• Title/Summary/Keyword: Water absorbance

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Milling and Rice Flour Properties of Soaking in Water Time on Moisture Content of Rice (쌀의 수침 시간별 제분 및 쌀가루의 특성)

  • 김형열;이병영;최중경;함승시
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.71-75
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    • 1999
  • Power consumption, mesh size, moisture content, color difference, amylogram of rice flour milled with water soaked rice were compared with that of rice using dry pin mil process. Maximum water absorbance of rice was 35% for 2.5 hr. Power consumption to mill the soaked rice was less than of dry rice by 6.9kW/100Kg. Moisture content of rice flour from the water soaked rice was 2% higher than that of rice flour from dry rice. Population of flour particle was 52.9% of 60 mesh and 32.6% of 60∼80mesh. Gelatinization temperature of rice flour from the water soaked rice was 30C lower than that of rice flour from dry rice. Maximum and minimum viscosity of rice flour from the water soaked rice after boiling were 296 cps and 158 cps, independently. Brightness and whiteness of the rice flour from the water soaked rice were increased upto 10hr soaking and decreased after 17hr soaking. Brightness and whiteness of the rice flour were 96.17 and 96.02, independently.

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Changes of physicochemical characteristics of various rice cooking by using milk and in vitro digestibility (취반과정중 조리수가 우유일 때 이화학적 특성과 in vitro 소화도)

  • 김경자
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.28-37
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    • 1987
  • The changes of various cooking experiment (gelatinization, swelling, texture, water absorbance) and amino acid, fatty acid composition and the effect of digestibility on glucose examination (in vitro) were investigated at various rice during cooking by using milk. The results are summarized as follows. 1) In the effect of various water-to-rice ratios on the degree of absorbance of rice, Rice (using water) always showed higher absorbance than rice. (using milk) optimum water absorbance time were shown to be 40 minute for rice (using water) and 50 minute for rice (using milk). 2) The degree of gelatinization (D.G) by iodine colorimetric method increased proportionally according to the increase of water-to-rice ratio and rice cooking always showed higher D.G than rice milk cooking. When the same D.G rice milk cooking food required 40~50% higher water-to-rice ratios than rice cooking food. 3) Various rice cooking food, the palatability were best food by rice bean milk cooking food. 4) The main Amino acid composition of using milk rice cooked food were Glutenine, Leusine, Asparagine, Valine, Arginin above 42% of the Total Amino acid. The contents of Lysine and Methionine were 476.50mg, 412.16mg in using Milk rice cooking food. 5) Using rice Milk cooking food ana Rice bean Milk cooking food, rice cooking, rice bean cooking in phosphate Buffer, in vitro Enzymatic glucose were carried out in dialysis bag. During 90 minute of incubation at $37^{\circ}C$, reducing sugar were analyzed from dialysate. Starch digestibility measured from human Saliva, Sali a, Pencreatic Amylase treatment was high in Rice Milk cooking food, Rice bean Milk cooking food and rice cooking food and rice bean cooking food but remarkely low.

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Preparation and Characterization of Hydrogels containing Silicone or Fluorine

  • Kim, Eui Seok;Shim, Sang-Yeon
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.650-656
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    • 2017
  • The water-swollen hydrogels containing silicone or fluorine were prepared by copolymerization of 2-hydroxy ethyl methacylate (HEMA) with 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate(SM) or 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl acrylate(FA). When the content of SM or FA increased in copolymers, there was tendency of water absorbance to decrease, whereas contact angles to increase. The hydrogels containing FA showed 2 ~ 4% higher water content and 4 ~ 5% lower contact angles compared to that of SM. Tensile strengths decreased as the content of SM increased. However, FA exhibited strength of $2.2Mpa/cm^2$ which is similar to $2.3Mpa/cm^2$ of B. FA, which implies comparatively low adherence, hence, showed better protein resistance properties than SM-based hydrogel. The photo-polymerization was also applied instead of thermal polymerization to enhance the energy efficiency. As a result, the reaction yield reached over 95% within 1 minute.

