• Title, Summary, Keyword: Tractor power output

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Development of Eco Driving System for Agricultural Tractor (트랙터용 경제운전 안내장치 개발)

  • Park, Seok-Ho;Kim, Young-Jung;Im, Dong-Hyeok;Kim, Chung-Kill;Jung, Sang-Cheol;Kim, Hyeok-Ju;Jang, Yang;Kim, Sung-Su
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.77-84
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    • 2010
  • In this study, we tried to predict tractor power output, fuel consumption rate and work performance indirectly in order to develop an eco driving system. Firstly, we developed equations which could predict tractor power output and fuel consumption rate using characteristic curves of tractor power output. Secondly, with actual engine rpm determined by initial engine rpm and work load, tractor power output and fuel consumption rate were forecasted. Thirdly, with speed signals of GPS sensor system, it was possible to foresee tractor work performance and fuel consumption rate. Lastly, precision of the eco driving system was evaluated through tractor PTO test, and effects of the eco driving system were investigated in the plowing and rotary tilling operations. Engine rpm, power output, fuel consumption rate, work performance and fuel consumption rate per plot area were displayed in the eco driving system. Predicted tractor power outputs in the full load curve were well coincided with the actual power output of prototype, but small differences, 1 to 6 ㎾, were found in the part load curve. Error of the fuel consumption rate was 0.5 L/h, 4.5%, the greatest, and 1 to 3 L/h at the part load curve. It was shown that 69% and 53% of fuel consumption rates could be reduced in plowing and rotary tilling operations, respectively, when the eco driving system was installed in tractor.

Testing of Agricultural Tractor Engine using Animal-fats Biodiesel as Fuel

  • Kim, Youngjung;Lee, Siyoung;Kim, Jonggoo;Kang, Donghyeon;Choi, Honggi
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.208-214
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: Performances of a tractor diesel engine fueled by three different animal fats biodiesels were evaluated comparing with light oil tractor in terms of power, fuel consumption rate, exhaust gases, particulate matter amount and field work capacity. Methods: Animal fats based on pig biodiesel were manufactured manually and tested for its engine performance in the tractor diesel engine and fuel adoptability in the field works. Four different fuels, three different content of biodiesel (BD20, BD50, BD100) and light oil, were prepared and tested in the four strokes diesel engine. Power output, fuel consumption rate and exhaust gases of the four fuels in the diesel engine were compared and discussed. Results: Power output of light oil engine was the greatest showing 5.3% difference between light oil and BD100, but 0.37% better power than BD20 engine power. Less exhaust gases of $CO_2$, CO, $NO_X$ and THC were produced from animal fats biodiesel than light oil, which confirmed that biodiesel is environmental friendly fuel. For fuel adoptability in the tractor, biodiesel engine tractor showed its fuel competitiveness comparing with light oil for tractor works in the faddy field. Conclusions: With four different fuel types of animal-fats biodiesel, performances of a four cylinder diesel engine for tractor were evaluated in terms of power, exhaust gases, particulate matters (PM) and field work capacity. No significant differences observed in the engine performances including power output and exhaust gases emission rate. No significant power difference observed between the various fuels including light oil on the engine running, however, amounts of noxious exhaust gases including $CO_2$ and $NO_X$ decreased as biodiesel content increased in the fuels. Field performances of animal-fats biodiesel tractor were investigated by conducting plowing and rotary operation in the field. Tilling and rotary performance of light oil tractor and BD20 tractor in the field were compared, in which about 10% travelling speed difference on both operations were monitored that showed light oil tractor was superior to BD20 tractor by 10%. Animal-fats can be an alternative fuel source replacing light oil for agricultural machinery and an environmental friendly fuel to nature.

