• Title, Summary, Keyword: Underwater drone

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The Controversy Surrounding the Use of Underwater Drones and the Position of Korea (수중드론 운용에 관한 국제법적 논란과 대한민국의 전략)

  • Lee, Ki-Beom
    • Strategy21
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    • pp.153-173
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    • 2017
  • On 15 December 2015, China seized an underwater drone belonging to the U.S. in the South China Sea. The underwater drone was then about to be retrieved by the Bowditch, a U.S. naval ship.Although China returned the underwater drone to the U.S. on 20 December 2016, the incident resulted in the considerable controversy involving the use of underwater drones. The reason for this is that the seizure of the underwater drone happened in the exclusive economic zone (hereafter referred to as "EEZ") of the Philippines. Part XIII of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (hereafter referred to as "UNCLOS") governs the matters of marine scientific research (hereafter referred to as "MSR"). If a State intends to use an underwater drone in the EEZ of another coastal State for the purpose of MSR, the former has to obtain the consent of the latter in accordance with relevant provisions included in Part XIII of the UNCLOS. However, it is not obvious whether the consent of a coastal State should be required to launch an underwater drone in the EEZ of the State for the purpose of hydrographic surveying or military surveying. Maritime powers such as the U.S. regard hydrographic surveying or military surveying as part of "other internationally lawful uses of the sea related to these freedoms, such as those associated with the operation of ships, aircraft and submarine cables and pipelines" found in Article 58(1) of the UNCLOS, or part of the freedom of the high seas. This interpretation is not incompatible with the implications that the UNCLOS has. Nevertheless, Korea cannot accept this kind of interpretation that is supported by maritime powers. The freedom of hydrographic surveying or military surveying could imply that the EEZ of Korea would be full of underwater drones launched by China, Japan or even Russia. Hence, Korea should claim that the data collected for the purpose of MSR cannot be distinguished from that collected for the purpose of hydrographic surveying or military surveying. This means that hydrographic surveying or military surveying without the consent of a coastal State in the EEZ of the State should not be permitted.

Design and Development of Underwater Drone for Fish Farm Growth Environment Management (양식장 생육 환경관리를 위한 수중 드론 설계 및 개발)

  • Yoo, Seung-Hyeok;Ju, Yeong-Tae;Kim, Jong-Sil;Kim, Eung-Kon
    • The Journal of the Korea institute of electronic communication sciences
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.959-966
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    • 2020
  • With the growing importance of the fishery industry and the rapid growth of the aquaculture industry, research on smart farms through ICT convergence in the aquaculture field is in progress. To enable monitoring of the growing environment at the farm site, an underwater drone drive unit, an image collection device, an integrated controller for posture stabilization, and a remote control device capable of controlling and controlling drones through real-time underwater images were proposed, and design, development, and tests were conducted. By utilizing underwater drones, it is possible to replace the supply and demand of manpower and high-cost work in the aquaculture industry, and to manage fish farms in a stable manner by reducing the probability of farming deaths.

Design of Drone for Underwater Monitoring and Net Cleaning for Aquaculture Farm (양식장 수중 모니터링 및 그물망 청소용 드론 설계)

  • Kim, Jin-Ha;Kim, Eung-Kon
    • The Journal of the Korea institute of electronic communication sciences
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.1379-1386
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    • 2018
  • Conventional underwater cameras used in fish farms can only shoot limited areas and are vulnerable to underwater contamination. There is also a problem with contaminated farms as surplus residues are deposited as a result of feed supply to farms' nets. This paper proposes underwater drones for underwater monitoring of fish farms and cleaning nets. If underwater drones are used for management of fish farms, underwater imaging, monitoring and cleaning of fish farms' nets can be possible. By using this technology, data can be collected by detecting changes in the environment of a fish farm and responding to changes that occur within a fish farm based on the data. In addition, the establishment of an integrated control system will enable to build efficient and stable smart farms.

