• Title/Summary/Keyword: patulin

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EFFECT OF PATULIN ON THE GROWTH OF BACTERIOPHAGE M13

  • Lee, Kil-Soo
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.53-59
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    • 1989
  • A mycotoxin Patulin, isolated from apple juice medium cultured with Penicillium patulum NRRL5259, was purified through acid aluminum column using ethyl ether as eluent. The yield of purified patulin crystal was 3mg/ml culture medium after 8 days of shaking culture at 28C. The growth rate of Escherichia coli K12JM103 infected with bacteriophage M13 was decreased by patulin at the concentration range of 1Mug/ml to 10Mu/nl. ED50 of patulin for the bacterial growth was 4.5Mug/ml and 10Mug/ml of patulin caused maximum inhibitory effect (60% inhibition) on the growth.

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Patulin Producing Capacity in Broth Culture Media of Penicillium crustosum Isolated from Korean Apple (국내산 사과로부터 분리된 Penicillium crustosum의 액상배지에서의 Patulin 생성능 평가)

  • Kim, Dong-Ho;Yun, Hye-Jeong;Lim, Sang-Yong;Baik, Sang-Ho;Jo, Min-Hoe;Kim, Sooh-Hun
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.315-322
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    • 2007
  • The patulin producing capicity of Penicillium crustosum, an isolate from Korean apple, in various broth culture media, was investigated, and compared with patulin production by the standard strain P. griseofulvum(ATCC 46037). The maximal patulin production capacity of the P. griseofulvum ATCC 46037 was 2,029-2,829 ppm in 5-GYEP, SY and MEB broth media. The patulin-producing capacity of the isolated fungus(P. crustosum) attained 2,794 ppm in a 5-GYEP broth medium, but was only 324 and 11 ppm in SY and MEB media, respectively. There were no significant correlations between mycelial growth levels and patulin-producing ability in either P. crustosum or P. griseofulvum. The patulin production of P. griseofulvum was induced in the wide pH range of pH 3.0-11.0, while that of P. crustosum was induced in the acidic pH range pH 3.0-5.0. Patulin production levels were dependent on the carbon sources in the media and maximal patulin production by P. griseofulvum and P. crustosum was observed in media containing glycerol and fructose, respectively.

Isolation and Characterization of Penicillium crustosum, a Patulin Producing Fungus, from Apples

  • Yun, Hye-Jeong;Lim, Sang-Yong;Chung, Jin-Woo;Jo, Cheo-Run;Park, Jong-Chun;Kwon, Joong-Ho;Kim, Dong-Ho
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.896-901
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    • 2006
  • Patulin is a food mycotoxin which induces genotoxicity and acute intestinal disease in infants. Patulin mainly originates from fruit putrefactive moulds, especially in apples, which necessitates the maintenance of strong safety standards against patulin for fresh and processed apples. To investigate the patulin producing moulds in Korean apples, 16 morphological types of fungi were isolated from Korean apples and a patulin producing fungus was identified based on a sequence analysis of the region of internal transcribed spacers (ITS5-5.8S-ITS4 region, 505 base pair) and the 26 rRNA D1/D2 region (527 base pair). Morphological analyses were also performed. The isolated patulin producing fungus was found to a representative species of Penicillium crustosum. The maximal patulin production ability of the isolated fungus (P. crustosum) and the patulin producing standard strain (P. griseofulvum, ATCC 46037) in an SY broth medium were 0.32 and 2.46 mg/L, respectively.

CYTOTOXICITY OF PATULIN AND ITS EFFECT ON THE LAMBDA DNA CLEAVAGE BY RESTRICTION ENDONUCLEASE

  • Lee, Kil-Soo
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.157-163
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    • 1991
  • The effect of patulin, a mycotoxin, on the growth of Escherichia coli cell was investigated. E. coli cell elongation usually shown in SOS-response for DNA repair was induced by 20 mg of patulin per ml. After staining the E. coli chromosome with fluorescence dye(DAPI, 4', 6-diamino-2-phenyl-indole), chromosomal DNA partitioning was not affected by patulin. The observation indicateds that patulin acts as a DNA damaging agent which is effective for E. coli cell elongation introduced by the inhibition of septum formation.

