• Title, Summary, Keyword: AMP-activated protein kinase

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Protein Kinase A Functions as a Negative Regulator of c-Jun N-terminal Kinase but not of p38 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase in PC12 Cells

  • Hur, Kyu-Chung
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.173-179
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    • 2005
  • Cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) seems to function as a negative regulator of the c-Jun $NH_2-terminal$ kinase (JNK) signaling pathway. We demonstrate here that the activity of the PKA catalytic subunit (PKAc) is reduced in apoptotic PC12 pheochromocytoma cells. Apoptotic progress was inhibited by dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP), an analog of cAMP. The rescue by dbcAMP was attributable to inhibition of the JNK but not of the p38 signaling pathway, due to the induction of PKA activity. JNK was present in immunocomplexes of PKAc, and PKAc phosphorylated JNK in vitro. Presence of p38 kinase, however, was not prominent in immunocomplexes of PKAc. Our data suggest that JNK is a target point of negative regulation by PKAc in the JNK signaling pathway.

Effects of Protein Kinase Inhibitors on Melanin Production in B16 Melanoma Cells Stimulated via Cyclic AMP-dependent Pathway (B16 Melanoma 세포에서 Protein Kinase 억제제들이 Cyclic AMP 경로를 통한 멜라닌 생성에 미치는 영향)

  • 차상복;조남영;윤미연;임혜원;김경원;박영미;이지윤;이진희;김창종
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.31-36
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    • 2003
  • To investigate the effect of protein kinase on melanin production via cAMP-dependent pathway, we measured the melanin amount and tyrosinase activity in B16 melanoma cells stimulated by alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH), forskolin and 8-Br-cAMP. MSH, forskolin and 8-Br-cAMP significantly increased both melanin production and tyrosinase activity in B16 cells. Melanin production and tyrosinase activity by MSH are significantly inhibited by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor (KT5720) and protein kinase C down-regulation treated with PMA. Bisindolmaleimide (1$\mu$M), protein kinase C inhibitor, significantly inhibited melanin production and tyrosinase activity stimulated by MSH, forskolin and 8-Br-cAMP with the following order of potency: MSH>forskolin>8-Br-cAMP. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein and DHC, significantly inhibited both, but the inhibitory effect was more potent in 8-Br-cAMP-stimulated B16 cells than MSH-stimulated cells. NFkB inhibitor (parthenolide) significantly inhibited melanin production and tyrosinase activity. Neither melanin production nor tyrosinase activity induced by MSH, forskolin and 8-Br-cAMP were affected by KN-62 (calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor), PD098059 (mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor, MAPKK) and worthmannin (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor). These results suggest that both protein kinase C and tyrosine kinase are involved in melanin production by cyclic AMP-dependent pathway and NFkB pathway may play an important role in cyclic AMP-dependent melanin production in B16 melanoma cells.

Effects of AMP-activated Protein Kinase Activating Compounds and Its Mechanism (AMP-activated protein kinase 활성화 기전과 관련 약물의 효과)

  • Choi, Hyoung Chul
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.77-82
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    • 2012
  • AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important cellular fuel sensor. Its activation requires phosphorylation at Thr-172, which resides in the activation loop of the ${\alpha}1$ and ${\alpha}2$ subunits. Several AMPK upstream kinases are capable of phosphorylating AMPK at Thr-172, including LKB1 and CaMKK${\beta}$ ($Ca^{2+}$/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase${\beta}$). AMPK has been implicated in the regulation of physiological signals, such as in the inhibition of cholesterol fatty acid, and protein synthesis, and enhancement of glucose uptake and blood flow. AMPK activation also exhibits several salutary effects on the vascular function and improves vascular abnormalities. AMPK is modulated by numerous hormones and cytokines that regulate the energy balance in the whole body. These hormone and cytokines include leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin, and even thyroid hormones. Moreover, AMPK is activated by several drugs and xenobiotics. Some of these are in being clinically used to treat type 2 diabetes (e.g., metformin and thiazolidinediones), hypertension (e.g., nifedipine and losartan), and impaired blood flow (e.g., aspirin, statins, and cilostazol). I reviewed the precise mechanisms of the AMPK activation pathway and AMPK-modulating drugs.

