• Title, Summary, Keyword: nutritional state

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Enhanced apoptosis of IFN-$\gamma$ treated macrophage in a depleted nutritional state

  • Cho, Seong-Jun;Rhe, Dong-Kwon;Pyo, Suhk-Neung
    • Proceedings of the PSK Conference
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    • pp.138.2-138
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    • 2003
  • Apoptosis has been implicated as an important mediator in immunosuppression observed in a depleted nutritional state. The recent report has indicated that IFN-$\gamma$ treated bone marrow macrophages were protected from apoptosis induced by several stimuli in complete medium condition. However, our previous study demonstrated that IFN-$\gamma$ treated peritoneal macrophages were enhanced the apoposis in a depleted nutritional state. Therefor, we investigated the apoptotic regulatory mechanism of IFN-$\gamma$ in malnutrition-induced macrophage. (omitted)

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Formulation and Shelf Life of a Nutritional Supplement for Undernourished Elderly People

  • Ziegler, Fabiane La Flor;Faria, Jose de Assis;Sgarbieri, Valdemiro Carlos
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.241-246
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    • 2008
  • A nutritional supplement was developed aiming at correcting the most common nutrient and caloric deficiencies encountered in elderly people (${\geq}60$ years old). The protein source was a mixture of whey protein isolates (WPI) and bovine collagen hydrolysate (BCH) with high nutritional and functional qualities making up 12% of the formulation. The carbohydrate fraction was composed of sucrose, inulin (soluble fiber), and fructo-oligosaccharide (prebiotic). The most commonly deficient essential minerals and vitamins were also included. Acceptance of the product was good according to both an elderly panel and a laboratory panel composing of both sexes and various ages. The stability of the formulations was evaluated and the estimated shelf life at room temperature (ca. $27^{\circ}C$) was approximately 4 months.

Nutritional State and Dietary Behavior of the Free-Living Elderly Women (서울지역 여자 노인의 영양실태와 식생활 형태 - 노인대학을 중심으로 -)

  • Chang, Nam-Soo;Kim, Ji-Myung;Kim, Eun-Jung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.155-165
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    • 1999
  • The issue of health and nutritional wellbeing becomes one of the utmost concerns for the welfare of the elderly in a society of increased aging populations. This study was conducted to assess nutritional state and to identify possible dietary factors that might influence health and nutritional state of the free living elderly women. Two hundred sixty two elderly women, aged 60-90 who are actively participating in a continuing education program for the elderly in Seoul area, were interviewed using a dietary habit questionnaire and a 24-hour recall. Anthropometric measurements such as heights, weights, body mass index, and tricep skinfolds and dental status were significantly different between the two age groups, <75 and ${\geq}$ 75 years of age. Sixty eight percent of the subjects were using nutritional supplements regularly, in the descending order of vitamin-mineral supplements(40%), botanicals(27.6%), tonic drinks(16%), and health foods(13.2%). For hot beverages, our study subjects drank coffee (33.6%) and green tea (17.9%) frequently, followed by doongulae, job's tears, citron and kyulmyung tea. With regard to micronutrients, vitamin C intake was found to be lower in the group aged over 75 compared to that below 75 (p<0.05). Calcium intake was significantly higher among the elderly with good dental status followed by the groups with gingivitis, denture, and missed teeth with poor chewing abilities (p<0.05). The amount of personal spending money was found to be a significant contributing factor (p<0.05) to the energy and nutrient intake in an individual. The results of the present study can be applied to the identification of the possible factors that might intervene the aging process, to the planning of the nutrition education program, and to the development of health food products for the promotion of health and nutrition of the elderly women.

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The Relationship between Future Orientation, Regulatory Focus, and Need for Cognition and Healthy Menu Choices

  • Park, Sang-Hee;Cho, Soo-Hyun;Yoon, Hae-Jin
    • International Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.171-181
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    • 2012
  • The effect of nutritional information on healthier menu choices have been reflected in previous research and nutrition policy efforts. This study further examines the relationship between healthy menu choices and three consumer characteristics - Future Orientation, Regulatory Focus, and Need for Cognition. A $3{\times}3$ experimental design was used with varying food types (burger sandwiches, sub sandwiches, and salad dressing) and the degree of nutritional information (no information, total calories only, and full nutrition information). It was found that having more nutritional information, and individuals with Future Orientation and Promotion Focus were associated with the choice of healthier menus. More specifically, those with high Consideration of Future Consequences and with Promotion Orientation switched their choices to the healthier ones with the provision of nutritional information.