Modeling and Simulation for a Tractor Equipped with Hydro-Mechanical Transmission

  • Choi, Seok Hwan;Kim, Hyoung Jin;Ahn, Sung Hyun;Hong, Sung Hwa;Chai, Min Jae;Kwon, Oh Eun;Kim, Soo Chul;Kim, Yong Joo;Choi, Chang Hyun;Kim, Hyun Soo
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.171-179
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: A simulator for the design and performance evaluation of a tractor with a hydro-mechanical transmission (HMT) was developed. Methods: The HMT consists of a hydro-static unit (HSU), a swash plate control system, and a planetary gear. It was modeled considering the input/output relationship of the torque and speed, and efficiency of HSU. Furthermore, a dynamic model of a tractor was developed considering the traction force, running resistance, and PTO (power take off) output power, and a tractor performance simulator was developed in the co-simulation environment of AMESim and MATLAB/Simulink. Results: The behaviors of the design parameters of the HMT tractor in the working and driving modes were investigated as follows; For the stepwise change of the drawbar load in the working mode, the tractor and engine speeds were maintained at the desired values by the engine torque and HSU stroke control. In the driving mode, the tractor followed the desired speed through the control of the engine torque and HSU stroke. In this case, the engine operated near the OOL (optimal operating line) for the minimum fuel consumption within the shift range of HMT. Conclusions: A simulator for the HMT tractor was developed. The simulations were conducted under two operation conditions. It was found that the tractor speed and the engine speed are maintained at the desired values through the control of the engine torque and the HSU stroke.

Investigation of Adaptabilities of Biodiesel for Agricultural Tractor (바이오디젤의 농용트랙터 적응성 검토)

  • Kim, Young-Jung;Park, Seok-Ho;Kim, Chung-Kil;Im, Dong-Hyeok;Kim, Hyuck-Joo;Jung, Sang-Cheol;Kim, Sung-Su
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.10-14
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    • 2010
  • Biodiesel of 20% (BD20) and 100% (BD100), alterative fuels for tractor, were tested for its power and competitiveness in the various farm operations including plowing and rotary tilling in the paddy fields. No troubles such as engine ignition or abrupt stopping were monitored during the works of plowing, rotary tilling and travelling on the road. According to the tractor PTO test in accordance with OECD tractor PTO test codes, no significant PTO output difference was found between the three fuels. However, fuel consumption rates were different between the biodiesels and diesel fuel in the paddy works, where as biodiesel percentage increased more fuels were spent than the diesel fuel. The reason for this phenomenon seems came from density difference of the three fuels. Maximum fuel consumption difference occurred between BD100 and diesel fuel was about 10% in the plowing. More energy was spent on the rotary tilling operations than the plowing, where 35~40 % more fuel needed on rotary tilling than plowing. Of the exhaust gases, more $CO_2$ was discharged from diesel fuel than biodiesels, but more NOx from biodiesels and CO was hard to determine which fuel produce more amount.

Characteristics of Tractor PTO Power and Work Loads (트랙터 PTO 출력과 농작업 부하 특성)

  • Park, Seok-Ho;Kim, Young-Jung;Im, Dong-Hyeok;Kim, Chung-Kill;Jung, Sang-Cheol;Kim, Hyeok-Joo;Lee, Jong-Soon;Kim, Sung-Su
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.15-20
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    • 2010
  • Tractor PTO output and fuel consumption rate under the korean paddy and various paddy operations were measured and analyzed, in which all the measurements were accomplished by the OECD tractor test codes and the collected information will be utilized for defining tractor energy efficiency class and its test methods. Tractor PTO performance tests were conducted under full-load, part-load and various engine RPMs with part-load at the engine laboratory, while the paddy operations were dry land plowing, wet and dry land rotary tilling and wet land preparation under various soils. As a whole, the rated tractor outputs were ranged from 17% to 100% in the various tillage and land preparation operations, however, the loads for the paddy operations of 1,700 to 2,000 rpm were very close to the OECD tractor load distribution thus it would be appropriate to adopt OECD tractor test codes to measure energy consumption efficiency of tractor.

