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A Clinical Analysis of Surgically Managed Thyroid Nodule (외과적으로 치료한 갑상선 결절에 대한 임상적 고찰)

  • Jung In-Kyu;Kim Lee-Su;Choi Won-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Head & Neck Oncology
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.16-24
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    • 1993
  • During 7 years, from Jan. 1986 to Dec. 1992, authors studied 208 cases of the surgically managed thyroid nodules at the Department of General Surgery, Han Kang Sacred Heart Hospital and obtained the following results. 1) Among the total 208 cases, male to female ratio was 1:11.2 in benign thyroid diseases and 1:9 in malignant thyroid diseases. The benign disease was prevalent between second and forth decade comparing with malignant disease between third and fifth decade. 2) The most common duration of illness was 3 months(26.0%). 3) Palpable neck mass was the most common chief complaint(100%). Palpitation. fatigue, and sweating were common complaints in patient with benign disease, and fatigue, palpitation, and sweating in malignant disease in decreasing order of frequency. 4) 55.8 % of lesions were in right lobe, 33.2% in left lobe, 5.8% in diffuse type, 4.8% in bilateral lobes, and 0.5% in isthmus. 5) The most common size of nodule was between 2.0cm and 3.9cm in diameter, which consisted of 55.1% of benign disease and 48.0% of malignant disease. 6) 86.5% of thyroid function test showed euthyroidism, 10.1% hyperthyroidism, and 3.4% hypothyroidism. 7) Thyroid scanning of 176 patients revealed cold nodules in 92.5% of benign diseases and in 92.9% of malignant diseases. 8) The most common benign disease was adenomatous hyperplasia(62.7%), and the most common malignant disease was papillary adenocarcinoma(80.0%). 9) Fine needle aspiration cytology was performed in 91 cases, and it showed 69.0% of sensitivity, 90.3% of specificity, and 83.5% of accuracy. 10) Frozen biopsy was performed in 109 cases. and it showed 93.9% of sensitivity, 100.0% of specificity, and 98.2% of accuracy. 11) The most commonly performed operation was unilateral lobectomy(including unilateral lobectomy with isthmectomy)(79.1%) in benign disease. and total thyroidectomy(62.0%) in malignant disease. 12) Postoperative complication showed 5 cases of wound infection (2.4%), 3 cases of transient hypoparathyroidism(1.4%), 3 cases of transient hoarseness(1.4%), 2 cases of postoperative bleeding(1.0%), 1 case of permanent hypoparathyroidism(0.5%), 1 case of permanent hoarseness(0.5%), and 1 case of postoperative pneumonia (0.5%).

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Correlation of Serum Thyroglobulin and Thyroglobulin in the Wash out of the Needle in Thyroid Cancer (갑상선암에서의 혈중 Thyroglobulin 농도와 침생검 검체 Washout Solution의 Thyroglobulin 농도와의 상관관계)

  • An, Jae-Seok;Kim, Ji-Na;Won, Woo-Jae
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.152-155
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: The most widely accepted tool for follow up management of thyroid cancer patients is serum thyroglobulin (Tg) measurement, but its value is limited by the interference of anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (anti-Tg Ab). Recently thyroglobulin measurement in the wash out of fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimens (Tg-FNAB) is frequently used for differential diagnosis of recurrences/metastases. The aim of this study was the investigation of the diagnostic utility of Tg-FNAB compared with serum Tg. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 41 consecutive patients with thyroid cancer who were evaluated for Tg-FNAB between January 2007 and February 2008 retrospectively. We ruled out 6 patients who anti-Tg Ab positive (${\geq}$100 U/mL) in the RIA (BRAHMS anti-Tgn RIA 100Det; BRAHMS Aktiengesell schaft, Berlin, Germany). Serum Tg and Tg-FNAB were measured by immunoradiometric assay (BRAHMS Tg pluS RIA 100 Det; BRAHMS Aktienge sellschaft, Berlin, Germany). We evaluated for Tg-FNAB compared with serum Tg and corresponding cytological smear. To compare the values of the two the t-test was used. Results: Tg-FNAB values were significantly higher (median 1,060 ng/mL, range 0.2~434,000 ng/mL) than serum Tg (median 2.5 ng/mL, range 0.9~131 ng/mL) (p=0.0394). The rate of correspondence with Tg-FNAB between cytological result was 87.9% and 65.9% in the case of serum Tg. Tg-FNAB was positive in 28 (24 with positive and 4 with suspicious cytology). Of the remaining 13 patients with negative Tg-FNAB, 1 had suspicious and 12 had unsuspicious cytology. serum Tg was positive in 26 (17 with positive and 3 with suspicious and 6 with unsuspicious cytology), Of the remaining 15 patients with negative serum Tg, 8 was positive in cytological result and 1 had suspicious and 6 had unsuspicious cytology. Conclusions: Tg-FNAB measurement is more accurate with high sensitivity (87.9%) than serum Tg (65.9%). The Tg-FNAB was a useful predictor for detecting recurrences/metastases with serum Tg.

