• Title, Summary, Keyword: Korean fir trees

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Morphological Characteristics of Needle Leaves and Analysis of Abies species based on Chloroplast DNA Sequences (한국 전나무(Abies holophylla), 일본 전나무(A. firma, A. homolepis), 그리고 법정 보호 전나무의 잎 형태적 특성 및 엽록체 DNA 분석)

  • Ahn, Chang Ho;Choi, Yong Eui;Park, Wan Geun;Han, Jung Yeon;Kwak, Yoo Shin;Kim, Se Chang;Park, Chan Woo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.108 no.2
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    • pp.200-207
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    • 2019
  • The aim of this study was to provide the basic information necessary to identify Korean fir (Abies holophylla), momi fir (A. firma), and Nikko fir (A. homolepis), and other fir trees planted in South Korea that are protected by law. Analysis of the morphological characteristics of the needles from each sample was investigated. The shape of the needle-leaf tip from A. holophylla was acute, whereas that from A. firma and A. homolepis was emarginate and that from the protected fir trees was obtuse. The number of stomata on the needles was not significantly different between A. holophylla and A. firma, and the number of stomata on the needles from A. homolepis and the protected fir trees were highly similar. In addition, the genetic differences among the Abies species were analyzed using the sequences of five chloroplast DNA regions-matK, atpF-atpH, rpoC2-rps2, rpoC1, and psbA-trnH.The atpF-atpH and psbA-trnH regions were useful for discriminating A. firma from the other species, but there were no differences among A. holophylla, A. homolepis, and the protected fir trees. The same chloroplast sequences were found in both A. holophylla and A. homolepis, which suggests that additional genetic studies might be necessary to identify the Abies species planted in both South Korea and Japan.

A Study on Actual Condition of Damaged Korean Fir(Abies koreana) Caused by Rodents and Identifying Suspected Species in Seseokpyeongjeon Area of Jirisan National Park (지리산국립공원 세석평전 일대 설치류에 의한 구상나무 피해실태 및 가해 의심종 구명)

  • Park, Hong-chul;Kim, Hye-ri;Kim, Ji-young;Kim, Hyeon-ho;Heo, Deok-gyeong;Lee, Ho
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.198-206
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the damage caused by rodents in the area around Seseokpyeongjeon in Jirisan National Park and identify suspected perpetrating species by analyzing rodent excrement found near the damaged trees. Damaged trees were surveyed regardless of species of trees in the exploration trail in the target site where visual observation was possible. Sequencing analysis of mitochondrial DNA Cyt-b was performed on rodent excrement around the damaged trees to identify the perpetrating species. A total of 52 trees were damaged by rodents, and they were all identified to be Korean Fir (Abies koreana) and were concentrated in places where Korean Fir formed communities with high density. A total of 40 Korean Fir over 1.5 meters high were surveyed, and only the affected branches, not the whole tree, were found to be withered in 39 of them. A total of 12 Korean Fir under 1.5 meters high were surveyed, and 7 of which were found to have been completely withered, indicating that relatively young trees were more vulnerable to withering. The genetic sequencing analysis of excrement confirmed that the species that perpetrated the Korean Fir was Craseomys regulus.

Allelopathic Effects of Fir Tree (Abies holophylla)

  • Kim, Young-Sik;Kil, Bong-Seop
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.307-310
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    • 2004
  • It was found that seed germination and seedling growth of selected species were inhibited by phytotoxic substance released from fir trees. The aqueous extracts of leaves caused significant inhibition in the seed germination of the receptor plants, Whereas seed germination of some species was not inhibited in extracts of leaves, but seedling elongation of the receptor plants was also decreased by the aqueous extract. Dry weight growth was slightly increased in lower concentration of the extract, while that was proportionally inhibited by higher concentration of the extracts. Chemical substances of fir trees were shown the biological toxicity. The GC method was employed for analysis of phytotoxic chemicals and sixteen chemical substances were identified such as benzoic, phenylacetic, etc. Also 33 volatile substances were identified from the fir tree. These chemical compounds are assumed the substances related to allelopathic potential of Abies holophylla plant species.

Precision monitoring of radial growth of trees and micro-climate at a Korean Fir (Abies koreana Wilson) forest at 10 minutes interval in 2016 on Mt. Hallasan National Park, Jeju Island, Korea

