combination has offered better improvement in cardiac biomarkers compared to alone canagliflozin and omega-3 fatty acid. Histopathological analysis also supported the above hypothesis that combination therapy (canagliflozin and omega-3 fatty acid) offered better protection against degenerative changes in ${\beta}-cells$ of pancreas as compared to alone treatment with these drugs. Thus the present study revealed that canagliflozin and omega-3 fatty acid can be used as potential combination therapy in type 2 DM along with cardiac complication.

Physiological Activity of $\omega3$ Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Dark Fleshed Fishes I. The Effects on Protein and Phospholipid Contents, and Cholesterol Levels in Rats ($\omega3$ 고도불포화지방산의 생리활성에 관한 연구 I 단백질, 인지질 및 콜레스테롤 함량에 대한 연구)

  • CHOI Jin-Ho;Byun Dae-Seok
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.102-108
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    • 1989
  • The effects of n 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) on protein and phospholipid con-tents, and cholesterol level were studied in rats fed with diets of different fat composition. Body weights of fish oil groups were decreased to $11.1\%\~14.4\%$ compared with lard group (control), and also $16.4\%\~23.3\%$ compared with corn oil group, respectively. Protein contents of $\omega3$ PUFA and sardine oil groups in liver were increased to $6.78\%\~8.51\%$ compared with control group, but were no significant difference in brain and serum. $\omega3$ PUFA and sardine oil slightly repressed the phospholipid in microsome of liver. Moreover they effectively reduced the serum cholesterol levels compared with control group.

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Association between Omega Fatty Acid Intake and Suicidality : Sex Differences in the General Korean Population

  • Hur, Yang-Im;Lee, Jung Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.181-190
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    • 2019
  • Objectives : Epidemiological studies in other countries show that a low intake of omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) increases the risk of depression or suicidality. However, no studies have investigated the associations of suicidality with omega-3 FAs in Korea. Hence, this cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the effects of omega FAs on suicidality in the general South Korean population. Methods : The data in this study were sourced from adults (n=215,860) who completed the Sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES VI), and the associations between omega FAs and suicidality were analyzed using multivariate logistic regressions. Results : Our results demonstrated that high omega-3 FA intake was associated with a decreased risk of suicide (OR=0.83, 95% CI : 0.71-0.98) and the high omega-6 to omega-3 FA ratio was associated with an increased risk of suicide (OR=1.25, 95% CI : 1.02-1.54). Additionally, a high intake of omega-3 FAs was associated with a decreased risk of suicide in men, but not in women (OR=0.72, 95% CI : 0.59-0.88). Conclusions : Overall, our findings suggest that a lower intake of omega-3 FA is associated with the increased risk of suicidality in the general Korean population, especially in men.

Effects of Omega-3 on Lipid and Liver Function Tests (Omega-3가 지질과 간기능검사에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Woo-Soon
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.50 no.2
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    • pp.183-189
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    • 2018
  • Omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are found in fish and fish oil. Recent studies have shown that omega-3 fatty acids are effective in cancer, cardiovascular disease, immune system, cirrhosis, and nervous system disorders. In particular, omega-3 was also reported to help improve hyperlipidemia and liver function tests. On the other hand, there are few cases in Korea. This study examined whether omega-3 is effective in improving hyperlipemia and liver function by taking 1 gm/day for 2 weeks. As a result, AST was decreased in the liver function test, and GGT related to alcoholic hepatitis and fatty liver showed significant results. Omega-3 has been shown to help improve the liver function. The triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low density cholesterol associated with cardiovascular disease decreased after omega-3 ingestion, particularly high density cholesterol. Omega-3 has also been shown to improve the hyperlipidemia. Comparisons between males and females before and after the ingestion of omega-3 showed significant results in AST (P<0.01) from the male group and in GGT (P<0.01) and high density cholesterol (P<0.01) from the female group. As a result, omega-3 intake can help control and improve liver function and hyperlipidemia.