• Title/Summary/Keyword: Forage

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An Overview of Teff (Eragrostis teff Zuccagni) Trotter) as a Potential Summer Forage Crop in Temperate Systems

  • Habte, Ermias;Muktar, Meki S.;Negawo, Alemayehu T.;Lee, Sang-Hoon;Lee, Ki-Won;Jones, Chris S.
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.185-188
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    • 2019
  • The production of traditional cool season grasses in temperate regions is becoming hampered during summer seasons due to water deficit. Thus, incorporating water use efficient warm season annual grasses are generally considered to fill the gap of summer season forage reduction that would offer considerable flexibility and adaptability to respond to forage demand. Teff (Eragrostis teff Zuccagni) Trotter) is, a C4 drought tolerant warm season annual grass primarily grown for grain production, recently gaining interest for forage production particularly during summer season. Previous reports have showed that teff is palatable and has comparable forage biomass and feed quality as compared to other warm season annual grasses which would make it an alternative forage. However, the available data are not comprehensive to explore the potential of teff as forage, hence further assessment of genotype variability and performance along with compatibility study of teff with forage production system of specific environment is key for future utilization.

The Physiological Suppressing Factors of Dry Forage Intake and the Cause of Water Intake Following Dry Forage Feeding in Goats - A Review

  • Sunagawa, Katsunori;Nagamine, Itsuki
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.159-169
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    • 2016
  • The goats raised in the barn are usually fed on fresh grass. As dry forage can be stored for long periods in large amounts, dry forage feeding makes it possible to feed large numbers of goats in barns. This review explains the physiological factors involved in suppressing dry forage intake and the cause of drinking following dry forage feeding. Ruminants consume an enormous amount of dry forage in a short time. Eating rates of dry forage rapidly decreased in the first 40 min of feeding and subsequently declined gradually to low states in the remaining time of the feeding period. Saliva in large-type goats is secreted in large volume during the first hour after the commencement of dry forage feeding. It was elucidated that the marked suppression of dry forage intake during the first hour was caused by a feeding-induced hypovolemia and the loss of $NaHCO_3$ due to excessive salivation during the initial stages of dry forage feeding. On the other hand, it was indicated that the marked decrease in feed intake observed in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period was related to ruminal distension caused by the feed consumed and the copious amount of saliva secreted during dry forage feeding. In addition, results indicate that the marked decreases in dry forage intake after 40 min of feeding are caused by increases in plasma osmolality and subsequent thirst sensations produced by dry forage feeding. After 40 min of the 2 h dry forage feeding period, the feed salt content is absorbed into the rumen and plasma osmolality increases. The combined effects of ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality accounted for 77.6% of the suppression of dry forage intake 40 min after the start of dry forage feeding. The results indicate that ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality are the main physiological factors in suppression of dry forage intake in large-type goats. There was very little drinking behavior observed during the first hour of the 2 h feeding period most water consumption occurring in the second hour. The cause of this thirst sensation during the second hour of dry forage feeding period was not hypovolemia brought about by excessive salivation, but rather increases in plasma osmolality due to the ruminal absorption of salt from the consumed feed. This suggests the water intake following dry forage feeding is determined by the level of salt content in the feed.

Study on the Forage Cropping System of Italian Ryegrass and Summer Forage Crops at Paddy Field in Middle Region of Korea (중부지역 논에서 이탈리안 라이그라스와 하계 사료작물을 연계한 작부체계 연구)

