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Exploring Topic-Specific PCK Progression for Elementary Teachers Instruction of Astronomy: Focusing on the Topic of Planet Size and Distance in Solar System

천문 수업에 대한 초등 교사의 주제-특이적 PCK 발달과정 탐색 -태양계 행성의 크기와 거리 주제를 중심으로-

  • Received : 2016.07.01
  • Accepted : 2016.08.16
  • Published : 2016.08.31

Abstract

Understanding of how teachers change instruction can help predict what kind of educational materials is supportive or appropriate. On the basis of this idea, we explored elementary teachers' PCK progression on specific topics of astronomy: planet size and distance in solar system. To identify the development of PCK over time, we utilized learning progression (LP) as a conceptual framework. The progression of teacher PCK can also be illustrated as the hypothetical pathway from novice to expert like LP. Eight 5th grade elementary teachers participated in this study. We observed participating teachers' astronomy classes with the same topic. In order to document topic-specific PCK of participating teachers, we developed an analytic protocol consisting of four categories: knowledge of curriculum, knowledge of teaching strategies, knowledge of assessment, and astronomical thinking practice. In addition, we monitored the changes in the four participating teachers' PCK for two years in order to validate the evidences of the PCK progression. Participating teachers in this study took some intervention by attending a four-week pre-meeting with the researchers to profile an adaptive instruction. Through this research, we profiled four and five different levels of PCK progressions in three knowledge components (curriculum, teaching strategies, student assessment) and one astronomical thinking practice (systems thinking), respectively. Participating teachers demonstrated various levels and pathways in each component of PCK. This study released the empirical evidences in fostering instructional scaffolding, which is appropriate to the level of PCK of science teachers on specific topic.

교사의 수업 전문성이 시간에 따라 어떻게 발달하는지 이해하는 것은 유효적절한 지원을 제공하는데 있어 기초가 된다. 이와 같은 전제에 근거하여 이 연구에서는 초등 교사의 천문 수업 중 행성의 크기와 거리에 대해 주제-특이적 PCK 발달과정을 탐색하고자 하였다. 교사의 PCK가 시간에 따라 어떻게 발달하는지 파악하기 위해 이 연구에서는 학생의 학습발달과정(learning progressions; 이하 LPs)이라는 개념틀을 적용하였다. LPs와 마찬가지로 교사의 수업전문성 발달 또한 초보에서 적응적 전문가로 발달하는 가설적인 경로로 기술될 수 있다는 것이다. 이 연구를 위해 서울, 강원, 광주 지역 소재 6개 초등학교 5학년 교사 8명이 참여하였으며, 2013년과 2014년에 걸쳐 '태양계와 별' 단원 '의 수업을 녹화하였다. 녹화된 수업에서 참여 교사의 주제-특이적 PCK를 문서화하기 위해 수업 분석틀을 개발하여 적용하였다. 이 연구는 천문 수업에서 행성의 크기와 거리 주제에 대한 초등 교사들의 PCK 발달과정을 개발하는 것이 주된 목적이긴 하지만, 이와 더불어 개발된 PCK 발달과정의 타당성 근거를 확보하는 것도 또 하나의 중요한 목적이므로 2013년과 2014년에 중복 참여한 4명 교사들의 PCK 변화를 종단적으로 추적하였다. 종단 연구에 참여한 교사들은 연구자들과 함께 적응적 교수활동을 개발하는 4주간의 사전 모임에 참여하였다. 이 연구를 통해 3개 PCK 요소(교육과정, 교수전략, 학생평가)에 대해 4~5수준의 발달과정을 개발하였으며, 1개 천문학적 사고 요소(시스템 사고)에 대해 4수준의 발달 과정을 개발하였다. 참여 교사들은 PCK 요소별로 서로 다른 발달 수준을 나타내었으며, 적응적 교수활동 개발 및 적용을 통해 PCK 수준이 다양한 경로로 변화되는 것으로 나타났다. 이 연구는 특정 주제에 대한 과학 교사의 PCK 발달 수준에 적절한 수업 스캐폴딩을 촉진하는데 있어 경험적인 근거를 제시하였다는 점에서 의미를 가진다.

Keywords

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 한국연구재단

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