• Title/Summary/Keyword: 학습 발달과정

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Developing and Assessing a Learning Progression for the Ecosystem (생태계에 대한 학습발달과정의 개발과 평가)

  • Yeo, Chaeyeong;Lee, Hyonyong
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.29-43
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    • 2016
  • There have been much efforts to reconstruct the science curriculum focusing on Disciplinary Core Ideas(DCI) in many countries such as America and Europe, the most practical effort has been to design a curriculum with learning progressions(LPs). LPs describe stepwise how students can systematically move toward the understanding of more sophisticated ideas or scientific activities and explain in succession the process of understanding the ideas while the students learn. In this study, a LP for ecosystems has been developed, and the developed LP is then evaluated accordingly. The Ecosystem is one of the DCI of the life science in Next Generation Science Standards(NGSS). The development process of the LP was set at step 4(Development, Assessment, Analysis, and Amendment), and developed through an iterative process of sequences. As a result of analyzing the developed LP, an assessment based on the LP provides reliable information to identifying student ability. This study proposes the development process of the LP and its methodological aspects to use Core Achievement Standards, Ordered Multiple-Choice items and the Rasch model. In addition, using the empirically proven LP suggests a way of strengthening curriculum linked to educational content, teaching methods and assessment. Utilizing the proposed development process in this study will be to present the standard into the direction of becoming part of the curriculum. Currently, the state of domestic research for the LP is still lacking. This study determined the development process of the LP and the need to conduct future research on the LPs.

Present States, Methodological Features, and an Exemplar Study of the Research on Learning Progressions (학습 발달과정 연구의 현황, 방법론적 특징 및 연구 사례)

  • Maeng, Seungho;Seong, Yeonseon;Jang, Shinho
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.161-180
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this paper is to introduce the current studies and research methods about Learning Progressions disseminated to several countries including the U.S. since 2006. It also provides a methodological base to investigate learning progressions in science by introducing a case study of learning progression conducted in Korea. For this study, we described several features of current studies on learning progressions in the U.S., and reported the common ways and sequences employed in examining learning progressions especially with respect to assessment for learning. Learning progressions are descriptions of developmental pathways of learning a topic, in which science knowledge is used in students' engaging in science practices. Each learning progression consists of upper anchor, lower anchor, and intermediate steps that connect both anchors. In investigating a learning progression, researchers usually utilize Wilson's four building blocks of assessment system based on the assessment triangle. This kind of method was also applied in investigating the learning progression for water cycle in this study. We discussed implication and consideration for the future research on learning progressions in science in Korea.

Exploring 6th Graders Learning Progression for Lunar Phase Change: Focusing on Astronomical Systems Thinking (달의 위상 변화에 대한 초등학교 6학년 학생들의 학습 발달과정 탐색: 천문학적 시스템 사고를 중심으로)

  • Oh, Hyunseok;Lee, Kiyoung
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.103-116
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study was to explore $6^{th}$ graders learning progression for lunar phase change focusing astronomical systems thinking. By analyzing the results of previous studies, we developed the constructed-response items, set up the hypothetical learning progressions, and developed the item analysis framework based on the hypothetical learning progressions. Before and after the instruction on the lunar phase change, we collected test data using the constructed-response items. The results of the assessment were used to validate the hypothetical learning progression. Through this, we were able to explore the learning progression of the earth-moon system in a bottom-up. As a result of the study, elementary students seemed to have difficulty in the transformation between the earth-based perspective and the space-based perspective. In addition, based on the elementary school students' learning progression on lunar phase change, we concluded that the concept of the lunar phase change was a bit difficult for elementary students to learn in elementary science curriculum.

The Development and Validation of Learning Progression for Solar System Structure Using Multi-tiers Supply Form Items (다층 서답형 문항을 이용한 태양계 구조 학습 발달과정 개발 및 타당성 검증)

  • Oh, Hyunseok;Lee, Kiyoung
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.291-306
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    • 2020
  • In this study, we developed a learning progression for the structure of the solar system using multi-tier supply form items and validated its appropriateness. To this end, by applying Wilson's (2005) construct modeling approach, we set up 'solar system components,' 'size and distance pattern of solar system planets,' and 'solar system modeling' as the progress variables of the learning progression and constructed multi-tier supply form items for each of these variables. The items were applied to 150 fifth graders before and after the classes that dealt with the 'solar system and star' unit. To describe the results of the assessment, the students' responses to each item were categorized into five levels. By analyzing the Wright map that was created by applying the partial credit Rasch model, we validated the appropriateness of the learning progression based on the students' responses. In addition, the validity of the hypothetical pathway that was established in the learning progression was verified by tracking changes in the developmental level of students before and after the classes. The results of the research are as follows. The bottom-up research method that used multi-tier supply form items was able to elaborately set the empirical learning progression for the conceptualization of the structure of the solar system that is taught in elementary school. In addition, the validity of the learning progression was high, and the development of students was found to change with the learning progression.