Design of Water Surface Hovering Drone for Underwater Stereo Photography (수중 입체촬영을 위한 수면호버링 드론 설계)

  • Kim, Hyeong-Gyun;Kim, Yong-Ho
    • Journal of Convergence for Information Technology
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    • v.9 no.6
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    • pp.7-12
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    • 2019
  • In order to shoot underwater, the photographer must be equipped with shooting equipment and enter into the water. Since the photographer directly enters the water, safety accidents occur frequently due to various obstacles or deep water in the water. The proposed underwater stereo photography technique can solve the safety accident problem caused by the entry of the photographer into the water by using the drone for underwater photographing. In addition, this technique has the advantage of obtaining underwater images at low cost. In this study, the angle of the proposed cam for stereoscopic photography was analyzed and the condition that the proper stereoscopic image can be viewed was defined as the distance from the floor of 18cm to the floor distance of 41.4cm. This provision is proposed to be used to adjust the height of the shooting area descended by the elevation chain of the water surface hovering drones.

Development of Underwater Drone for Coding Education and Enterainment (코딩교육 및 엔터테이먼트용 수중드론 개발)

  • Kim, Eung-Kon
    • The Journal of the Korea institute of electronic communication sciences
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.237-244
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    • 2018
  • This paper has developed a three-dimensional movement of the underwater drones using Scratch program to facilitate the basic structure and programming of the computer's basic structure and programming. Through the underwater drones of this study, the user can foster computing thinking power that creatively solves various problems.

Collaborative Obstacle Avoidance Method of Surface and Aerial Drones based on Acoustic Information and Optical Image (음향정보 및 광학영상 기반의 수상 및 공중 드론의 협력적 장애물회피 기법)

  • Man, Dong-Woo;Ki, Hyeon-Seung;Kim, Hyun-Sik
    • The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers
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    • v.64 no.7
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    • pp.1081-1087
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    • 2015
  • Recently, the researches of aerial drones are actively executed in various areas, the researches of surface drones and underwater drones are also executed in marine areas. In case of surface drones, they essentially utilize acoustic information by the sonar and consequently have the local information in the obstacle avoidance as the sonar has the limitations due to the beam width and detection range. In order to overcome this, more global method that utilizes optical images by the camera is required. Related to this, the aerial drone with the camera is desirable as the obstacle detection of the surface drone with the camera is impossible in case of the existence of clutters. However, the dynamic-floating aerial drone is not desirable for the long-term operation as its power consumption is high. To solve this problem, a collaborative obstacle avoidance method based on the acoustic information by the sonar of the surface drone and the optical image by the camera of the static-floating aerial drone is proposed. To verify the performance of the proposed method, the collaborative obstacle avoidances of a MSD(Micro Surface Drone) with an OAS(Obstacle Avoidance Sonar) and a BMAD(Balloon-based Micro Aerial Drone) with a camera are executed. The test results show the possibility of real applications and the need for additional studies.

A Study on Underwater Camera Image Correction for Ship Bottom Inspection Using Underwater Drone (수중드론을 활용한 선박 선저검사용 수중 카메라 영상보정에 대한 연구)

  • Ha, Yeon-chul;Park, Junmo
    • Journal of the Institute of Convergence Signal Processing
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.186-192
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    • 2019
  • In general, many marine organisms are attached to the bottom of a ship in operation or a ship in construction. Due to this phenomenon, the roughness of the ship surface increases, resulting in loss of ship speed, resulting in economic losses and environmental pollution. This study acquires / utilizes camera images attached to ship's bottom and underwater drones to check the condition of bottom. The acquired image will determine the roughness according to marine life by the administrator's visual confirmation. Therefore, by applying a filter algorithm to correct the image to the original image can help in the correct determination of whether or not attached to marine life. Various correction filters are required for the underwater image correction algorithm, and the lighting suitable for the dark underwater environment has a great influence on the judgment. The results of the research test according to the calibration algorithm and the roughness of each algorithm are considered to be applicable to many fields.

Drone Saver : Underwater Drone search and rescue system using Mothership and ROV (Drone Saver : 모선과 수중 탐사정을 이용한 수중 드론 탐색 및 구조 시스템)

  • Ko, Seon-Jae;Park, Jae-Jeong;Kim, Seo-Jin;Jeong, Joo-Yeon;Choi, Byoung-Jo
    • Proceedings of the Korea Information Processing Society Conference
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    • pp.1250-1253
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    • 2017
  • 본 논문은 드론 산업이 발전함에 따라 하천, 호수, 바다 상공에서 활용하는 드론이 수중에 빠졌을 때, 물에 빠진 드론을 모선(Mothership)과 집게팔이 달린 ROV(Remotely Operated Vehicle)를 이용하여 인양하는 시스템을 제안한다. 제안한 시스템의 구성 요소는 세 가지로 첫 번째는 실시간으로 GCS(Ground Control Station)에 영상을 전송하며 ROV와 전력선 모뎀을 이용하여 통신을 하는 모선, 두 번째는 수중에 들어가 수중 카메라를 이용하여 육안으로 드론을 탐색하고 장착된 집게팔로 드론을 몸체에 고정시키는 ROV, 세 번째는 모선, ROV와 실시간으로 영상 데이터와 명령 신호를 주고 받는 GCS 이다.

