• Title/Summary/Keyword: Variation

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Variation simulation and diagnosis considering in-plane/out-of-plane welding distortion

  • Lee, Hyeonkyeong;Chung, Hyun
    • International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.553-571
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    • 2019
  • Geometric variation including welding distortion accumulates as many parts are joined together, ultimately affecting the final product. This variation is then subjected to correction, which requires considerable effort, time, and cost. This variation can be categorized as in-plane/out-of-plane variation. To date, studies on variation simulation have largely focused on the out-of-plane variation, however the variation generated in the in-plane direction requires more time and efforts to correct afterwards. This research aims to construct a variation simulation model considering both the in-plane and out-of-plane variations. A geometric analysis was performed to derive an equation that reflects the coupling effect of the out-of-plane variation on the in-plane variation. The proposed model is validated with case study analysis and the results shows that good fidelity in predicting and diagnosing the in-plane variation during the block assembly process considering welding distortion.

A Study of Gage R&R Analysis Considering the Variations of Between-Within Group and Within Part (군간-군내-부품내 변동을 고려한 Gage R&R 분석에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Seung-Hoon;Lee, Chang-Woo
    • IE interfaces
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.444-453
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of the Gage R&R study is to determine whether a measurement system is adequate for monitoring a process. If the measurement system variation is small relative to the process variation, then the measurement system is deemed "adequate". The sources of variation associated with the measurement system are compared using an analysis of variance (ANOVA) model, in general. A typical ANOVA model used in a standard Gage R&R study is the two-factor random effect model. Then, the ANOVA partitions the total variation into three categories: repeatability, reproducibility, part variation. However, if the process variation possesses the between group variation, within group variation, and within part variation, these variations can cause the measurement system evaluation to provide misleading results. That is, in the standard Gage R&R study these variations affect the estimate of repeatability, reproducibility, or both. This paper presents a four-factor nested factorial ANOVA model which explicitly considers these variations for the Gage R&R study. The variance component estimators are derived by setting the EMS equations equal to the corresponding mean square from the ANOVA table and solving. And the proposed model is compared with the standard Gage R&R model.

Effects of Fabrication Process Variation on Impedance of Neural Probe Microelectrodes

  • Cho, Il Hwan;Shin, Hyogeun;Lee, Hyunjoo Jenny;Cho, Il-Joo
    • Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.1138-1143
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    • 2015
  • Effects of fabrication process variations on impedance of microelectrodes integrated on a neural probe were examined through equivalent circuit modeling and SPICE simulation. Process variation and the corresponding range were estimated based on experimental data. The modeling results illustrate that the process variation induced by metal etching process was the dominant factor in impedance variation. We also demonstrate that the effect of process variation is frequency dependent. Another process variation that was examined in this work was the thickness variation induced by deposition process. The modeling results indicate that the effect of thickness variation on impedance is negligible. This work provides a means to predict the variations in impedance values of microelectrodes on neural probe due to different process variations.

Analysis of High Dose Rate Intracavitary Radiotherapy(HDR-ICR) Treatment Planning for Uterine Cervical Cancer (자궁경부암의 고선량율 강내치료 선량계획 분석)

  • Chai, Gyu-Young
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.387-392
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    • 1994
  • Purpose : This study was done to confirm the reference point variation according to variation in applicator configuration in each fractioation of HDR ICR. Materials and Methods : We analyzed the treatment planning of HDRICR for 33 uterine cervical cancer patients treated in department of therapeutic radiology from January 1992 to February 1992. Analysis was done with respect to three view points-Interfractionation A point variation, interfractionation bladder and rectum dose ratio variation, interfractionation treatment volume variation. Interfractionation A point variation was defined as difference between maximum and minimum distance from fixed rectal point to A point in each patient. Interfractionation bladder and rectum dose ratio variation was defined as difference between maximum and minimum dose ratio of bladder or rectum to A point dose in each patient, Interfractionation treatment volume variation was defined as difference between miximum and minimum treatment volume which absorbed over the described dose-that is, 350 cGy or 400 cGy-in each patient. Results The mean of distance from rectum to A point was 4.44cm, and the mean of interfractionation distance variation was 1.14 cm in right side,1.09 cm in left side. The mean of bladder and rectum dose ratio was $63.8\%$ and $63.1\%$ and the mean of interfractionation variation was $14.9\%$ and $15.8\%$ respectively. With fixed planning administration of same planning to all fractionations as in first fractionation planning-mean of bladder and rectum dose ratio was $64.9\%$ and $72.3\%$.and the mean of interfraction variation was $28.1\%$ and $48.1\%$ reapectively. The mean of treatment volume was $84.15cm^3$ and the interfractionation variation was $21.47cm^2$. Conclusion : From these data, it was confirmed that there should be adapted planning for every fractionation ,and that confirmation device installed in ICR room would reduce the interfractionation variation due to more stable applicator configuration.

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CONDITIONAL FIRST VARIATION OVER WIENER PATHS IN ABSTRACT WIENER SPACE

  • CHO, DONG HYUN
    • Journal of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.42 no.5
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    • pp.1031-1056
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    • 2005
  • In this paper, we define the conditional first variation over Wiener paths in abstract Wiener space and investigate its properties. Using these properties, we also investigate relationships among first variation, conditional first variation, Fourier-Feynman transform and conditional Fourier-Feynman transforms of functions in a Banach algebra which is equivalent to the Fresnel class. Finally, we provide another method evaluating the Fourier-Feynman transform for the product of a function in the Banach algebra with n linear factors.