  • Kim, Eun-Shik;Cho, Hong-Bum;Heo, Daeyoung;Kim, Nae-Soo;Kim, Young-Sun;Lee, Kyeseon;Lee, Sung-Hoon;Ryu, Jaehong
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.226-245
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    • 2019
  • To understand the dynamics of radial growth of trees and micro-climate at a site of Korean fir (Abies koreana Wilson) forest on high-altitude area of Mt. Hallasan National Park, Jeju Island, Korea, high precision dendrometers were installed on the stems of Korean fir trees, and the sensors for measuring micro-climate of the forest at 10 minutes interval were also installed at the forest. Data from the sensors were sent to nodes, collected to a gateway wireless, and transmitted to a data server using mobile phone communication system. By analyzing the radial growth data for the trees during the growing season in 2016, we can estimate that the radial growth of Korean fir trees initiated in late April to early May and ceased in late August to early September, which indicates that period for the radial growth was about 4 months in 2016. It is interesting to observe that the daily ambient temperature and the daily soil temperature at the depth of 20 cm coincided with the values of about 10 ℃ when the radial growth of the trees initiated in 2016. When the radial growth ceased, the values of the ambient temperature went down below about 15 ℃ and 16 ℃, respectively. While the ambient temperature and the soil temperature are evaluated to be the good indicators for the initiation and the cessation of radial growth, it becomes clear that radii of tree stems showed diurnal growth patterns affected by diurnal change of ambient temperature. In addition, the wetting and drying of the surface of the tree stems affected by precipitation became the additional factors that affect the expansion and shrinkage of the tree stems at the forest site. While it is interesting to note that the interrelationships among the micro-climatic factors at the forest site were well explained through this study, it should be recognized that the precision monitoring made possible with the application of high resolution sensors in the measurement of the radial increment combined with the observation of 10 minutes interval with aids of information and communication technology in the ecosystem observation.

A Basic Survey about Dead Tree of Old Korean Fir Stands in Mt. Sorak (내설악 전나무 고목림에 존재하는 고사목에 관한 기본 자료조사)

  • 장동원;윤영일
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.251-256
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    • 2003
  • Baseline data on the type, species and volume for dead trees were collected from old growth fir (Abies holophylla) forest in Sorak National Park. Though the survey was restricted to fly forest, a basic data compatible to those in other countries were collected. Besides fir, dead trees were also found in deciduous species. All the Known dead tree types were found. Average volume of dead tree in the surveyed area was 00.42 $\textrm{m}^2 \; ha^{-1}$. There seems no correlation existing between the distributions of dead tree and coarse woody debris (CWD).

A Study for Continue and Decline of Abies koreana Forest using Species Distribution Model - Focused in Mt. Baekwun Gwangyang-si, Jeollanam-do - (종 분포 모형을 이용한 구상나무림의 지속 및 쇠퇴에 관한 연구 - 전라남도 광양시 백운산을 중심으로 -)

  • Cho, Seon-Hee;Park, Jong-young;Park, Jeong-Ho;Lee, Yang-Geun;Mun, Lee-man;Kang, Sang-Ho;Kim, Gwang-Hyun;Yun, Jong-Guk
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.104 no.3
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    • pp.360-367
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    • 2015
  • The present study investigated the habitats of Korean fir trees (Abies koreana E. H. Wilson) on Mt. Baekwun (Baekwun-san), determined the current distribution, quantified the contribution of biological and non-biological environmental factors affecting the distribution, derived actual and potential habitats, presented a plan for the establishment of protected areas, applied RCP 8.5 climate change scenario to analyze the effects of climate change on the future distribution of Korean fir trees, and predicted future potential habitats. According to the results of the study, 3,325 Korean fir trees (DBH >= 2.5 cm) inhabited Mt. Baekwun, and their distribution area was approximately 150 ha. Populations of Korean fir trees were confirmed to exist at an altitude of 900 m above sea level and were distributed up to 1,200 m. Based on potential distribution, areas appropriate for habitation by Korean fir trees were analyzed to be 450 ha, three times the current distribution area, with a focus on Sang Peak (Sang-bong), Eokbul Peak (Eokbul-bong), Ddari Peak (Ddari-bong), and Dosol Peak (Dosol-bong). The forest stands near Sang Peak, the main peak, were evaluated as those with the most appropriate potential for the habitation of Korean fir trees, and populations of the trees tended to prefer the northern slope rather than the southern slope. When climate change scenario RCP 8.5 was applied and future potential distribution was analyzed, the habitats were expected to decrease in area to 20 ha by 2050, with a focus on Sang Peak, and areas appropriate for habitation were predicted not to exist by 2080. Judging from such results, as global warming accelerates, the habitats of Korean fir trees are clearly expected to move from lowlands to highlands.