Analysis of Seabottom and Habitat Environment Characteristics based on Detailed Bathymetry in the Northern Shore of the East Sea(Gyeongpo Beach, Gangneung) (정밀 해저지형 자료 기반 동해 북부 연안(강릉 경포) 서식지 해저면 환경 특성 연구)

  • Lee, Myoung Hoon;Rho, Hyun Soo;Lee, Hee Gab;Park, Chan Hong;Kim, Chang Hwan
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.53 no.6
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    • pp.729-742
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    • 2020
  • In this study, we analyze seabottom conditions and characteristics integrated with topographic data, seafloor mosaic, underwater images and orthophoto(drone) of soft-hard bottom area around the Sib-Ri rock in the northern shore of the East Sea(Gyeongpo Beach, Gangneung). We obtained field survey data around the Sib-Ri rock(about 600 m × 600 m). The Sib-Ri rock is formed by two exposed rocks and surrounding reef. The artificial reef zone made by about 200 ~ 300 structures is shown the western area of the Sib-Ri rock. The underwater rock region is extended from the southwestern area of the exposed the Sib-Ri rock with 9 ~ 11 m depth range. The most broad rocky seabottom area is located in the southwestren area of the Sib-Ri rock with 10 ~ 13 m depth range. The study area were classified into 4 types of seabottom environment based on the analysis of bathymetric data, seafloor mosaics, composition of sediments and images(underwater and drone). The underwater rock zones(Type I) are the most distributed area around the Sib-Ri Rock(about 600 m × 600 m). The soft seabottom area made by sediments layer showed 2 types(Type II: gS(gravelly Sand), Type III: S(Sand)) in the areas between underwater rock zones and western part of the Sib-Ri rock(toward Gyeongpo Beach). The artificial reef zone with a lot of structures is located in the western part of the Sib-Ri rock. Marine algae(about 6 species), Phylum porifera(about 2 species), Phylum echinodermata(about 3 species), Phylum mollusca(about 3 species) and Phylum chordata(about 2 species) are dominant faunal group of underwater image analysis area(about 10 m × 10 m) in the northwestern part of the Sib-Ri rock. The habitat of Phylym mollusca(Lottia dorsuosa, Septifer virgatus) and Phylum arthropoda(Pollicipes mitella, Chthamalus challengeri hoek) appears in the intertidal zone of the Sib-Ri rock. And it is possible to estimate the range and distribution of the habitat based on the integrated study of orthphoto(drone) and bathymetry data. The integrated visualization and mapping techniques using seafloor mosaic images, sediments analysis, underwater images, orthophoto(drone) and topographic data can provide and contribute to figure out the seabottom conditions and characteristics in the shore of the East Sea.

Recent R&D Trends of Mobile FSO Technologies (모바일 자유공간 광전송(FSO) 기술 동향)

  • Yeo, C.I.;Heo, Y.S.;Ryu, J.H.;Lee, M.S.;Kang, H.S.;Park, S.W.;Kim, K.E.;Kim, S.C.
    • Electronics and Telecommunications Trends
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.118-128
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    • 2018
  • With the massive increase in bandwidth for wireless communications, free space optical (FSO) communication has attracted significant interest owing to its outstanding strengths over conventional radio frequency wireless communication such as a wide bandwidth, unlicensed spectrum, low power consumption, small size, electromagnetic interference immunity, long-range propagation, and improved security. In recent years, FSO technology has been studied intensively for use in terrestrial and underwater autonomous and unmanned mobile systems, a rapidly growing application area, including robots, drones, unmanned aerial vehicles, autonomous vehicles, unmanned trains, and unmanned submarines. In this report, we review the recent trends and key technologies for the mobile FSO system, and introduce our drone-based mobile FSO system, which is currently under development.