Development of a Simulation Model for an 80 kW-class Electric All-Wheel-Drive (AWD) Tractor using Agricultural Workload (농작업 부하 데이터를 활용한 80 kW급 전기구동 AWD 트랙터의 시뮬레이션 모델 개발)

  • Baek, Seung Yun;Kim, Wan Soo;Kim, Yeon Soo;Kim, Yong Joo;Park, Cheol Gyu;An, Su Cheol;Moon, Hee Chang;Kim, Bong Sang
    • Journal of Drive and Control
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.27-36
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    • 2020
  • The aim of this study is to design a simulation model for an electric All-Wheel-Drive (AWD) tractor to evaluate the performance of the selected component and agricultural work ability. The electric AWD tractor consists of four motors independently for each drive wheel, and each motor is combined with an engine generator, a battery pack, and reducers. The torque data of a 78 kW-class tractor was measured during plow tillage and driving operation to develop a workload cycle. A simulation model was developed by using commercial software, Simulation X, and it used the workload as the simulation condition. As a result of simulation analysis, the drive system, including an electric motor and reducers, was able to cope with high load during plow tillage. The SOC (State of Charge) level was influenced by the output power of the motor, and it was maintained in the range of 50~80%. The fuel consumed by the engine was about 18.23 L during working on a total of 8 fields. The electric AWD tractor was able to perform agricultural work for about 7 hours. In the future study, the electric AWD tractor will be developed reflecting the simulation condition. Research on the comparison between the simulation model and the electric AWD tractor should be performed.

Analysis of Factors Affecting Fuel Consumption of Agricultural Tractor (농용 트랙터 연료소모량에 미치는 요인분석)

  • Park, Seok-Ho;Kim, Young-Jung;Im, Dong-Hyeok;Kim, Chung-Kill;Jang, Yang;Kim, Sung-Su
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.151-157
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    • 2010
  • The objective of this study was to analyze the factors affecting on fuel consumption of agricultural tractor. According to the statistical analysis, fuel consumption of agricultural tractor was considerably influenced by kind of operation, throttle engine speed and gear steps of tractor but much less by kind of soil. Specific fuel consumption of the tractor in plowing, dry paddy tilling, wet paddy tilling and wet paddy levelling was 0.33~0.36, 0.30~0.45, 0.19~0.34, 0.28~0.39 L/$kW{\cdot}h$, respectively, and $CO_2$ emission was 0.36~0.45, 0.35~0.58, 0.22~0.42, 0.24~0.37 kg/$kW{\cdot}h$, respectively. Specific fuel consumption and $CO_2$ emission increased as throttle engine speed increased but reversely proportional with gear step of tractor, by which one can reduce fuel consumption and $CO_2$ emission with practicing of "Gear up & Throttle Down" technique in paddy operations.

Performance Evaluation of a Driving Power Transmission System for 50 kW Narrow Tractors

  • Hong, Soon-Jung;Ha, Jong-Kyou;Kim, Yong-Joo;Kabir, Md. Shaha Nur;Seo, Young Woo;Chung, Sun-Ok
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.1-13
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: The development of compact tractors that can be used in dry fields, greenhouses, and orchards for pest control, weeding, transportation, and harvesting is necessary. The development and performance evaluation of power transmission units are very important when it comes to tractor development. This study evaluates the performance of a driving power transmission unit of a 50 kW multi-purpose narrow tractor. Methods: The performance of the transmission and forward-reverse clutch, which are the main components of the driving power transmission unit of multi-purpose narrow tractors, was evaluated herein. The transmission performance was evaluated in terms of power transmission efficiency, noise, and axle load, while the forward-reverse clutch performance was evaluated in terms of durability. The transmission's power transmission efficiency accounts for the measurement of transmission losses, which occur in the transmission's gear, bearing, and oil seal. The motor's power was input in the transmission's input shaft. The rotational speed and torque were measured in the final output shaft. The noise was measured at each speed level after installing a microphone on the left, right, and upper sides. The axle load test was performed through a continuous equilibrium load test, in which a constant load was continuously applied. The forward-reverse clutch performance was calculated using the engine torque to axle torque ratio with the assembled engine and transmission. Results: The loss of power in the transmission efficiency test of the driving power unit was 6.0-9.7 kW based on all gear steps. This loss of horsepower was equal to 11-18% of the input power (52 kW). The transmission efficiency of the driving power unit was 81.5-89.0%. The noise of the driving power unit was 50-57 dB at 800 rpm, 70-77 dB at 1600 rpm, and 76-83 dB at 2400 rpm. The axle load test verified that the input torque and axle revolutions were constant. The results of the forward-reverse clutch performance test revealed that hydraulic pressure and torque changes were stably maintained when moving forward or backward, and its operation met the hydraulic design standards. Conclusions: When comprehensively examined, these research results were similar to the main driving power transmission systems from USA and Japan in terms of performance. Based on these results, tractor prototypes are expected to be created and supplied to farmhouses after going through sufficient in-situ adaptability tests.