Exploring a Learning Progression for Eight Core Concepts of Middle School Science Using Constructed Response Items in the National Assessment of Educational Achievement (NAEA) (국가수준 학업성취도 평가의 서답형 문항을 이용한 중학교 과학 8개 핵심 개념에 대한 학습발달과정 탐색)

  • Lee, Kiyoung;Dong, Hyokwan;Choi, Wonho;Kwon, Gyeongpil;Lee, Inho;Kim, Yong-Jin
    • Journal of Science Education
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.382-404
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    • 2017
  • This study aims to explore a learning progression for eight core concepts of middle school science using constructed response items in the national assessment of educational achievement (NAEA). For this purpose, a total of 7,390 responses of the 9th graders on 8 constructed response items in NAEA conducted in 2015 were inputted by computer and the inputted answers were analyzed and classified into different levels. After completing this process, five levels were set for each construct and a construct map was created according to the levels. In this study, the construct map was written in a progression-based rubric format, which was used as a criterion for leveling the answers of all students. In addition, the Rasch model was applied to measure the scores and achievements of the respondents by means of statistical analysis to correlate the scores of the students with the achievement levels of the constructs. Lastly, a preliminary learning progression was created by revising the construct map reflecting the results of Rasch model application. This study was meaningful in that it explored the possibility of developing the learning process by using constructed response items in NAEA. However, the preliminary learning progression developed in this study is still hypothetical and inferential because it is not longitudinally traced to individual students. Therefore, it is necessary to continually revise and supplement through iterative research process.

Exploring a Learning Progression for Integrated Process Skills in Earth Science Inquiry (지구과학 탐구에서 통합 탐구 기능에 대한 학습발달과정 탐색)

  • Lee, Kiyoung;Park, Jaeyong
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.222-238
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study is to explore a learning progression for integrated process skills in Earth science inquiry. For the purpose, a hypothetical learning progression (HLP) that capture how students' integrated process skills of science become sophisticated over time is developed through the literature review. This learning progression contains four components of the integrated process skills of science: designing inquiry, collecting data, analyzing data, and forming conclusion. Three hypothetico-deductive inquiry tasks of Earth science that start from recognition of the given problem to the forming conclusion are developed in order to document students' integrated process skills. A total of 126 students from middle, high, college level students participated in this study. After conducting the Earth science inquiry tasks, the integrated process skills of individual students are assessed by element based on HLP. In addition, the validation process for HLP was administered by applying the Rasch model using the students' assessment data. Finally, based on the analyzed data, the empirical learning progression (ELP) is developed by revising and supplementing the HLP. This study can help to find scaffolding methods to effectively improve the students' integrated process skills in Earth science inquiry class by identifying the factors that affect students' development of integrated process skills. It also provide implications for improving teachers' PCK of Earth science inquiry instruction.

Development and Validation of a Learning Progression for Astronomical Systems Using Ordered Multiple-Choice Items (순위 선다형 문항을 이용한 천문 시스템 학습 발달과정 개발 및 타당화 연구)

  • Maeng, Seungho;Lee, Kiyoung;Park, Young-Shin;Lee, Jeong-A;Oh, Hyunseok
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.34 no.8
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    • pp.703-718
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    • 2014
  • This study sought to investigate learning progressions for astronomical systems which synthesized the motion and structure of Earth, Earth-Moon system, solar system, and the universe. For this purpose we developed ordered multiple-choice items, applied them to elementary and middle school students, and provided validity evidence based on the consequence of assessment for interpretation of learning progressions. The study was conducted according to construct modeling approach. The results showed that the OMCs were appropriate for investigating learning progressions on astronomical systems, i.e., based on item fit analysis, students' responses to items were consistent with the measurement of Rasch model. Wright map analysis also represented that the assessment items were very effective in examining students' hypothetical pathways of development of understanding astronomical systems. At the lower anchor of the learning progression, while students perceived the change of location and direction of celestial bodies with only two-dimensional earth-based view, they failed to connect the locations of celestial bodies with Earth-Moon system model, and they could recognized simple patterns of planets in the solar system and milky way. At the intermediate levels, students interpreted celestial motion using the model of Earth rotation and revolution, Earth-Moon system, and solar system with space-based view, and they could also relate the elements of astronomical structures with the models. At the upper anchor, students showed the perspective change between space-based view and earth-based view, and applied it to celestial motion of astronomical systems, and they understood the correlation among sub-elements of astronomical systems and applied it to the system model.