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Clinical Characteristics of Pulmonary Cryptococcosis (국내 폐효모균증의 임상적 특징)

  • Moon, Doo-Seop;Yoo, Jeong-Soo;Kim, Chung-Mi;Kim, Yeon-Soo;Kim, Seung-Min;Oh, Kwang-Taek;Sohn, Jang-Won;Yang, Seok-Chul;Yoon, Ho-Joo;Shin, Dong-Ho;Park, Sung-Soo;Lee, Jung-Hee;Hahm, Shee-Young
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.1083-1093
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    • 1997
  • Background : So far, there have been numerous reports on organ damage due to cryptococcosis, however, cases of lung localization have been infrequently reported. Recently pulmonary cryptococcosis has been reported more frequently than before due to enhanced diagnostic techniques and increased underlying diseases. Method : The author, therefore, analyzed the clinical manifestations of 5 cryptococcosis cases that we experienced at Hanyang University Hospital from 1985 to 1996 and 9 cases reported in Korea from 1984 and 1996 retrospectively. The following results were obtained. Results : Cryptococcosis occurred frequently over sixth decade and the male to female ratio was 3.6 : 1. Underlying diseases included acute rejection after kidney transplantation, rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune hepatitis, diabetes mellitus and state of bilateral adrenalectomy. Remaining 8 cases had no evidence of an underlying disease. Because the symptoms were subacute & nonspecific, and not improved by conventional antibiotics, 6 patients of 14 pulmonary cryptococcosis patients were treated as pulmonary tuberculosis before correct diagnosis was made. There were three asymptomatic cases. According to the results of CXR, solitary alveolar consolidation was the most common finding(8 cases) followed by diffuse infiltration(5 cases). It also showed pleural effusion, hilar lymphadenopathy and cavity formation that was rarely reported in world literature. The diagnasis was made through fine needle aspiration biopsy in 10 cases, open thoracotomy in 2 cases, transbronchial lung biopsy in 1 case. and thoracentesis with pleural biopsy in 1 case. Only one case showed positive result in sputum stain and culture, serum latex agglutination test for cryptococcus neoformans. Treatment modalities were various such as fluconazole, amphotericin B, flucytosine, ketoconazole, surgery and it's combination. After 1990 year, there was a trend that fluconazole or ketoconazole are more used than other therapeutic modalities. Conclusion : Because the symptoms are subacute & nonspecific and not improved by conventional antibiotics, pulmonary cryptococcosis is likely to misdiagnosis as pulmonary tuberculosis in Korea. Because the diagnosic yield of sputum stain, culture and serologic test for pulmonary cryptococcosis is low, histologic diagnosis is need in most pulmonary cryptococcosis.

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Clinical Study of Pulmonary Paragonimiasis (폐흡충증 환자의 임상적 고찰)

  • Choi, Jin-Won;Park, Ik-Soo;Shin, Dong-Ho;Park, Sung-Soo;Lee, Jung-Hee
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.274-282
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    • 1993
  • Background: Pulmonary paragonimiasis is caused by consumption of raw or improperly cooked crabs infected by a laval stage (metacercaris) of the parasite. In our country it had been a highly prevalent endemic disease until th late 1960s, and after then it's prevalence has been markedly decreased. But because some people have continued to ingest undercooked crabs, this disease have yet occured sporadically. Methods: We reviewed the clinical and radiological findings retrospectively in seventy-four patients of pulmonary paragonimiasis including familial infestation in 7 familes (20 cases) who were confirmed by food history, clinical and radiological findings, and labaratory data. Results: The male: female ratio was 2.2:1 and most prevalent age was 40-49 years old. Twen6ty nine patients (39%) had ova-positive infection. The detection sites were sputum (48%), pleural fluid (17%), fine needle aspiration biopsy of nodular or cystic lesion (17%), pleural biopsy (7%), skin nodule biopsy (7%), and stool (3%). The patients had pulmonary symptoms in 63 cases (85%) but 9 cases did not have any symptoms. The 53 cases (72%) had abnormal radiological findings in lung parenchyme (75%) and pleura (63%). However 21 cases (28%) showed no specific findings in their chest X-ray. Serum titers (ELISA) of specific IgG for paragonimiasis in 13 cases were followed for average 9.8 months after treatment, which showed slow decreasement. In the evaluation of family member (7 family, 20 cases), all members having the common dietary history together with a proven patients were confirmed this disease by serological test, regardless of the presence or the abscence of clinical or radilogical symptoms. Conclusion: We evaluated the clinical and radiological findings in 74 cases of pulmonary paragonimiasis including 7 family members who had a history of ingestion of improperly cooked crabs together with patients. The paients of pulmonary paragonimiasis have various findings in clinical and radiological findings. Common diet exposure history and laboratory findings including specific IgG were important in earlier diagnosing and treating in family members of patients.