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Determination of Patulin in Commercial Apple Juice in Korea by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (High Performance Liquid Chromatography를 이용한 국내 시판 사과 주스의 Patulin 분석)

  • Cho, Wan-Il;Choi, Young-Boong;Moon, Tae-Wha
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.412-416
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    • 1997
  • Seven brands of commercial apple juice in Korea obtained from local stores were analyzed for patulin. Sep-Pak silica cartridge purification of the extract by ethyl acetate offered a good separation of patulin from other components. Patulin was determined by reverse phase liquid chromatography using a J'sphere $4\;{\mu}m$ ODS-H80 column with an ultraviolet detector set at 274 nm. Patulin concentrations in four samples ranged from 4 to $20\;{\mu}g/L$ and the other three samples from 30 to $45\;{\mu}g/L$. The limit of detection was $3\;{\mu}g/L$, and the recovery was $80{\sim}90%$ at the contamination level of $3.78{\sim}125.9\;{\mu}g/L$.

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Effect of Polyphosphates on the Growth of Penicillium griseofulvum and the Production of Patulin (Penicillium griseofulvum 성장과 Patulin 생성에 미치는 인산염의 효과)

  • 김승교;강성조;송재영;전향숙;강진순;김일환;정덕화
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.23-27
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    • 1995
  • To extend the shelf lives of rice and corn products, the effects of the polyphosphates[$Na(PO_3)n$, n=11] on the growth of Penicillium griseofulvum and patulin production were investigated. The growth was completely inhibited in the potatoes dextrose agar medium treated with 2% polyphosphate. Moisture content had a considerable influence on the production of patulin. At 30% moisture content, the amounts of patulin produced in rice and corn were $61.40 \mu g/ml$ and $40.74 \mu g/ml$, respectively, but the level of the toxin was significantly decreased to 93~95% by addition of 1% polyphosphates. No patulin was detected in both rice and corn medium added 2% polyphosphate when the incubation time prolonged. The result of scanning electron microscopy was supposed that the biocidal action of polyphosphate on fungi was related to the collapse of cell wall structure.

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Survey and Control of the Occurrence of Mycotoxins from Postharvest Cereals (수확 후 곡류에 발생하는 진균독소의 캄색과 방제 1. 옥수수, 밀에서 분리한 Penicillium이 생산하는 주요 진균독소)

  • 오소영;정일민;백수봉;유승헌
    • Korean Journal Plant Pathology
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.700-704
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    • 1998
  • A total of 26 and 55 isolates of fungi were isolated from corn and wheat samples collected from different markets in Korea, respectively. The number of Penicillium isolates from corn and wheat was 9 and 33, respectively. The Penicillium species isolated from corn were P. chrysogenum (3 isolates) and P. oxalicum (6 isolates), and from wheat were P. aurantiogriseum (16 isolates), P. citrinum (1 isolate), P. commun (4 isolates), P. griseofulvum (1 isolate), P. verrucosum (7 isolates), and P. viridicatum (4 isolates). Production of major mycotoxins in the yeast extract sucrose medium cultures of Penicillium isolates was analysed. Penicillium cultures were extracted with chloroform and purified by thin-layer chromatograhy (TLC), and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Among 9 isolates of Penicillium from corn, 2 isolates of P. chrysogenum produced patulin, 1 isolate of the fungus produced patulin and citrinin, 2 isolates of P. oxalicum produced penicillic acid, 4 isolates produced pencillic acid and griseofulvin. Of the 33 isolates of Penicillium from wheat, 6 isolates of P. aurantiogriseum produced patulin, 8 isolates produced penicillic acid, 1 isolate produced patulin and penicillic acid, 1 isolate of P. citrinum produced citrinin and patulin, 2 isolates of P. commun produced brefeldin A and patulin, 1 isolate of P. griseofulvum produced brefeldin A, griseofulvin and patulin. Five isolates of P. verrucosum produced patulin, 1 isolate of the fungus produced penicillic acid, and 3 isolates of P. viridicatium produced penicillic acid.