Improving Compression and Throat Ratios of Combustion Chamber for Reduction of Exhaust Emissions for a Swirl Chamber Type Diesel Engine (와류실식 디젤기관의 배기배출물 저감을 위한 연소실의 압축비 및 분구면적비 개선)

  • Lee, Chang-Kyu;Huh, Yun-Kun;Seo, Sin-Won
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.501-508
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    • 2010
  • A swirl chamber type diesel engine attachable to 18 kW agricultural tractors was improved to reduce exhaust emissions. Compression ratio and throat area ratio of the combustion chamber were varied to determine optimum combustion conditions. Tests were composed of full load and 8-mode emission tests. Compression ratio was fixed as 21, but the swirl chamber volume was increased by 3.8%. Output power, torque, specific fuel consumption, exhaust gas temperature, and smoke level were not considerably different for compression ratios of 21.5 (reference condition) and 21 (test condition), while NOx, HC, CO and PM levels for the compression ratio of 21 were decreased by 11%, 46%, 28%, 11%, respectively, from those for the compression ratio of 21.5. The tests were also conducted with a compression ratio of 22 and 4.3% increased chamber volume. Output power, torque, exhaust gas temperature and smoke level were greater, while specific fuel consumption was less for the compression ratio of 22 than those for the compression ratio of 21.5. Increase of compression ratio decreased HC and CO levels by 24%, 39%, but increased NOx and PM levels by 24%, 39%. Based on these results, a compression ratio of 21 was selected as an optimum value. Then, full load tests with the selected compression ratio of 21 were carried out for different throat ratios of 1.0%, 1.1%, 1.2%. Output power and torque were greatest and smoke was lowest when throat area ratio was 1.1%, which satisfied the target values of specific fuel consumption (less than 272 g/$kW{\cdot}h$) and exhaust gas temperature (less than $550^{\circ}C$). Therefore, a throat area ratio of 1.1% was selected as an optimum value.

Analysis of the PTO Driveline Rattle Noise on an Agricultural Tractor (농업용 트랙터 PTO 전동라인의 래틀 소음 분석)

  • Ahn, Da-Vin;Shin, In-Kyung;Han, Hyun-Woo;Son, Gwan-Hee;Park, Young-Jun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.45-54
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    • 2019
  • In this study, we analyze the rattle noise of a power takeoff (PTO) driveline and develop a PTO driveline resonance model. We measured the rattle noise of the PTO driveline on the output shaft and, by analyzing the rattle noise in the time domain, we determine that the engine expansion stroke period matches the sound pressure of rattle noise. This finding helped us demonstrate that the rattle noise is caused by the collision between the PTO driving gear and the gear driven by the engine expansion stroke; the torsional vibration caused by this collision is affected by the angular velocity fluctuation of the PTO drive shaft. By measuring the angular velocity of the PTO drive shaft, we confirm that the angular velocity fluctuation of the engine flywheel tends to excessively amplify the PTO drive shaft angular velocity fluctuation. We conclude that the resonance, which occurs when the operating frequency of the engine is close to the natural frequency of the tractor power transmission system, causes the excessive angular velocity fluctuation of the PTO drive shaft. We performed a modal analysis of the PTO driveline resonance and, using the characteristic equation, we show that the resonance occurs when the engine rotation speed is close to 850 rpm, which matches the natural frequency of the PTO driveline.