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5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide Riboside Induces Apoptosis Through AMP-activated Protein Kinase-independent and NADPH Oxidase-dependent Pathways

  • Wi, Sae Mi;Lee, Ki-Young
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.241-248
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    • 2014
  • It is debatable whether AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation is involved in anti-apoptotic or pro-apoptotic signaling. AICAR treatment increases AMPK-${\alpha}1$ phosphorylation, decreases intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and significantly increases Annexin V-positive cells, DNA laddering, and caspase activity in human myeloid cell. AMPK activation is therefore implicated in apoptosis. However, AMPK-${\alpha}1$-knockdown THP-1 cells are more sensitive to apoptosis than control THP-1 cells are, suggesting that the apoptosis is AMPK-independent. Low doses of AICAR induce cell proliferation, whereas high doses of AICAR suppress cell proliferation. Moreover, these effects are significantly correlated with the downregulation of intracellular ROS, strongly suggesting that AICAR-induced apoptosis is critically associated with the inhibition of NADPH oxidase by AICAR. Collectively, our results demonstrate that in AICAR-induced apoptosis, intracellular ROS levels are far more relevant than AMPK activation.

Humanin suppresses receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand-induced osteoclast differentiation via AMP-activated protein kinase activation

  • Kang, Namju;Kim, Ki Woo;Shin, Dong Min
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.411-417
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    • 2019
  • Humanin (HN) is a mitochondrial peptide that exhibits cytoprotective actions against various stresses and diseases. HN has been shown to induce the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is a negative regulator of receptor activator of nuclear factor-${\kappa}B$ ligand (RANKL). However, the role of HN in osteoclastogenesis or other skeletal disorders remains unknown. Here, we examined whether HN regulates osteoclastogenesis via AMPK activation using bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMM) cultures. Our results show that HN inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and reduced the expression of genes involved in osteoclastogenesis, including nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1, osteoclastassociated receptor, cathepsin K, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. Moreover, HN increased the levels of phosphorylated AMPK protein; compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, recovered HN-induced osteoclast differentiation. In addition, we found that HN significantly decreased the levels of RANKL-induced reactive oxygen species in BMMs. Therefore, these results indicate that HN plays an important role in osteoclastogenesis and may function as an inhibitor of bone disorders via AMPK activation.

Molecular Mechanisms of Neutrophil Activation in Acute Lung Injury (급성 폐손상에서 호중구 활성화의 분자학적 기전)

  • Yum, Ho-Kee
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.53 no.6
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    • pp.595-611
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    • 2002
  • Akt/PKB protein kinase B, ALI acute lung injury, ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome, CREB C-AMP response element binding protein, ERK extracelluar signal-related kinase, fMLP fMet-Leu-Phe, G-CSF granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, IL interleukin, ILK integrin-linked kinase, JNK Jun N-terminal kinase, LPS lipopolysaccharide, MAP mitogen-activated protein, MEK MAP/ERK kinase, MIP-2 macrophage inflammatory protein-2, MMP matrix metalloproteinase, MPO myeloperoxidase, NADPH nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, NE neutrophil elastase, NF-kB nuclear factor-kappa B, NOS nitric oxide synthase, p38 MAPK p38 mitogen activated protein kinase, PAF platelet activating factor, PAKs P21-activated kinases, PMN polymorphonuclear leukocytes, PI3-K phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, PyK proline-rich tyrosine kinase, ROS reactive oxygen species, TNF-${\alpha}$ tumor necrosis factor-a.

Diarylbutane-type Lignans from Myristica fragrans (Nutmeg) show the Cytotoxicity against Breast Cancer Cells through Activation of AMP-activated Protein Kinase

  • Le, Thi Van Thu;Nguyen, Phi Hung;Choi, Hong Seok;Yang, Jun-Li;Kang, Keon Wook;Ahn, Sang-Gun;Oh, Won Keun
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.21-28
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    • 2017
  • In our program to search for new AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activators from plants that exert potential anticancer property, we found that an EtOAc extract of Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) activated AMPK enzyme in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Two major diarylbutane-type lignans, macelignan and meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid (MDGA), were isolated as active principles from this extract. Treatment of breast cancer cells with two compounds induced cellular apoptosis, evidenced by cleavage of poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and Ser 15 phosphorylation of p53. Moreover, macelignan and MDGA significantly inhibited the colony formation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells on soft agar. Intraperitoneal injection of macelignan and MDGA (20 mg/kg) suppressed the tumor growth of 4T1 mammary cancer cells. These results indicate that the chemopreventive effects of two major diarylbutane-type lignans from Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) may be associated with induction of apoptosis presumably through AMPK activation.

