• Title, Summary, Keyword: ${\gamma}$-oryzanol

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Optimization of Extraction of Functional Components from Black Rice Bran (흑미 미강의 기능성 성분 추출 공정 최적화)

  • Jo, In-Hee;Choi, Yong-Hee
    • Food Engineering Progress
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.388-397
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum ethanol extraction conditions for maximum extraction of functional components such as ferulic acid, oryzanol, and toopherol from black rice bran using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). A central composite design was applied to investigate the effects of the independent variables of solvent ratio ($X_{1}$), extraction temperature ($X_{2}$) and extraction time ($X_{3}$) on the dependent variables such as total phenol components ($Y_{1}$), total flavonoids compounds ($Y_{2}$), electron donating ability ($Y_{3}$), $\gamma$-oryzanol ($Y_{4}$), ferulic acid ($Y_{5}$) and $\alpha$-toopherol components ($Y_{6}$). ANOVA results showed that coefficients of determination (R-square) of estimated models for dependent variables ranged from 0.8939 to 0.9470. It was found that solvent ratio and extraction temperature were the main effective factors in this extraction proess. Particularly, the extraction efficiency of ferulic acid, $\gamma$-oryzanol and $\alpha$-toopherol components were significantly affected by extraction temperature. As a result, optimum extraction conditions were 20.35 mL/g of solvent ratio, 79.4$^{\circ}C$ of extraction temperature and 2.88 hr of extraction time. Predicted values at the optimized conditions were acceptable when compared with experimental values.

Changes in Chemical Composition of Rough Rice (Oryza sativa L.) according to Germination Period (발아기간에 따른 벼(Oryza sativa L.)의 화학성분 변화)

  • Kim, Hyun-Young;Hwang, In-Guk;Kim, Tae-Myoung;Park, Dong-Sik;Kim, Jae-Hyun;Kim, Dae-Joong;Lee, Youn-Ri;Lee, Jun-Soo;Jeong, Heon-Sang
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.40 no.9
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    • pp.1265-1270
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    • 2011
  • We evaluated changes in the chemical composition of rough rice (Oryza sativa L.) according to germination period. Rough rice was germinated at $37^{\circ}C$ for 8 days. Crude protein content increased from 71.67 mg/g in raw rough rice to 85.20 mg/g after 8 days of germination. Crude lipid content increased from 2.19% to 3.58% (p<0.05), whereas crude ash was not significantly changed. Phytic acid content decreased from 6.25 mg/g in raw rough rice to 1.54 mg/g after 8 days of germination. Free fatty acid content increased from 0.17% to 0.32% during 8 days of germination. Major fatty acids were palmitic, oleic, and linoleic acids, and total fatty acid content increased up to 95%. Vitamin E and ${\gamma}$-oryzanol contents in raw rough rice were 2.94 mg/100 g and 6.47 mg/g, respectively, increased to 5.55 mg/100 g and 8.16 mg/g after 4 days of germination, and then decreased afterward. These results indicate that the optimum germination period of rough rice for increasing functional components may be 3~4 days.

Antioxidant and Antitumor Activities of Ethanol Extracts from Unhulled and Hulled Rice Hiami (Oryza sativa L. cv. Hiami) (하이아미의 정조 및 현미 추출물의 in vitro 항산화 및 항암활성)

  • Woo, Koan-Sik;Chun, A-Reum;Oh, Sea-Kwan;Kim, Kee-Jong;Kim, Dae-Jung;Yang, Chang-Ihn;Kim, Yeon-Gyu;Kim, Jae-Hyun;Jeong, Heon-Sang
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.179-185
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    • 2010
  • To evaluate the antioxidant and antitumor potential of a newly bred rice, Hiami (Suweon-511), total polyphenol content, $\gamma$-oryzanol content, radical scavenging activities, and antitumor activities were measured (control: Ilpum). Total polyphenol contents were 6.31 and 3.75 mg/g for unhulled (UHR) and hulled rice (HR) of Hiami, which was higher than that of Ilpum (5.66 and 3.47 mg/g). The $\gamma$-oryzanol contents were 33.53 and 39.47 mg/100 g for UHR and HR of Hiami, which was higher than that of Ilpum (24.33 and 28.68 mg/100 g). DPPH radical, hydrogen peroxide, superoxide radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of 70% ethanol extracts of Hiami were higher compared to Ilpum, and UHR was higher than those of HR. Antitumor activities of the 70% ethanol extracts of Hiami and Ilpum were increased with a dose-dependent manner. The extracts of Hiami have higher activities of antitumor activities on gastric and breast cancer cell lines compared to other cancer cell lines, and Ilpum has higher activities of antitumor activities on colon and liver cancer cell lines.