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Monitoring of Patulin Content in Domestic Apples of Processing and Market Products (국내산 가공용 사과 및 시판제품의 Patulin 함량 모니터링)

  • Park, Nan-Young;Baek, Chang-Ho;Yim, Ga-Young;Oh, Hyun-Sook;Kim, Seung-Hwan;Yoo, Soon-Young;Jeong, Yong-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.550-555
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    • 2008
  • This study analyzed 102 samples from 24 local areas to monitor patulin contamination of apples for processing by the areas. According to the analysis, patulin was detected in 47 samples among totally 92 ones and those of 15 samples from 12 areas were found to be 50 or more ppb so measures to deal with the patulin contamination were necessary. As ways to reduce residues of patulin, when 200 ppm ascorbic acid were treated with they was decreased by 93.4% to 12.89 ppb, and when 100 ppm activated carbon was added they were declined by 95.8% to 2.68 ppb. Treatment with pectinase did not show any significant difference and effects of temperature was not considerable under established sterilizing conditions(90, 105, 120, 135 and $150^{\circ}C$/25 sec). In conclusion, treatment with ascorbic acid and activated carbon on apple juice was found to decrease residues of patulin but more systemic researches were needed to determine it in the future.

Study on the Isolation of Patulin-Producing Penicillium sp. from Natural Sources (자연계로부터 Patulin 생성 Penicillium sp.의 분야에 관한 연구)

  • 김동술;정덕화;김성영;정선희;강성조;전향숙
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.41-45
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    • 1993
  • To study the prevention of mycotoxin contamination, a large number of sample sources were collected, and Penicilliurn sp. were isolated. TLC and HPLC methods were applied to confirm the patulin producing abilities of isolated strains. From 321 sample sources such as fruit (46), rice (31), corn (19), barley (22) and soil (38), 203 strains of Penicilliurn sp. were isolated. By the result of TLC, 21 strains were assumed to be patulin producing strains, but as a result of HPLC, only 17 strains produced patulin. Among them, E-219 strain showed highest patulin level as 0.12 mg/ml broth.

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The Effects of Mixed Culture with Aspergillus flavus, Aspergilus niger and Penicillium griseofulvum on Aflatoxin and Patulin Production (Aspeygillus flavus, Aspergillus nicer 및 Peniciilum griseofulvum의 혼합배양이 aflatoxin 및 patulin 생성에 미치는 영향)

  • 강성조;강진순;정덕화
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.206-211
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    • 2001
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of mixed culture with mycotoxigenic and non-mycotoxigenic fungi on mycotoxin production. For this work, Aspegillus flavus (aflatoxin producing strain), Aspegillus niger (non-mycotoxigenic strain) and Penicillium griseofulvum (patulin producing strain)were cultured in 5 ml SLS medium for 15 days under single or mixed culture. Aflatoxin was determined by direct competitive ELISA, whereas, patulin was measured by HPLC. The mycelial growth, pH and total acidity were also observed by general methods. The mycelial growth was slightly decreased in the mixed culture, meanwhile total acidity was increased and pH was shown lower than that in single culture. Aspergillus flavus produced 145 $\mu\textrm{g}$/ml of aflatoxin for 12 days single culture, but in mixed culture, aflatoxin was decreased to 93%, and was shown as 10.16$\mu\textrm{g}$/ml level. Patulin production in mixed culture was also decreased to 69.3% and was shown only 23.72$\mu\textrm{g}$/ml level as compared with in single culture.

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