Caffeine attenuates lipid accumulation via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in HepG2 cells

  • Quan, Hai Yan;Kim, Do Yeon;Chung, Sung Hyun
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.207-212
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    • 2013
  • The main purpose of this study is to examine the effect of caffeine on lipid accumulation in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Significant decreases in the accumulation of hepatic lipids, such as triglyceride (TG), and cholesterol were observed when HepG2 cells were treated with caffeine as indicated. Caffeine decreased the mRNA level of lipogenesis-associated genes (SREBP1c, SREBP2, FAS, SCD1, HMGR and LDLR). In contrast, mRNA level of CD36, which is responsible for lipid uptake and catabolism, was increased. Next, the effect of caffeine on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway was examined. Phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase were evidently increased when the cells were treated with caffeine as indicated for 24 h. These effects were all reversed in the presence of compound C, an AMPK inhibitor. In summary, these data indicate that caffeine effectively depleted TG and cholesterol levels by inhibition of lipogenesis and stimulation of lipolysis through modulating AMPK-SREBP signaling pathways.

cAMP induction by ouabain promotes endothelin-1 secretion via MAPK/ERK signaling in beating rabbit atria

  • Peng, Li-qun;Li, Ping;Zhang, Qiu-li;Hong, Lan;Liu, Li-ping;Cui, Xun;Cui, Bai-ri
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.9-14
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    • 2016
  • Adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) participates in the regulation of numerous cellular functions, including the $Na^+-K^+$-ATPase (sodium pump). Ouabain, used in the treatment of several heart diseases, is known to increase cAMP levels but its effects on the atrium are not understood. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of ouabain on the regulation of atrial cAMP production and its roles in atrial endothelin-1 (ET-1) secretion in isolated perfused beating rabbit atria. Our results showed that ouabain ($3.0{\mu}mol/L$) significantly increased atrial dynamics and cAMP levels during recovery period. The ouabain-increased atrial dynamics was blocked by KB-R7943 ($3.0{\mu}mol/L$), an inhibitor for reverse mode of $Na^+-Ca^{2+}$ exchangers (NCX), but did not by L-type $Ca^{2+}$ channel blocker nifedipine ($1.0{\mu}mol/L$) or protein kinase A (PKA) selective inhibitor H-89 ($3.0{\mu}mol/L$). Ouabain also enhanced atrial intracellular cAMP production in response to forskolin and theophyline ($100.0{\mu}mol/L$), an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase, potentiated the ouabain-induced increase in cAMP. Ouabain and 8-Bromo-cAMP ($0.5{\mu}mol/L$) markedly increased atrial ET-1 secretion, which was blocked by H-89 and by PD98059 ($30{\mu}mol/L$), an inhibitor of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) without changing ouabain-induced atrial dynamics. Our results demonstrated that ouabain increases atrial cAMP levels and promotes atrial ET-1 secretion via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/ERK signaling pathway. These findings may explain the development of cardiac hypertrophy in response to digitalis-like compounds.

Losartan Inhibits Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation through Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase

  • Kim, Jung-Eun;Choi, Hyoung-Chul
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.299-304
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    • 2010
  • Losartan is a selective angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 ($AT_1$) receptor antagonist which inhibits vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contraction and proliferation. We hypothesized that losartan may prevent cell proliferation by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in VSMCs. VSMCs were treated with various concentrations of losartan. AMPK activation was measured by Western blot analysis and cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay and flowcytometry. Losartan dose- and time-dependently increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and its downstream target, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) in VSMCs. Losartan also significantly decreased the Ang II- or 15% FBS-induced VSMC proliferation by inhibiting the expression of cell cycle associated proteins, such as p-Rb, cyclin D, and cyclin E. Compound C, a specific inhibitor of AMPK, or AMPK siRNA blocked the losartan-induced inhibition of cell proliferation and the $G_0/G_1$ cell cycle arrest. These data suggest that losartan-induced AMPK activation might attenuate Ang II-induced VSMC proliferation through the inhibition of cell cycle progression.