Reduction of Visceral and Body Fats in Mice by Supplementation of Conjugated Linoleic Acid with γ-Oryzanol (Conjugated linoleic acid와 γ-oryzanol 혼합물의 생쥐 체지방 및 복부지방 감소 효과)

  • Byeon, Jae-Il;Ohr, Tae-Woo;Kim, Young-Suk;Moon, Yeon-Gyu;Park, Cherl-Woo;Kim, Jeong-Ok;Ha, Yeong-Lae
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.18 no.9
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    • pp.1212-1218
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    • 2008
  • The synergistic effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and $\gamma$-oryzanol (OZ) on the reduction of visceral and body fats was investigated in mice. Female ICR mice, 10 weeks of age, were acclimated for one week and then randomly divided into 5 treatment groups by body weights: Control (70 ${\mu}l$ olive oil + 30 ${\mu}l$ CLA), CLA-OZ 1 (70 ${\mu}l$ olive oil + 30 ${\mu}l$ CLA + OZ 0.5 mg), CLA-OZ 2 (70 ${\mu}l$ olive oil + 30 ${\mu}l$ CLA + OZ 1.0 mg), OZ (100 ${\mu}l$ olive oil + OZ 1.0 mg), and Olive oil (100 ${\mu}l$ olive oil). Samples were daily intubated, p.o., for 4 weeks. Food and water were ad libitum. Four weeks later, mice were sacrificed by neck dislocation, followed by measuring whole body weight, empty carcass weight (ECW), which is weight without organs and visceral fats, visceral fats, body fats and protein content. Mice treated with CLA (control) sample maintained significantly, p<0.05, lower whole body weight, ECW, visceral and body fats, relative to mice treated with olive oil sample, indicating that CLA reduces the visceral and body fats. The CLA-OZ 1 treatment significantly reduced, p<0.05, visceral and body fats as compared to OZ treatment, but not significantly different from control treatment.Meanwhile, CLA-OZ 2-treated mice maintained significantly, p<0.05, lower visceral and body fats than control and OZ-treated mice. Protein contents in mice were not affected by any other treatments. These results suggest that OZ enhanced the reduction of visceral and body fats in mice by CLA.

Characterization of Scaled-up Low-Trans Shortening from Rice Bran Oil and High Oleic Sunflower Seed Oil with Batch Type Reactor (회분식반응기를 이용한 미강유, 팜스테아린과 고올레인산 해바라기씨유 유래 대량 제조된 저트랜스 쇼트닝의 특성 연구)

  • Kim, Ji-Young;Lee, Ki-Teak
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.338-345
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    • 2009
  • Scaled-up low-trans shortening (LTS) was produced by lipase-catalyzed interesterification. Blend of rice bran oil (RBO), palm stearin (PS) and high oleic sunflower seed oil (HO) with 1:2:0.9 (w/w/w) ratio was interesterified using immobilized lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus (TLIM) in the batch type reactor at $65^{\circ}C$ for 24 hr, and physicochemical melting properties of LTS were compared with commercial shortening. Solid fat content (SFC) of commercial shortening (used as control) and LTS was similar at 9.56 and 8.77%, respectively, at $35^{\circ}C$. Major fatty acids in LTS were C16:1 (33.7 wt%), C18:1 (45.7 wt%) and C18:2 (13.4 wt%). Trans fatty acid content in the commercial shortening (4.8 wt%) was higher than that of LTS (0.5 wt%). After reverse-phase HPLC analysis, major triacylglycerol (TAG) species in LTS were POO, POP and PLO. Total tocopherol, ${\gamma}$-oryzanol and phytosterol contents in the LTS were 12.37, 0.43 and 251.38 mg/100 g, respectively. Hardness of LTS was similar to that of commercial shortening. Also, x-ray diffraction analysis showed coexistence of ${\beta}'$ and ${\beta}$ form in the LTS.