Skin depth profiling by using fiber optic probes in the near infrared

  • Woo, Young-Ah;jung, Suh-Eun;Kim, Hyo-Jin
    • Proceedings of the SCSK Conference
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    • 2003.09b
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    • pp.218-218
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    • 2003
  • Recently we showed the prototype portable device for the determination of human skin moisture by using near infrared spectroscopy. In order to optimize the acquiring condition of NIR spectrum of skin and control the target information of water depending the site such as epidermis and dermis, skin depth profiling was investigated changing the distance between illuminations and receiving of radiation in the terminal of fiber probe. The colleted light information could be controlled by changing the distance of the fiber optic probes. It was confirmed that the longer distance we used, the deeper site from the skin surface we could get information from in this study. Four kinds of probes with distances such as 0.03 mm, 0.1 mm, 0.5 mm, and 1.0 mm were used. In addition, the gap size from 0.3 mm to 3.0 mm was studied to control the intensity of water absorbance effectively and to avoid saturation of water absorption. We also investigated the reference materials depending the reflectance ratio for water absorption not to be saturated because of the strong absorptivity of water. Furthermore, spectroscopic information regarding free water and bound water around 1850 nm was investigated by using the different distance of fiber optic probes. This study would be great help to control the spectroscopic information of water to be measured depending the site where water exists.

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Preparation of Formed Ceramic materials by Recycling of Aluminium Dross (알루미늄 드로스를 이용한 무기 발포재 제조)

  • 박제신;박형규;장대규
    • Resources Recycling
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.42-47
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    • 2001
  • Recycling of aluminum dross is a significant issue in domestic aluminum industry. In this study, formed ceramic materials were prepared using aluminum dross mixed with feldspar powders to investigate its application as industrial materials and utilization of aluminum dross. In the prepared sample, feldspar was melted at the sintered temperature, and its phase was trans-formed into amorphous, and spinel ($MgA1_2$$O_4$) phase in the dross was remained clearly. Density of the test specimen Increased from 0.91 to 0.65 gr/㎤ and water absorbance decreased from 2.5 to 1.7f% with increasing of sintered time at the sintered temperature $1220^{\circ}C$ with composition of feldspar 55 wt%, dross 40wt% and bentonite 5 wt%. At the same experimental conditions, bending strength of the test specimen was 10.8 MPa, and heat conductivity was 0.34 W/m.K with sintered time 30 minutes.

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Rheological Evaluation of Cooked Rice with Milk (우유첨가 취반미의 물성에 관한 연구)

  • 김경자;강선희;곽연주
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.71-86
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    • 1991
  • This study was attempted to enhance nutritional value of cooked rice by adding milk in cooking water. Cooked and soaked rice with five different levels of milk in cooking water (0%, A: 30%, B: 50%, C: 70%, D: 100%, E) was tested for rheological parameters, fine structural changes, sensory evaluation. 1. Water absorbance of raw rice in cooking water with varying amountes of milk, was tested at $5^{\circ}C$ and $15^{\circ}C$ for 2 hours. Water absorption ratio was decreased as milk content was increased and soaking temperature was low. Time for maximum water absorption of sample A was 40 min at 1$15^{\circ}C$ but for sample B to D, it was not reached until 120 min. 2. Electronmicroscopic observation revealed that starch granules of rice lost their regular forms by soaking for 90 minutes, but recovered most of initial regularity after 24 hours. Increase in milk content of soaking water decreased marginal sharpness of the starch granule, presumably due to reduced swelling of the granule. 3. Degree of gelatinization of cooked rice was highest in sample A and progressively decreased as milk content was increased. It was, however, increased in all samples when the cooking water to rice ratio was raised from 160% to 180%. During 4 hour storage, rates of retrogradation were not different between A and B samples, but those of C, D and E were about 2.5 times higher than A and B under the optimal condition of 170% cooking water to rice ratio. This was in the order reverse to hardness order of AC>A, D>E at cooking water to rice ratios of 160% and 170%, above which A sample surpassed the rest of samples. 4. Sensory evaluation conducted by fifteen university students as panelists showed that there were more significant differences among five samples in flavour, texture than appearance and a notable preference for b and C over A, D and E.