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Ultrasonographic Findings of Papillary Carcinoma of the Thyroid According to the Size : Especially Less Than 0.5 cm (갑상선 유두암의 크기에 따른 초음파 특징 분류)

  • Park, So-Yung;Kim, Yun-Min;Lee, Hyun-Bok;Cho, Nam-Soo;Yoon, Joon
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.149-155
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    • 2013
  • The Korean Thyroid Association recommends fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) for nodules more than 0.5 cm in diameter. But nodules, smaller than 0.5 cm have been found in papillary carcinomas of the thyroid (PTC) at the health promotion center at SMC. We wanted to evaluate the ultrasonographic findings according to size of nodule in proven PTCs by FNAB, especially less than 0.5 cm. All nodules were classified into three groups by their longest diameter : less than 0.5 cm, more than 0.5 cm but less than 1 cm, and more than 1 cm. Sonographic findings suggesting malignancy were analyzed according to their size groups. Of 288 malignant nodules, 21.5 % (62/288) were less than 0.5 cm, 54.9 % (158/288) were more than 0.5 cm but less than 1 cm, 23.6 % (68/288) exceeded 1 cm. A taller-than-wide shape was observed in 90.3 % (56/62) of nodules less than 0.5 cm, and 48.5 % (33/68) of nodules exceeding 1 cm (p<0.001). There were no well-defined smooth nodules among nodules less than 0.5 cm, and spiculated or irregular margin nodules increased as the size increased (p=0.024). Nodules of size less than 0.5 cm did not showed hyper or isoechogenicity. Hypoechogenicity was greater than the marked hypoechogenicity in each group (p=0.034). Micro- or macro-calcifications were not founded in 77.4 % (48/62) of the nodule group sized less than 0.5 cm. From the small size of the group, micro- or macrocalcifications were observed 21.0 % (13/62), 48.1 % (76/158), 64.7 % (44/68), so the number of nodules containing micro- or macro-calcification increased as size increased (p<0.001). PTCs less than 0.5 cm in size on ultrasonography had taller than-wide shape, spiculated or irregular and ill-defined margins, and exhibited hypo and markedly hypoechogenicity, but microor macro-calcifications were not common. These ultrasonographic features of nodules less than 0.5 cm can be useful in reporting and guiding FNABs or follow-up exams.

Correlation of Ultrasonographic Findings and Cytologic or Histopathologic Diagnoses of Splenic Lesions in Dogs : 124 cases (개에서 비장 병변의 초음파 소견과 세포학 및 조직병리 진단과의 상관관계 : 124 마리)