A Study on the Planting Records of Needle Fir in Gwangneung (광릉 전나무 식재기록에 관한 고찰)

  • Kim, Eun-Kyoung;Lee, Hae-Joo
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.11-19
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    • 2019
  • The study was done to analyze the records of planting time of Gwangneung needle firs referring to the historical literatures, the Annals of Joseon Dynasty(朝鮮王朝實錄), Seungjeongwonilgi(承政院日記: Journal of the Royal Secretariat). Bibyeonsadeungnok(備邊司謄錄: Records of the Bibyeonsa Defense Council, a government agency during the Joseon Dynasty), Ilseongnok(日省錄: Journal on Dynasty affairs of the kings in the 36th year of Youngjo to 1910) to lay the historical ground for needle firs in Gwangneung. The following results were derived from previous research, Report on Gwangneung Forest Ecosystem, and overlaid fir tree rings. The research findings are as follow. First, since the system of making the grave is the most conservative system, the planting during the Gwangneung construction would have been preceded by precedent. Second, the problem of cutting the tree in the late Joseon Dynasty became serious. It is published the Law of Muo In the 22nd year of Jeongjo, and then planted trees regularly in spring and autumn. Third, the Law of Muo was preserved for 31 years during the reign of King Gojong, and the type of specific tree, the number of trees, from the 22nd year until the 25th year of King Gojong, four years of fir trees were planted in Gwangneung, and Gwangneung was the only place where korean pine trees were planted. Fourth, it was possible to identify the age of the tree through fallen fir tree rings, and the period of planting fir trees growing in the existing mausoleum is judged to be the equivalent year of King Gojong's reign from the 10th year of King Cheoljong's reign.

Photosynthetic Capacity and Water Use Efficiency under Different Temperature Regimes on Healthy and Declining Korean Fir in Mt. Halla (한라산 구상나무 건전개체와 쇠약개체의 온도변화에 따른 광합성능력과 수분이용효율)

  • Lim, Jong-Hwan;Woo, Su-Young;Kwon, Mi Jeong;Chun, Jung Hwa;Shin, Joon Hwan
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.95 no.6
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    • pp.705-710
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    • 2006
  • We investigated seasonal photosynthetic capacity and water use efficiency changes of Korean fir (Abies koreana Wils.) trees located at three sites around the peak of Mt. Halla, Witseorum, Youngsil and Jindallebat. At each sites, we chose healthy and declining individuals to examine the differences of physiological characteristics between them. Net photosynthetic capacity in $15^{\circ}C$ were lower than those of $20^{\circ}C$ and $25^{\circ}C$. The difference of net photosynthetic capacity between healthy and damaged trees was clear in June and August but damaged trees recovered with passing of the time. There was no difference between healthy and damaged trees in September on photosynthetic rate. Generally, water use efficiency (WUE) of damaged trees was higher than healthy trees.

Initial Survey on Pit and Mound in Fir Forests in Soraksan Mountain (설악산 전나무림에 나타난 흙 패임과 둔덕에 관한 기초조사)

  • 전상규;윤영일
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.287-294
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    • 2004
  • Pits and mounds created by windthrow have significant impacts on forest ecosystem. In order to establish initial data base, 80 pits and mounds were sampled and surveyed in 5 fir forests in Nae-Sorak Mountain. Characteristics and forms were surveyed and frequency of tree species appearance were surveyed as well. 4.9% of surveyed area (0.4 ha) was pits and mounds in El and E2 areas except old areas where survey was done by estimation. E3 area showed the highest proportion, 11.7% of 0.1 ha of sampling area.

Spatial Genetic Structure of Needle Fir(Abies holophylla Seedlings on the Forest Gap Within a Needle Fir Forest at Mt. Odae in Korea) (오대산(五臺山) 전나무림(林)의 숲틈에서 발생(發生)된 전나무 치수(稚樹)들의 공간적(空間的) 유전구조(遺傳構造))

  • Hong, Kyung-Nak;Choi, Young Cheol;Kang, Bum-Yong;Hong, Yong-Pyo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.90 no.4
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    • pp.565-572
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    • 2001
  • The spatial genetic structure of Needle fir(Abies holophylla Max.) seedlings on forest gap within a Needle fir forest at Mt. Odae in Korea was analyzed on the basis of ISSR(inter-simple sequence repeats) marker analysis. The gap size was $1,500m^2(50m{\times}30m)$, and we sampled 416 one- or two-year-old seedlings by 2m intervals. Some trees at the upper crown layer except Needle firs and all trees at the middle and lower crown layers were removed, and Needle firs at the upper crown layer showed very weak growth strength or to be withering to death. The results of spatial autocorrelation using 31 polymorphic ISSR markers revealed that it was genetically homogeneous within spatial distance of 15.6m and the randomness of genetic distribution was from 15.6m to 31.2m. The genetic patch size of seedlings in forest gap might be restricted by the density of mother trees, making allow for the average height of adult Needle firs, the seed dispersal area, and the average distance between adults. For the directionality of seedling distribution, we investigated the variography using 'genetic configuration' which was the value of configuration in Multidimensional Scaling by genetic distance. In directional variogram, the increment of spatial distance from East to West direction was inversely proportional to genetic homogeneity. We presumed that this anisotrophy of seedling distribution at this forest gap resulted from the directionality of seed dispersal rather than the difference of fecundity between mother trees or the microhabitat variation, taking the evenness of forest floor condition, a vast seed production and the random distribution of seedlings at the studied site into consideration.

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