A Proposal of Curriculum and Teaching Sequence for Seasonal Change by Exploring a Learning Progression (학습 발달과정 탐색을 통한 계절의 변화 교육과정 및 교수 계열 제안)

  • Heo, Jaewan;Lee, Kiyoung
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.260-274
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study was to propose curriculum and teaching sequence for seasonal change by exploring a learning progression. For the purpose, 4 steps of construct modeling approach (specifying construct, item design, outcome space, and measurement model) proposed by Wilson (2005) was applied. In the stage of specifying construct, 'length of shadow according to seasons', 'position of constellation according to seasons', 'seasons of the southern hemisphere and northern hemisphere', 'cause and phenomenon of seasonal change' were selected as the subconstructs of seasonal changes, and constructed a construct map showing the level of development from level 1 to level 4 for each subconstruct based on the results of the previous research. In the item design stage, we developed five assessment items consisting of 3 items in the form of C-E (choose and explain) and two items in the form of CR (constructed response), applied it to 383 elementary, middle and high school students. In the outcome space stage, the students' responses to the assessment items were categorized based on the construct map. The categories were classified into 4 levels according to student ability and scores of 1-4 were given. In the measurement model stage, we applied the partial credit model of the Rasch model and compared whether the learning pathway created from the results of students' response coincides with the construct map. Based on the results of the research, we modified the construct map and finally created hypothetical learning progression on seasonal change. Finally, we proposed an orientation of curriculum amendment and effective teaching sequence for seasonal change.

Investigation of Learning Progression for Dissolution and Solution Concepts (용해와 용액 개념에 대한 학습발달과정 조사)

  • Noh, Taehee;Lee, Jaewon;Yang, Chanho;Kang, Sukjin;Kang, Hunsik
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.295-302
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    • 2016
  • In this study, we investigated a learning progression focusing on $5^{th}$ to $9^{th}$ graders' performances with dissolution and solution concepts using the construct modeling approach. We designed a construct map describing hypothetical pathways of the concept development of dissolution and solution by analyzing both National Science Curricula and related studies. A conceptions test consisting of ordered multiple-choice items was developed and administered to 826 students. A revised construct map was derived from analyses of the results based on the partial credit model, a branch of polytomous item response theory. The sequence of dissolution and solution concepts presented in the current science curriculum was found to correspond with the learning progression of the students. However, the lower anchor, the concept of the homogeneity of particles in solution, and the factors affecting solubility were not consistent with the expected levels of the construct map. After revising the construct map, we proposed a learning progression for dissolution and solution concepts with five levels: Students of level 1 (the lower anchor) recognize the particles in the solution but misunderstand various concepts; Students of level 2 understand the homogeneity of particles in solution; Students of level 3 understand solubility and the conservation of particles during dissolution; Students of level 4 partially understand the interaction between particles; and Students of level 5 (the upper anchor) understand the interaction between particles and the factors affecting solubility.

Theoretical Exploration of a Process-centered Assessment Model for STEAM Competency Based on Learning Progressions (학습발달과정에 근거한 과정중심 STEAM 역량 평가 모델에 대한 이론적 탐색)

  • Ryu, Suna;Kwak, Youngsun;Yang, Sung Ho
    • Journal of Science Education
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.132-147
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    • 2018
  • The goal of this research is to suggest a theoretical process-centered assessment model based on Learning Progressions of key competencies in the context of STEAM instructions. The "Process-Products Combined Module-type (P2CM) STEAM Assessment Model (P2CM STEAM Assessment Model, hereafter) can be used both as an instructional model and as an assesment model, applicable for various STEAM topics and instructional types. consists of 3 axes. The first X axis stands for 4C competencies that should be emphasized through STEAM instruction. The second Y axis stands for the types and the hierarchy of STEAM instructions. The third Z axis stands for the assessment standards based on LP. We also exemplified an assessment module combined creativity competency with creativity-based instruction based on . Based on the research results, we suggested elaboration of assessment models based on Korean LP research outcomes, development and supply of formative assessment models through field-based in-depth research, modification of formative assessment models with the participation of teacher communities and in-service teachers, and the necessity of further research on assessment models for tracking LP.