  • Kim, Jun-Young;Lee, Nam-Soon;Choi, Mi-Hyun;Kim, Wan-Hee;Youn, Hwa-Young;Hwang, Cheol-Yong;Kim, Dae-Yong;Lee, In-Hyung;Choi, Min-Cheol;Yoon, Jung-Hee
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.134-140
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    • 2012
  • This retrospective study was performed to describe and evaluate ultrasonographic characteristics of splenic disorders and to pursue any relationship with cytologic or histopathologic diagnoses. Medical records were reviewed for patients that had undergone both abdominal ultrasonographic procedures and ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) or surgical biopsy of splenic lesions or necropsy from January 2002 to July 2011 at Seoul National University Hospital for Animals. Total 124 dogs, 76 cases with FNA and 48 cases with biopsy, were available for this investigation. The age of dogs ranged from 2 to 17 years ($mean{\pm}SD$ = $9.54{\pm}3.34$ years), with the gender distribution of 61 females (26 spayed) and 63 males (40 neutered). In breed distribution, 114 were purebred dogs and 10 were mixed breed dogs. The dogs represented 26 breeds, with 113 dogs categorized into small-sized breeds. The ultrasonographic appearances of splenic disorders could be classified into 10 types including normal appearance, depending on the distribution and echogenicity of splenic lesions as well as the increase in spleen size and diffuse parenchymal changes. Among 124 cases, 44 (35.4%) had hypoechoic nodules/masses with the highest frequency, followed by 23 (18.5%) with multiple small hypoechoic nodules. Of 124 cases, 70 (56.5%) were benign and 54 (43.5%) were malignant lesions at cytologic or histopathologic results. Each ultrasonographic appearance had variable cytologic or histopathologic diagnoses. However, diffuse heterogenicity and diffuse hypoechogenicity were significantly associated with malignancy (p < 0.05), whereas hyperechoic nodules/masses were more often associated with benignity (p < 0.05). Based on our results, it may be considered that the ultrasonographic examination for spleen could be able to provide the least information necessary for benign and malignant lesions in prioritizing differential diagnoses.

Diagnostic Efficacy of FDG-PET in Solitary Pulmonary Nodule (고립성폐결절에서 FDG-PET의 진단적 유용성)

  • Kim, Woo-Jin;Yim, Jae-Joon;Yoo, Chul-Gyu;Kim, Young-Whan;Shim, Young-Soo;Han, Sung-Koo
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.1263-1270
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    • 1997
  • Background : Differentiation of malignity and benignity is crucial for management of solitary pulmonary nodule(SPN). Clinical parameters such as patient's age, nodule size, smoking history, doubling time, typical calcification in X-ray and CT findings have been reported as helpful in this purpose. However, in most cases, these parameters are not conclusive. Glucose metabolism is increased in cancer tissues including lung cancer tissues. After uptake of 2-[F-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose(FDG), the glucose analogue, by cancer cell, FDG is trapped in the cell without further metabolism after phosphorylation. Thus, hypermetabolic focus in FDG-positron emission tomography (PET) imaging suggest malignancy. We evaluated the diagnostic efficacy of FDG-PET imaging in distinguishing malignant and benign SPN. Methods : We evaluated 28 patients with SPN from Jan. 1995 to Jan. 1997. CT scan of chest and whole-body FDG-PET imaging were performed in all patients. Histologic diagnosis was confirmed by transthoracic fine needle aspiration and biopsy, bronchoscopic biopsy and open thoracotomy. Results : Of the 28 SPN's, 22 nodules were malignant and 6 nodules were benign. FDG-PET imaging diagnosed all malignant nodules correctly as positive, and diagnosed 4 of 6 benign nodules correctly as negative. One tuberculous granuloma and one aspergilloma showed hypennetabolic focus and were diagnosed falsely positve with FDG-PET imaging. In the diagnosis of SPN with FDG-PET, sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 66.7%, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 92% and 100%. Conclusion : FDG-PET imaging is highly useful noninvasive diagnostic tool in distinguishing between malignant SPN and benign SPN.

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Clinical Analysis of Pulmonary Hamartoma: 37 Cases (폐과오종 37예에 대한 임상 고찰)

  • Choi, Si-Young;Yoon, Jeong-Seob;Wang, Young-Pil;Park, Jae-Kil;Park, Chan-Beom;Sa, Young-Jo;Jeon, Hyun-Woo;Kang, Chul-Ung;Kim, Yong-Hwan
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.40 no.8
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    • pp.564-568
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    • 2007
  • Background: Pulmonary hamartomas are the most common form of pulmonary benign tumors, and they occur in approximately $2{\sim}5%$ of all pulmonary neoplasm. However, only a few reports have been published on the clinical characteristics of pulmonary hamartoma in Korea. Material and Method: The charts, X-rays and pathological specimens of 37 pulmonary hamartoma patients who were diagnosed by a pathological examination from January of 2000 to May of 2005 at the Catholic Medical Center were retrospectively reviewed. Result: The peak incidence of the tumor occurred in the seventh decade of life (32.4%), There were 23 men (62.6%) and 14 women (37.8%), with mean age of 55.6 years. Twenty-six patients (70.3%) were asymptomatic and 11 patients (29.7%) had symptoms. A total of 29 tumors (78.4%) were parenchymal, and 8 (21.6%) were endobronchial. Twenty cases (54.1%) were in the right lung and 17 cases (45.9%) were in the left lung. The right lower lobe was most commonly involved. Thirty-two (86.5%) hamartomas were diagnosed by surgical resection, 4 cases (10.8%) were diagnosed by bronchoscopic biopsy and 1 case (2.7%) was diagnosed by a fine needle aspiration biopsy. Thirty-four hamartomas (91.9%) were managed by surgical resection without complication. No recurrence or malignant changes were seen during the follow up period. Conclusion: Pulmonary hamartomas are most common in males during their fifth to seventh decade and they more commonly involve the right lung. No recurrence or malignant changes were seen during the follow up period.