  • Oh, Mirae;Choi, Bo Ram;Lee, Se Young;Jung, Jeong Sung;Park, Hyung Soo;Lee, Bae Hun;Kim, Ki-Yong
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.141-146
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    • 2021
  • This study was evaluated to compare annual productivity and feed value of Italian ryegrass and summer forage crops at paddy field in middle region of Korea. Italian ryegrass (Kowinearly) was used as winter forage crop, and forage rice (Youngwoo) and barnyard millet (Jeju) were used as summer forage crops. Each crop was cultivated using the standard forage cultivation method. The plant height, dry matter yield, crude protein content, and total digestible nutrient content of Italian ryegrass were 90.6 cm, 7,681 kg/ha, 9.2%, and 63.8%, respectively, and it was no significant difference by summer forage crops (p>0.05). The plant height of summer forage crops was the higher in barnyard millet than in forage rice (p<0.05). The dry matter, crude protein, and total digestible nutrient yields of summer forage crops were the higher in forage rice than in barnyard millet (p<0.05). Also, the feed value of summer forage crops was higher in forage rice than in barnyard millet. In conclusion, the combination of Italian ryegrass-forage rice was the most effective cropping system for annual forage production with high-yield and high-feed value, and it was considered the combination of Italian ryegrass-barnyard millet was good cropping system for annual forage production through reducing labor and cultivating stable at paddy field in middle region of Korea.

The Effect of Forage Level and Oil Supplement on Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Anaerovibrio lipolytica in Continuous Culture Fermenters

  • Gudla, P.;Ishlak, A.;Abughazaleh, A.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.234-239
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    • 2012
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of forage level and oil supplement on selected strains of rumen bacteria believed to be involved in biohydrogenation (BH). A continuous culture system consisting of four fermenters was used in a $4{\times}4$ Latin square design with a factorial arrangement of treatments, with four 10 d consecutive periods. Treatment diets were: i) high forage diet (70:30 forage to concentrate (dry matter basis); HFC), ii) high forage plus oil supplement (HFO), iii) low forage diet (30:70 forage to concentrate; LFC), and iv) low forage plus oil supplement (LFO). The oil supplement was a blend of fish oil and soybean oil added at 1 and 2 g/100 g dry matter, respectively. Treatment diets were fed for 10 days and samples were collected from each fermenter on the last day of each period 3 h post morning feeding. The concentrations of vaccenic acid (t11C18:1; VA) and c9t11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) were greater with the high forage diet while the concentrations of t10 C18:1 and t10c12 CLA were greater with the low forage diet and addition of oil supplement increased their concentrations at both forage levels. The DNA abundance of Anaerovibrio lipolytica, and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens vaccenic acid subgroup (Butyrivibrio VA) were lower with the low forage diets but not affected by oil supplement. The DNA abundance of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens stearic acid producer subgroup (Butyrivibrio SA) was not affected by forage level or oil supplement. In conclusion, oil supplement had no effects on the tested rumen bacteria and forage level affected Anaerovibrio lipolytica and Butyrivibrio VA.

Effects of Natural Grass Forage to Concentrate Ratios and Feeding Principles on Milk Production and Performance of Crossbred Lactating Cows

  • Sanh, M.V.;Wiktorsson, H.;Ly, L.V.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.650-657
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    • 2002
  • Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of forage:concentrate ratios and feeding principles on milk yield, milk composition, body weight change, postpartum oestrus and feed cost. A total of 36 crossbred F1 cows (Holstein Friesian${\times}$Local Yellow) in the 8th week of lactation were used. In each experiment, animals were divided into three groups using a randomized block design according to the milk yield of the previous eight weeks. Cows were fed 30, 50 and 70% concentrate in the diet based on DM. In experiment 1 (Fc), cows were given the same amount of DM with constant ratios of forage and concentrate within treatments. In experiment 2 (Fa), cows were given the same constant amounts of concentrate as in experiment 1 and ad libitum forage. The forage consisted of a natural grass mixture based on 5 species of grasses with high nutritive values. There was no difference in total DM intake between treatments within experiments. However, cows fed forage ad libitum had higher DM intakes compared to cows fed constant forage (1.6, 4.5 and 9.5% for cows fed 70, 50 and 30% forage, respectively). Daily milk yield of cows fed forage ad libitum was higher than that of cows fed constant forage:concentrate ratio. Within experiment, milk yield was highest for cows fed 30% DM forage, followed by cows fed 50% and then cows fed 70% forage (11.17, 10.98 and 10.71 for the 30Fc, 50Fc and 70Fc cows; 11.73, 11.16 and 10.81 kg for the 30Fa, 50Fa and 70Fa cows, respectively). Decreased forage ratio in the diets resulted in decreased milk fat content and tended to increase milk protein. Increased concentrate ratio in the diet and feeding forage ad libitum increased body weight gain. The effect of forage:concentrate ratio on postpartum oestrus was not significant. The feed cost per kg milk produced was lowest for the cows fed 70% forage. It is concluded that increased ratio of concentrate resulted in increased body weight gain, milk yield, milk protein, and decreased milk fat. Feeding forage ad libitum increased feed intake, milk yield and body weight gain. The ratio of 50% forage is more suitable for milk production and animal condition, but in terms of feed cost and under the conditions of small dairy farmers, the 70% ad libitum forage feeding is recommended.

