Flooding Risk under Climate Change of Fast Growing Cities in Vietnam

베트남 급성장 도시지역의 기후변화 홍수재해 위험성 분석

  • Kim, So Yoon (National Territorial Environment & Resources Research Division, KRIHS) ;
  • Lee, Byoung Jae (Global Development Partnership Center, KRIHS) ;
  • Lee, Jongso (National Territorial Environment & Resources Research Division, KRIHS)
  • 김소윤 (국토연구원 국토환경.자원연구본부) ;
  • 이병재 (국토연구원 글로벌개발협력센터) ;
  • 이종소 (국토연구원 국토환경.자원연구본부)
  • Received : 2020.06.04
  • Accepted : 2020.06.19
  • Published : 2020.06.30


Vietnamese cities have a high risk of flooding under climate change due to their geographical characteristics. In this situation, the urban area is expanding with rapid growth of urban population. However, the risk of flooding is increasing due to the increase in impermeable areas and insufficient infrastructure. This study analyzed the urban expansion trend at the national level in Vietnam for the past 10 years (2007-2017) by using the Urban Expansion Intensity Index. Also, this study selected Hue City as a region with a large impact of climate change and a rapid expansion and found the possibility of flooding in the urban expansion area. The result showed that cities have been expanded around major cities in the Red River Delta, Mekong Delta, and coastal areas. In the case of Hue City, the area with fast expansion rate has a higher expected flood area. It implies that the risk of flood disasters may increase if the urabn expansion is carried out without disaster prevention measures. It is expected that Korean urban disaster prevention policies such as urban climate change disaster vulnerability analysis system will be helpful in establishing urban plans considering climate change in the fast growing regions such as Vietnam.


  1. ADB. (2013). Viet Nam: Environment and Climate Change Assessment. Manila, Philippines: Asian Development Bank.
  2. Bangalore, M., Smith, A., and Veldkamp, T. (2017). Exposure to Floods, Climate Change, and Poverty in Vietnam. The World Bank.
  3. Chang, H. J., Lee, H. J., and Lee, H. S. (2019). Regionalization of Conceptual Rainfall-Runoff Model to Simulate Runoff Induced by Typhoons. Korea Society of Disaster and Security. 12(4): 63-72.
  4. Choi, C. I. (2004). A Empirical Study on the Urban Flood Vulnerability by Urbanization Using Panel Data : In Case of Kyonggi Province. The Korea Spatial Planning Review. 42: 17-37.
  5. Dutta, D., Khatun, F., and Herath, S. (2005). Analysis of flood vulnerability of urban buildings and population in Hanoi, Vietnam. Seisan Kenkyu. 57(4): 338-342.
  6. Duy, P. N., Chapman, L., Tight, M., Linh, P. N., and Thuong, L. V. (2018). Increasing Vulnerability to Floods in New Development Areas: Evidence from Ho Chi Minh City. International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management.
  7. Eckstein, D., Kunzel, V., Schafer, L., and Winges, M. (2019). Global Climate Risk Index 2020. Germanwatch.
  8. Ha, G. J. and Jung, J. C. (2017). The Impact of Urbanization and Precipitation on Flood damages. Journal of Korea Planning Association. 52(4): 237-252.
  9. Kang, S. J. (2016). Analysis of Developed Area Expansion and Fragmentation Changes - Focused on the Gangwon Region. Urban Design. 17(6): 5-16.
  10. Kang, S. J. and Kwon, T. J. (2017). Spatial Relations of the Urban Expansion Intensity and Flooded Buildings. Journal of the Korean Society of Civil Engineers. 37(4): 759-764.
  11. Lee, B. J. and Kim, S. Y. (2019). Roles of Urban Planning to Prevent Climate Change Disaster in Vietnam. Crisisonomy. 15(10): 61-73.
  12. Lee, H. Y. (2014). Climate Change Vulnerability in Developing Countries and Challenges to Address Climate Change. Journal of Environmental Studies. 53: 95-101.
  13. Lee, J. W., Yoon, C. R., and Yu, Y. M. (2011). A Study on Geographical Analysis of Natural Disaster and Disaster Risk Management in Vietnam on Viewpoint of International Cooperation. The Geographical Journal of Korea. 45(2): 265-278.
  14. Lee, S. E., Lee, B. J., Lee, J. S., and Kim, S. Y. (2018). Development of the Urban Flooding Risk Prevention System III. Korea Research Institute for Human Settlement.
  15. Nhu, O. L., Thuy, N. T. T., Wilderspin, I., and Coulier, M. (2011). A Preliminary Analysis of Flood and Storm Disaster Data in Vietnam. United Nations Development Programme.
  16. Razafindrabe, B. H., Kada, R., Arima, M., and Inoue, S. (2014). Analyzing Flood Risk and Related Impacts to Urban Communities in Central Vietnam. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change. 19(2): 177-198.
  17. Ryu, Ji Eun, Hwang, Jin Hoo, Lee, Jun Hee, Chung, Hye In, Lee, Kyung Il, Choi, Yu Young, Joo, Yong Eon, Sung, Min Jun, Jang, Rae Ik, Sung, Hyun Chan, Jeon, Seong Woo, and Kang, Jin Young (2017). Analysis of Changes in Forest According to Urban Expansion Pattern and Morphological Features. Korean Journal of Remote Sensing. 33(5): 835-854.
  18. Shin, S. Y. and Park, C. Y. (2014). Analyzing Relationships between Land Use Characteristics and Flood Damage Areas : The Case of Seoul. The Korea Spatial Planning Review. 81: 3-20.
  19. Tran, P., Friend, R., MacClune, K., and Henceroth, J. (2016). Building Urban Climate Resilience: Experiences from Vulnerability Assessment in Hue City, Viet Nam. In Sustainable Development and Disaster Risk Reduction. Sustainable Development and Disaster Risk Reduction. 57-69.
  20. VUPDA (2018). Basic Data Construction for Development and Utilization of Vietnam Urban Flooding Prevention Aid System. Hanoi, Vietnam: Vietnam Urban Planning and Development Association.
  21. World Bank (2012). Vietnam Urban Briefs : Disaster Risks in the Urban Environment. World Bank: Washington DC, USA.