Radiotherapy of Neck Node Metastases from an Unknown Primary Cancer (원발병소 불명암의 경부림프절 전이에서 방사선치료의 역할)

  • Lee, Jeong-Eun
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.219-226
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    • 2007
  • Purpose: The aim of this retrospective analysis was to analyze the results of radiotherapy administered to patients with neck node metastases from an unknown primary cancer, with or without neck dissection. Materials and Methods: From January 1986 to December 2005, 88 patients with neck node metastases from an unknown primary cancer were treated with curative intent. The age of the patients ranged from 35 to 74 years (median age, 59 years). There were 74 male and 14 female patients. Distribution of patients by N status was as follows: N1, 4 patients; N2a, 10 patients; N2b, 48 patients; N2c, 8 patients; N3, 18 patients. Fifty-one patients underwent neck dissection and 37 patients had only a biopsy (31 patients had fine-needle aspiration and 6 patients had an excisional biopsy). All patients received radiotherapy. The follow-up time ranged from 1 to 154 months, with a median time of 32 months. Results: The overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rate at 5 years were 43.9% and 41.7%, respectively. The factors associated with the OS rate were neck dissection, and a subsequent primary tumor. Factors associated with the DFS rate were N stage, neck dissection, and a subsequent primary tumor. Neck failure was noted in 15 patients, distant metastases in 18 patients, and a subsequent primary tumor in 8 patients. Conclusion: With comprehensive radiotherapy given to the bilateral neck and the potential mucosal sites, good survival rates can be obtained in patients with neck node metastases from an unknown primary cancer. However, considering the side effects, a randomized trial is required to determine the optimal radiotherapy volume.

Clinical Analysis of Pulmonary Hamartoma ; 29 Cases (폐과오종 29예에 대한 임상적 고찰)

  • Lee, Sang-Haak;Yoon, Hyung-Kyu;Song, So-Hyang;Lee, Sook-Young;Kim, Seok-Chan;Ahn, Joong-Hyun;Choi, Young-Mi;Kim, Chi-Hong;Kwon, Soon-Seong;Kim, Young-Kyoon;Kim, Kwan-Hyoung;Moon, Hwa-Sik;Song, Jeong-Sup;Park, Sung-Hak;Lee, Kyo-Young
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.53 no.6
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    • pp.644-649
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    • 2002
  • Background : Pulmonary hamartomas are the most common form of benign tumors, occurring in approximately 0.2% of routine autopsies. However, only a few reports on the clinical characteristics of pulmonary hamartoma in Korea have been published. Materials and Methods : The charts, X-rays and pathological specimens of 29 pulmonary hamartoma patients who were diagnosed by a pathological examination from 1990 to 1999 at the Catholic Medical Center were retrospectively reviewed. Results : The peak incidence of the tumor occurred in the sixth decade of life (37.5%). Seventeen patients (58.6%) were asymptomatic and 12 patients (41.4%) had symptoms. Chest discomfort was the most common symptom (31.0%). A total of 25 tumors (86.2%) were parenchymal, and 4 (13.8%) were endobronchial. Twenty cases were in the right lung and 9 cases were in the left lung (approximately 1:2.2). The RLL was the most commonly involved lobe (31.0%). Calcification was noted in 5 cases(19.2%) on a plain X-ray and in 5 cases (29.4%) on chest CT. Accompanied neoplasms were observed in 2 cases. Twenty-four hamartomas (82.8%) were diagnosed by a surgical resection and 4 cases(13.8%) were diagnosed by a fine needle aspiration biopsy. Twenty-six hamartomas (89.7%) were managed by a surgical resection. The follow up ranged from 4 to 55 months (mean, 19.6 months) and no recurrent pulmonary hamartomas were noted. Conclusion : Pulmonary hamartoma is more common in females and more commonly in the right lung. Calcification was noted only in 19.2% on a plain chest X-ray and 29.4% on a chest CT. No recurrent hamartomas had developed during the follow up period.