Corns with Different Nutritional Profiles on Growing and Finishing Pigs Feeding (30 to 90 kg)

  • De Oliveira, Gisele Cristina;Moreira, Ivan;De Souza, Ana Lucia Pozzobon;Murakami, Alice Eiko;Parra, Angela Rocio Poveda;De Oliveira Carvalho, Paulo Levi;Borile, Maicon Danner
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.7
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    • pp.982-992
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    • 2011
  • Three experiments were carried out to determine the nutritional value and to verify the pig performance in growing and finishing phases (30 to 90 kg) fed on diets containing common corn (CC), high-lysine corn (HLC) and high-oil corn (HOC). In the total digestibility trial (Exp. I) 12 barrows were used. Values of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) as-fed basis for CC, HLC and HOC, were: 3,396 and 3,275 kcal/kg; 3,248 and 3,139 kcal/kg; 3,445 and 3,308 kcal/kg, respectively. In order to determine the apparent and true ileal digestibility coefficients of amino acids, as well as the values of true digestible amino acids of the CC, HLC and HOC, an ileal digestibility trial was done (Exp. II) with T-cannulated barrows ("T" simple). The treatments consisted of three diets, with one of them as the sole source of protein (CC, HLC and HOC). In the performance experiment (Exp. III), 36 crossbred pigs, allotted in a completely randomized design with three treatments and 12 replications were used. Treatments consisted of three diets: 1 - CC; 2 - HLC and 3 - HOC. It was observed no difference for performance and carcass variables among the corns with different nutritional profiles. Results of the three experiments highlighted the importance of segregating corns in their real chemical and energetic composition as well as the values of true digestible amino acids for formulating diets for growing and finishing pigs.

Effects of Nutritional and Environmental Conditions on Planktonic Growth and Biofilm Formation of Citrobacter werkmanii BF-6

  • Zhou, Gang;Li, Long-Jie;Shi, Qing-Shan;Ouyang, You-Sheng;Chen, Yi-Ben;Hu, Wen-Feng
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.23 no.12
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    • pp.1673-1682
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    • 2013
  • Citrobacter sp. is a cause of significant opportunistic nosocomial infection and is frequently found in human and animal feces, soil, and sewage water, and even in industrial waste or putrefaction. Biofilm formation is an important virulence trait of Citrobacter sp. pathogens but the process and characteristics of this formation are unclear. Therefore, we employed in vitro assays to study the nutritional and environmental parameters that might influence biofilm formation of C. werkmanii BF-6 using 96-well microtiter plates. In addition, we detected the relative transcript levels of biofilm formation genes by RT-PCR. Our results indicated that the capacity of C. werkmanii BF-6 to form biofilms was affected by culture temperature, media, time, pH, and the osmotic agents glucose, sucrose, NaCl, and KCl. Confocal laser scanning microscopy results illustrated that the structure of biofilms and extracellular polysaccharide was influenced by 100 mM NaCl or 100 mM KCl. In addition, nine biofilm formation genes (bsmA, bssR, bssS, csgD, csgE, csgF, mrkA, mrkB, and mrkE) were found to contribute to planktonic and biofilm growth. Our data suggest that biofilm formation by C. werkmanii BF-6 is affected by nutritional and environmental factors, which could pave the way to the prevention and elimination of biofilm formation using proper strategies.