Effect of Different Harvest Dates on Dry Matter Yield and Forage Quality of Corn ( Zea mays L. ) (옥수수의 수확시기가 사초의 생산성과 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • 임상훈;김동암
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.75-80
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    • 1996
  • The corn is one of the most important forage crop in Korea. The harvest time for silage affects dry matter (DM) yield and silage quality. This study was carried out to determine the effect of harvest time on the DM yield and nutritive value of corn forage at the Experimental Livestock Farm, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Suweon in 1991. Forage DM yield and DM content of corn forage significantly increased mainly due to increase of ear. And also the ear to total DM ratio increased from 30% to 55% as the harvest was delayed. Chemical composition of the corn forage was improved by reduction in crude fihr, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber as the harvest was delayed. This results indicated that the harvest time of corn forage plays an important role to determine DM yield and DM contents for silage materials.

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Studies on Corn-Legume Intercropping System IV. Effects of corn-soybean intercropping on chemical composition and TDN yield (Silage용 옥수수와 두과작물의 간작에 관한 연구 IV. Silage용 옥수수 (Zea mays L.) 와 콩 ( Glycine max (L.) Merr.) 의 간작이 영양성분함량 및 TDN수량에 미치는 영향)

  • 이성규
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.113-118
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    • 1989
  • This experiment was carried out to compare chemical composition, TDN yield of corn-soybean intercropping and corn monocropping forage plants at different harvesting time and obtained the following results. 1. In both cropping systems, the content of chemical composition of forage were changed same pattern in growing stage. The content of crude protein in corn-soybean intercropping forage at yellow stage increased more than that of corn nonocropping forage, while the crude fat in corn monocropping forage plants increased than that of corn-soybean intercropping forage plants at mature stage. 2. The crude fiber, crude ash, ADF content of forage plants in both cropping system decreased same pattern in growing period, however, NFE content of forage increased with maturity. 3. TDN yield of corn-soybean intercropping and corn monocropping forage plants at yellow stage obtained similar results and TDN yield per 10a in intercropping and monocropping were 1006.lkg and 978.6kg, respectively. 4. Consequently, corn-soybean interaopping system could be increased crude protein yield without decreasing of dry matter yield in comparison with corn monocropping system for corn silage.

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Effect of Feeding High Forage Diets with Supplemental Fat on Blood Metabolites, Rumen Fermentation and Dry Matter Digestibility in Dairy Cows

  • Abdullah, M.;Young, J.W.;Tyler, H.D.;Mohiuddin, G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.451-456
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    • 2000
  • Fifty mid-lactation Holstein cows were used in a six-week feeding trial to study effects of high-forage, and high-fat diets on blood constituents, rumen fermentation and dry matter digestibility. Cows were divided into 10 replicates, each consisting of five cows. Each cow was assigned to a control (diet 1) or one of the four experimental diets (high-forage (75%), high-fat (7.5%) (diet 2); high-forage. medium-fat (5.0%) (diet 3); medium forage (65%), high-fat (diet 4); medium-forage, medium-fat (diet 5)), or a control diet containing about 50% forage and 2% fat. All diets were isonitrogenous (17.7% crude protein). The forage mixture consisted of 20% alfalfa hay, 40% alfalfa haylage, and 40% corn silage. Supplemental fat included 80% rumen-protected fat and 20% yellow grease. A non-significant difference was observed in concentrations of blood glucose for cows on different experimental and control diets. Plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) were higher in cows consuming experimental diets than those consuming the control diet. However, differences in NEFA concentrations in the plasma of cows consuming diets with different forage and fat levels were not significant. Rumen pH, concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in rumen contents, and dry matter digestibility of control and experimental diets, and diets with different levels of forage and supplemental fat did not differ significantly.