식품에서 미강유의 사용

  • Kim, Hyeon-Gu;Gang, Deok-Sun
    • Bulletin of Food Technology
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.84-87
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    • 1999
  • 식품으로 사용된 미강유는 1994년 이래로 미국에서 상업적으로 생산되어 왔다. 다른 식물성 기름과 비슷한데도 불구하고 미강유가 niche 시장에서 특별한 기름으로 부각된 것은 몇 가지의 독특한 성질 때문이다. 미강유는 견과류와도 같은 향기가 매우 좋고 추출될 때는 튀김유로서 매우 안정적이다. 그러나 미강유의 가장 주목할만한 특징은 $ \gamma-oryzanol과 tocotrienols같은 nutraceutical value가 매우 높은 수준으로 함유되어 있다. 1997년 식물성유의 연간 세계 총생산은 약 8천4백만 톤으로 추정된다(USDA, 1998). 전세계 쌀 수확량으로부터 약 7백만 톤의 쌀겨기름을 생산할 수 있다. 이 양은 연간 총생산 식물성유의 약8%에 해당된다. 그러나 현재 연간 세계 미강유 생산이 80만 톤 미만으로서 모든 식물성유의 약1%로 추정된다 대규모 정미기가 갖추어져야만 실용적인 규모로 미강으로부터 기름을 추출하고 미강의 안정화 시스템 설비를 구비할 수 있다. 그러나 세계 미곡 생산량의 대부분이 소규모 정미기로 가공된다. 이러한 이유 때문에 가까운 장래에 전체 미강 생산의 50%이상으로부터 미강유를 생산할수 있을 것 같지는 않다.

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Enzymatic Synthesis of Low Trans Fats Using Rice Bran Oil, Palm Stearin and High Oleic Sunflower Seed Oil (미강유, 팜스테아린 및 고올레인산 해바라기씨유를 이용한 저트랜스 유지의 효소적 합성)

  • Kim, Ji-Young;Lee, Ki-Teak
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.470-478
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    • 2009
  • Low trans fats were synthesized by interesterification of rice bran oil (RBO), palm stearin (PS) and high oleic sunflower seed oil (HO) using TLIM from Thermomyces lanuginosa. After 24-h reaction, physicochemical characteristics such as fatty acid and triacylglycerol composition, solid fat content, melting point, tocopherol, oryzanol and phytosterol contents were evaluated. Trans fatty acid contents of the produced low-trans fats showed less than 0.5 wt%. Mostly, triacylglycerol species in the products were palmitoyl-linoleoyl-oleoyl-glycerol (PLO), palmitoyl-oleoyl-oleoyl-glycerol (POO) and palmitoyl-oleoyl-palmitoyl-glycerol (POP). Total tocopherol contents ranged from 6.94 to 11.83 mg/100 g while $0.18{\sim}0.49$ mg/100 g of $\gamma$-oryzanol and $182.47{\sim}269.08$ mg/100 g of phytosterols were observed depending on the substrates ratios. When the content of PS in the reaction substrate was increased, solid fat content and slip melting points were increased.