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Near Infrared Spectroscopy for Diagnosis: Influence of Mammary Gland Inflammation on Cow´s Milk Composition Measurement

  • Roumiana Tsenkova;Stefka Atanassova;Kiyohiko Toyoda
    • Near Infrared Analysis
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.59-66
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    • 2001
  • Nowadays, medical diagnostics is efficiently supported by clinical chemistry and near infrared spectroscopy is becoming a new dimension, which has shown high potential to provide valuable information for diagnosis. The investigation was carried out to study the influence of mammary gland inflammation, called mastitis, on cow´s milk spectra and milk composition measured by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Milk somatic cell counts (SCC) in milk were used as a measure of mammary gland inflammation. Naturally occurred variations with milk composition within lactation and in the process of milking were included in the experimental design of this study. Time series of unhomogenized, raw milk spectral data were collected from 3 cow along morning and evening milking, for 5 consecutive months, within their second lactation. In the time of the trial, the investigated cows had periods with mammary gland inflammation. Transmittance spectra of 258 milk samples were obtained by NIRSystem 6500 spectrophotometer in 1100-2400 nm region. Calibration equations for the examined milk components were developed by PLS regression using 3 different sets of samples: samples with low somatic cell count (SCC), samples with high SCC and combined data set. The NIR calibration and prediction of individual cow´s milk fat, protein, and lactose were highly influenced by the presence of mil samples from animals with mammary gland inflammation in the data set. The best accuracy of prediction (i.e. the lower SEP and the higher correlation coefficient) for fat, protein and lactose was obtained for equations, developed when using only “healthy” samples, with low SCC. The standard error of prediction increased and correlation coefficient decreased significantly when equations for low SCC milk were used to predict examined components in “mastitis” samples with high SCC, and vice versa. Combined data set that included samples from healthy and mastitis animals could be used to build up regression models for screening. Further use of separate model for healthy samples improved milk composition measurement. Regression vectors for NIR mild protein measurement obtained for “healthy” and “mastitic” group were compared and revealed differences in 1390-1450 nm, 1500-1740 nm and 1900-2200 nm regions and thus illustrated post-secretory breakdown of milk proteins by hydrolytic enzymes that occurred with mastitis. For the first time it has been found that monitoring the spectral differences in water bands at 1440 nm and 1912 nm could provide valuable information for inflammation diagnosis.

Interfacial and Mechanical Properties of Glass Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites with Different Crosslinking Density after Saline Water Aging (기지재의 가교밀도에 따른 유리섬유 복합재료의 염수노화 후 계면 및 기계적 물성)

  • Shin, Pyeong-Su;Kim, Jong-Hyun;Baek, Yeong-Min;Park, Ha-Seung;Kwon, Dong-Jun;Park, Joung-Man
    • Composites Research
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.186-191
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    • 2018
  • Condition and properties of composites with different chemical structure of epoxy matrix were observed after saline solution treatment. Epoxy was used as matrix and the flexibility was controlled by using 2 typed-epoxies and 3 types hardeners (amine, acid anhydride and amide). Saline water treatment was conducted with 6 wt% NaCl solution at $60^{\circ}C$ for 0, 15, and 30 days. Cross section was observed and interfacial and mechanical and properties was evaluated. Amine type exhibited the highest crosslinking density and mechanical and interfacial properties whereas water absorbance was lowest. It is because that the water molecules can be hardly penetrate into the epoxy matrix or the interface between epoxy and glass fiber and it leads to saline water resistance of composites.

Preparation and Characterization of Silicone Hydrogel Lens Containing Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG를 포함한 실리콘 수화젤 렌즈의 제조 및 특성)

  • Jang, Ha-Na;Chung, Youn-Bok;Kim, Sung-Soo
    • Polymer(Korea)
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.169-174
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    • 2009
  • Silicone hydrogels incorporated with poly(ethylene glycol)(PEG) were prepared and characterized to evaluate the effects of PEG on contact lenses. The silicone hydrogels were copolymerized with methacryloxypropyl tris(trimethylsiloxy) silane (TRIS), methyl methacrylate (MMA), N,N-dimethyl acrylamide (DMA) and PEG-containing monomers such as poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEG- MEM). The silicone hydrogels were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), electron spectroscopy of chemical analysis (ESCA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Water absorbance, water contact angle and light transmittance of the silicone hydrogels were evaluated. The experiments of protein adsorption were also carried out to evaluate the protein adsorption in tears. The peak intensity of C-O bond was increased by the incorporation of PEG-containing monomers and thus PEG incorporation into silicone hydrogels could be confirmed. Phase separation was not shown by the SEM observation of the cross-section of silicone hydrogels. Water absorbancy was increased, while water contact angle and light transmittance were decreased with increasing incorporation of the PEG-containing monomers. The absorption of proteins in tears, albumin, lysozyme and $\gamma$-globulin, on the surface of silicone hydrogels was decreased with increasing incorporation of the PEG-containing monomers.