Ionospheric F2-Layer Semi-Annual Variation in Middle Latitude by Solar Activity

  • Park, Yoon-Kyung;Kwak, Young-Sil;Ahn, Byung-Ho;Park, Young-Deuk;Cho, Il-Hyun
    • Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.319-327
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    • 2010
  • We examine the ionospheric F2-layer electron density variation by solar activity in middle latitude by using foF2 observed at the Kokubunji ionosonde station in Japan for the period from 1997 to 2008. The semi-annual variation of foF2 shows obviously in high solar activity (2000-2002) than low solar activity (2006-2008). It seems that variation of geomagnetic activity by solar activity influences on the semi-annual variation of the ionospheric F2-layer electron density. According to the Lomb-Scargle periodogram analysis of foF2 and Ap index, interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bs (IMF Bz <0) component, solar wind speed, solar wind number density and flow pressure which influence the geomagnetic activity, we examine how the geomagnetic activity affects the ionospheric F2-layer electron density variation. We find that the semi-annual variation of daily foF2, Ap index and IMF Bs appear clearly during the high solar activity. It suggests that the semi-annual variation of geomagnetic activity, caused by Russell-McPherron effect, contributes greatly to the ionospheric F2-layer semi-annual electron density variation, except dynamical effects in the thermosphere.

Variation Determinants in Building Construction: Ghanaian Professionals Perspective

  • Asamaoh, Richard Oduro;Offei-Nyako, Kofi
    • Journal of Construction Engineering and Project Management
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.20-25
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    • 2013
  • Variation in construction means modification of design, changes in quality, quantity of work including the alteration of standard of materials or goods to be used in the work and the removal from site any kind of material not in accordance in the contract. In Ghana, Variation order has become major issue in the construction industry. This had resulted in cost overruns, delay and in some contracts dispute, between parties. The aim of this paper was to identify the root causes of variation; effects of variations on projects in Ghana and the means of reducing the impact of variation order. The method of the study involved literature review, primary data collection, interview and closed - ended- questionnaires. Mean Scores Method was used to rank the identified factors causing variation. Analysis Of Variance Test was use to test for the significant difference between means among the professional groups. The study revealed that most causes of variation were change of design by client and inadequate working details. Establishment of oversight project management committee and flow of information were identified as means of controlling variations during project administration.

Computing-Inexpensive Matrix Model for Estimating the Threshold Voltage Variation by Workfunction Variation in High-κ/Metal-gate MOSFETs

  • Lee, Gyo Sub;Shin, Changhwan
    • JSTS:Journal of Semiconductor Technology and Science
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.96-99
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    • 2014
  • In high-${\kappa}$/metal-gate (HK/MG) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) at 45-nm and below, the metal-gate material consists of a number of grains with different grain orientations. Thus, Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of the threshold voltage ($V_{TH}$) variation caused by the workfunction variation (WFV) using a limited number of samples (i.e., approximately a few hundreds of samples) would be misleading. It is ideal to run the MC simulation using a statistically significant number of samples (>~$10^6$); however, it is expensive in terms of the computing requirement for reasonably estimating the WFV-induced $V_{TH}$ variation in the HK/MG MOSFETs. In this work, a simple matrix model is suggested to implement a computing-inexpensive approach to estimate the WFV-induced $V_{TH}$ variation. The suggested model has been verified by experimental data, and the amount of WFV-induced $V_{TH}$ variation, as well as the $V_{TH}$ lowering is revealed.

A Classification Techniques For Quality Improvement

  • Jichao, Xu;Yumin, Liu;Li, Zhang
    • International Journal of Quality Innovation
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.24-33
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    • 2001
  • As we know, the quality of processes is technically depicted by variation, a product or process with the best quality must naturally require the variation as less as possible. The variation is usually reduced with many ways, say, by adjusting parameters settings under robust design with many turns expensive experiments. So ones are trying to reach the robustness by detecting cheap and simple methods. In this paper, a both practical and simple technique for quality improvement, namely reducing the variation, by data classification is studied. First, all possible system factors are included, which may dominate the variation law. And then we make use of the past observations and their classification as well as boxplot charts to find out the internal rule between the variation and the system factor. Next, adjust the location of the system factor according to the rule so that the variation could, to some extent, be lessened. Finally, two typical quality improvement cases based on data classification are presented.

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Statistical Performance Estimation of a Multibody System Based on Design Variable Samples (설계변수 표본에 근거한 다물체계 성능의 통계적 예측)

  • Choi, Chan-Kyu;Yoo, Hong-Hee
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.33 no.12
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    • pp.1449-1454
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    • 2009
  • The performance variation of a multibody system is affected by a variation of various design variables of the system. And the effects of design variable variations on the performance variation must be considered in design of a multibody system. Accordingly, a variation analysis of a multibody system needs to be conducted in design of a multibody system. For a variation analysis of a performance, population mean and variance which are called statistical parameters of design variables are needed. However, an evaluation of statistical parameters of design variables is impossible in many practical cases. Therefore, an estimation of statistical parameters of the performance based on sample mean and variance which are called statistic of design variables is needed. In this paper, the variation analysis method for a multibody system based on design variable samples was proposed. And, using the proposed method, a variation analysis of the vehicle ride comfort based on sample statistic of design variables was conducted.