Changes in Nutraceutical Lipid Constituents of Pre- and Post-Geminated Brown Rice Oil (발아 전후 현미유에서의 기능성 지질성분 변화)

  • Kwak, Ji-Eun;Yoon, Sung-Won;Kim, Dae-Jung;Yoon, Mi-Ra;Lee, Jeong-Heui;Oh, Sea-Kwan;Kim, In-Hwan;Lee, Jun-Soo;Lee, Jeom-Sig;Chang, Jae-Ki
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.591-600
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    • 2013
  • This study investigated the changes in the nutraceutical lipid components of brown rice oil after germination. Four different high-yielding cultivars (Dasan1, Segyejinmi, Hanareum1 and Hanareum2) of Korean brown rice were selected and brown rice oil was extracted from each cultivar before and after germination. Free fatty acid, squalene, policosanols, and isomers of phytosterol were analyzed using GC, and isomers of tocols (tocopherol and tocotrienol) and ${\gamma}$-oryzanol were quantified using HPLC from both brown rice oil (BRO) and germinated brown rice oil (GBRO). The contents of phytosterol isomers, campesterol, stigmasterol, and ${\beta}$-sitosterol were increased by 8.3%, 31.6%, 3.3% in GBRO, respectively. Furthermore, the squalene content showed the highest increase of up to 2.4 fold in GBRO compared to BRO. In addition, linoleic and linolenic acid composition increased whereas oleic and palmitic acid decreased in the GRBO. However, the contents of tocols (tocopherol and tocotrienol) in GBRO were lower than those in BRO, and there was no significant difference in policosanol and ${\gamma}$-oryzanol between GBRO and BRO. These results suggest that GBRO has the potential as a healthy and functional source due to its lipid profile on improved lipid metabolism.

The Change in Biological Activities of Brown Rice and Germinated Brown Rice (품종별 현미 발아 전후의 생리활성물질 변화)

  • Kim, Dae-Jung;Oh, Sea-Kwan;Yoon, Mi-Ra;Chun, A-Reum;Choi, Im-Soo;Lee, Dong-Hyun;Lee, Jun-Soo;Yu, Kwang-Won;Kim, Yeon-Kyu
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.781-789
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    • 2011
  • We studied the biological activities, including antioxidant compounds, antioxidant activities, anti-proliferative activities, and immunological activities of brown rice and germinated brown rice. We examined the DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging activity, and reducing power of 70% ethanol extracts from some cultivars of brown rice and germinated brown rice. The total polyphenol, total flavonoid, and ${\gamma}$-oryzanol contents of the extracts were measured with spectrophotometric methods. The Hongjinjubeyo brown rice and germinated brown rice extracts showed markedly higher antioxidative activity than those of 70% ethanol extracts from other cultivars. The 70% ethanol extracts from brown rice and germinated brown rice had the most effective anti-proliferative activity (cytotoxicity) against breast cancer cells (MCF-7) compared to colorectal cancer cells (HCT-116). A $500\;{\mu}g$/mL concentration of 70% Hongjinjubyeo ethanol extract had higher macrophage and mitogenic activities of immunological activity than other cultivars.

Antioxidant Compounds and Antioxidant Activities of Ethanol Extracts from Milling By-products of Rice Cultivars (벼 품종별 도정 부산물 에탄올 추출물의 항산화 성분 및 항산화 효과)

  • Oh, Sea-Kwan;Kim, Dae-Jung;Chun, A-Reum;Yoon, Mi-Ra;Kim, Kee-Jong;Lee, Jun-Soo;Hong, Ha-Cheol;Kim, Yeon-Kyu
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.624-630
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to determine antioxidant compounds and antioxidative activities of by-products including rice bran and half-crashed rice by rice milling. DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging activities and reducing power have been used to investigate the relative antioxidative activities of 70% EtOH extracts from by-products. The contents of total polyphenol, total flavonoid and $\gamma$-oryzanol in EtOH extracts were measured by spectrophotometric methods, and vitamin E was carried out by HPLC. Ethanol extract from rice bran showed markedly antioxidative activity than that from half-crushed rice. Among EtOH extracts from milling by-products, rice bran of 'Hongjiju' tended to have the most effective antioxidative activity compared to the others. These results suggested that by-products of rice milling have the potent antioxidative activity and these activity are partly due to the antioxidative compounds present in by-products including rice bran and half-crushed rice.