Analysis of the Nutrition Education Realities and Nutritional Status in Children (어린이 영양교육 실태 및 영양상태 분석)

  • Heo, Mi-Suk;Choi, Sun-Young
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.1070-1078
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    • 2016
  • This study investigated the nutrition education realities and nutrition status of children in community child centers, by analyzing the status of nutrition education, nutrition quotient (NQ), and the level of maintaining dietary guidelines. The subjects were 173 children from grades 1 to 6, enrolled in community child centers, Jinju, Kyungnam. The NQ was examined by a questionnaire, which was a checklist of 19 food behavior items. The distribution of scores (out of 100) in the nutrition quotient were as follows: total score of NQ was 59.4, balance 56.6, diversity 60.6, moderation 65.6, regularity 60.9, and practice 56.7. Nutrition quotient was higher in the higher graders due to significant differences in the area of variety. The level of maintaining dietary guidelines was higher in girls, especially in the area 'eat politely with family', and higher amongst the upper graders in the area 'have safe snack wisely'. To improve the eating habits and nutritional status of the children in community child centers, their nutritional state should be checked with regular and systematic education, and their nutritional management should be pursued continuously. Since the assessment of the eating behaviors and the nutritional state of children is important at home as well as in schools and community child centers, nutritional education should be further extended to the parents and their care givers. This study can be implemented as basic material for the nutritional education of children, to minimize the dangers of malnutrition and to help build up the right eating habits amongst children in community child centers.

Role of Fermentation in Improving Nutritional Quality of Soybean Meal - A Review

  • Mukherjee, Runni;Chakraborty, Runu;Dutta, Abhishek
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.11
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    • pp.1523-1529
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    • 2016
  • Soybean meal (SBM), a commonly used protein source for animal feed, contains anti-nutritional factors such as trypsin inhibitor, phytate, oligosaccharides among others, which limit its utilization. Microbial fermentation using bacteria or fungi has the capability to improve nutritional value of SBM by altering the native composition. Both submerged and solid state fermentation processes can be used for this purpose. Bacterial and fungal fermentations result in degradation of various anti-nutritional factors, an increase in amount of small-sized peptides and improved content of both essential and non-essential amino acids. However, the resulting fermented products vary in levels of nutritional components as the two species used for fermentation differ in their metabolic activities. Compared to SBM, feeding non-ruminants with fermented SBM has several beneficial effects including increased average daily gain, improved growth performance, better protein digestibility, decreased immunological reactivity and undesirable morphological changes like absence of granulated pinocytotic vacuoles.

Effects of Processing and Genetics on the Nutritional Value of Sorghum in Chicks and Pigs - Review -

  • Kim, I.H.;Cao, H.;Hancock, J.D.;Park, J.S.;Li, D.F.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.1337-1344
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    • 2000
  • Differences in the physical structure and chemical composition of sorghums result in different nutritional values. Sorghums with high in vitro nutrient digestibility tend to have greater ileal and total tract nutrient digestibilies. Soft endosperm can improve growth and nutrient digestibility in nursery pigs and broiler chicks. However, finishing pigs respond less to endosperm hardness. Chicks benefit from waxy sorghums, but responses of swine to waxy sorghum remain controversial. Reduction of particle size benefits nursery pigs more than finishing pigs, while age of chicks affects the coarseness preference. Nutritional benefits of thermal processing in sorghum remain unclear in chicks and pigs. Although experiments have demonstrated increased efficiency with processed sorghum, processing provided only an immediate solution to the problem of reduced utilization. Long-term, solutions will be genetic improvement of physical and on chemical characteristic.

The Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of Social Marketing Campaigns in Nutrition

  • Keenan, Debra-Palmer;Patricia M. Heacock
    • Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.218-229
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    • 2003
  • Over the past two decades in the United States, social marketing has become an increasingly popular means of delivering nutrition education for the purpose of eliciting a specific behavior change. This manuscript defines social marketing via traditional marketing concepts and jargon, as well as through a communications strategy that can be used to guide message and campaign development. Research and evaluation strategies necessary to support the development and assessment of campaign promotions, is discussed. Four campaigns implemented in the United States, and one campaign implemented in Indonesia, are discussed in terms of the strategies presented. These campaigns illustrate how this educational technique and an array of assessment approaches have been applied to varied nutritional issues across diverse target audiences and settings. Practical recommendations, as well as discussion of issues regarding the advantages and disadvantages of using social marketing as an educational strategy, campaign sustainability, and philosophical considerations regarding the use of this educational approach, are addressed.