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Pre-service Biology Teachers' Value Orientation Related to Observation and Representation: Focus on Objectivity

관찰과 재현에 대한 예비 생물교사들의 가치지향점 -객관성을 중심으로-

  • Received : 2016.07.21
  • Accepted : 2016.08.13
  • Published : 2016.08.31

Abstract

This study aims to explore pre-service biology teachers' value orientation in terms of scientific observation and representation in plant cell microscope observation experiment. This study focuses on the pre-service teachers' value orientation in relation to objectivity. To achieve this aim, we used a hypothetical situation that pre-service teachers should teach tacit knowledge related to observation and representation during the cell observation class. We presented a hypothetical situation to fifty pre-service biology teachers and collected their answer about that hypothetical situation. These answers were categorized inductively based on constant comparative analysis. The result shows that four types of pre-service teachers' value orientation, 'presence confirmation', 'mechanical objectivity', 'students' subjectivity', and 'trained judgement', are confirmed. This result also shows that various value orientation could be reflected on teaching an experiment and tacit knowledge related to the experiment. Also, many pre-service teachers value 'mechanical objectivity' in observation and image representation. Also, pre-service teachers' value orientation and perception of objectivity in scientific practice could have an influence in teaching science, this result could give provide suggestions on science teachers' education in terms of scientific practice.

과학교육현장에서 이루어지는 과학적 실천(practice) 과정에는 다양한 암묵적 지식이 존재한다. 교사는 이 암묵적 지식을 학생들에게 지도하는데 있어 자신의 과학에 대한 가치지향점을 반영할 가능성이 높다. 따라서 이 연구에서는 현미경 세포 관찰 실험 상황에서 관찰 및 이미지 재현이라는 과학적 실천의 지도 과정에서 나타나는 예비교사들의 가치지향점을 확인해보고자 한다. 특히 이 연구에서는 과학적 관찰행동의 가장 큰 지향점인 객관성을 중심으로 예비교사들의 인식을 확인해보고자 한다. 이를 위하여 예비교사 50명에게 현미경 세포 관찰 실험에서 일어날 수 있는 상황에 대하여 자신의 생각을 서술하게 하였고, 서술한 자료들은 과학교육 전문가 2인의 반복적 비교분석을 통해 귀납적으로 범주화되었다. 그 결과 존재의 확인을 위한 수단으로서 관찰을 인식하는 '존재 확인 지향', 관찰은 객관적으로 이루어져야 한다는 '기계적 객관성 지향', 관찰의 주관적 성격을 인정하는 '학생의 주관성 지향', 관찰 대상과 표본 제작 및 관찰 과정에서 나타나는 인공적 산물을 구별하는 능력을 중시하는 '훈련된 판단 지향'의 4가지 유형을 확인할 수 있었다. 이 중 '기계적 객관성 지향' 유형이 예비 생물교사들에게 가장 많이 나타나 객관성이 관찰과 이미지 재현 행위에 대해 중요한 신념으로 작용함을 알 수 있었다. 또한 하나의 실험과 그 실험에 매개된 암묵적 지식에 대한 지도 과정에서 예비교사들의 다양한 가치지향점이 반영될 수 있음을 확인할 수 있었다. 교사들의 과학적 실천에 대한 이러한 가치지향점은 학생들의 지도행위와 평가에 직접적 영향을 미친다는 점에서 앞으로 교사교육에 많은 시사점을 줄 수 있을 것이다.

Keywords

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