Effect of Waterlogging Duration on Growth Characteristics and Productivity of Forage Corn at Different Growth Stages Under Paddy Field Conditions

  • Jung, Jeong Sung;Choi, Gi-Jun;Choi, Bo-Ram
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.141-147
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of waterlogging duration on the growth characteristics and productivity of forage corn at different growth stages under paddy field conditions. Treatments consisted of waterlogging at two growth stages (V7 or V14) for four waterlogging durations (no waterlogging, 48 hours, 72 hours, and 96 hours, respectively). The V14 growth stage was more vulnerable to waterlogging than the V7 stage. Among the waterlogging durations, the lodging score increased at 48 hours. The stem height of forage corn decreased with the increase in waterlogging duration at the different growth stages (V7 and V14). Increase in waterlogging duration reduced the stem dry matter yield, ear dry matter yield, and total dry matter yield at both growing stages (V7 and V14). The waterlogging treatments at the V14 stage affected ear dry matter yield more than those at the V7 growing stage. Thus, the management of forage corn under paddy field conditions must be strengthened during early (V7) and grain fill stages (V14). When waterlogging occurs, surface and subsurface drainage should be implemented within 48 hours to control (no waterlogging) the groundwater level and, thus, minimize economic losses due to forage corn damage.

Review of the Current Forage Production, Supply, and Quality Measure Standard in South Korea

  • Kim, Jong Duk;Seo, Myeongchon;Lee, Sang Cheol;Han, Kun-Jun
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.149-155
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    • 2020
  • Cattle feeding in South Korea has been heavily dependent on domestically produced rice straw and imported grain. Around 42% of domestically produced rice straw is utilized for forage, and the remainder is recycled to restore soil fertility. Approximately 35% of round baleages were made with rice straw. However, higher quality hay is desired over rice straw. Due to increasing stockpiles of rice, there has been an economic burden on the government to store the surplus; therefore production of annual forage crops in rice fields has been further promoted in recent years. Hay import from the USA currently constitutes more than 80% of total imported hays. The main imported hays are alfalfa (Medicago sativa), timothy (Phleum pretense), and tall fescue (Festica arundinacea). The estimated forage required for cattle feeding was approximately 5.4 million MT in 2016. Domestically produced forage sates only 43% of that value, while low quality rice straw and imported hay covered the rest of demand by 33% and 20%, respectively. As utilization of domestically produced forage is more desirable for forage-based cattle production, long-term strategies have been necessary to promote domestic production of high quality baleage. One such strategy has been utilizing the fertile soil and abundance of fallow rice fields of western region of S. Korea to produce forage crops. Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) is the most successfully produced winter annual in the region and is approximately 56% of the total winter annual forage production. Forage sorghums (Sorghum bicolor), sorghum × sudangrass hybrids, and hybrid corn (Zea mays) produce a substantial amount of warm-season forage during summer. Produced forage has been largely stored through baleage due to heavy dew and frequent rains and has been evaluated according to S. Korea's newly implemented baleage commodity evaluation system. The system weighs 50% of its total grading points on moisture content because of its importance in deliverable DM content and desirable baleage fermentation; this has proved to be an effective method. Although further improvement is required for the future of forage production in South Korea, the current government-led forage production in rice fields has been able to alleviate some of the country's shortage for quality hay.