This study aims to examine the patterns of middle-aged parents' intergenerational support exchange with their adult children and its effects on the happiness of the parents. The sample consisted of 765 middle-aged parents selected from the National Survey of Korean Families by the Ministry of Equality and Family in 2010. The results were as follows. First, intergenerational support exchange between parents and their adult children was categorized into four groups depending on the provider of support: parents who exchanged no support with their children, parents who only received support from their children, parents who only provided support to their children, and parents who exchanged support with their children. Second, parents who exchanged no support with their children were high in instrumental support and those who both provided and received support were high in emotional support. Third, consciousness of their children significantly affected the satisfaction level of their relationship with their children. The more the parents emphasize on the growth of their children, the more they were satisfied. Parents in the support exchange group were more satisfied when they received economic support from their children. With regard to instrumental and emotional support, parents were more satisfied when they provided support to or mutually exchanged support with their children. Forth, subjective health conditions, consciousness of their children, and household's income more significantly affected the happiness of middle-aged parents than the patterns of intergenerational support exchange. With regard to economic support, parents who only received support from their children were less happy than the other groups. With regard to instrumental support, parents who exchanged no support with their children were happier than the other groups. With regard to emotional support, parents who provided support to their children were happier than the other groups.
Objectives: This study intends to understand the difference within group of social support level and the effect of social support to health behaviors and health status of the elderly by selecting the old of local society as target. Methods: Data were obtained from self-administered questionnaire of 8,688 persons, older than 65 years, living in a community. We measured the sociodemographic characteristics, social support(family support, other support, quality of support), physical health state(subjective health status, number of chronic disease), physical function state(activities of daily living; ADL, instrumental activities of daily living; IADL), cognition state(mini-mental state examination-Korean; MMSE-K) and depression state(short form of geriatric depression scale; SGDS), health behaviors(smoking, drinking, exercise, eating habit). Univariate, multinominal logistic regression and covariance structure analysis were employed to analyze factors affecting on the social support of the elderly. Results: When considering the degree of social support by the sociodemographic characteristics of the older adults, the family support, other support and quality of support is better when the old is male, young, high education and self-reported living status is good and it has significance statistically. When considering the relation between social support and health status, the family support, other support and quality of support is better when the old's subjective and objective physical health status is good. The family support, other support and quality of support is better when the old's subjective health status is better. The other support and quality of support is better when the old's ADL(activities of daily living) and IADL(instrumental activities of daily living) are good. The family support, other support and quality of support is better when the old's cognitive function and depression state is better. When considering the relation between social support and health behaviors, in case of smoking and drinking, the quality of support, family support and other support is better when the old smokes and drinks rather than the old does not. In case of exercise and eating habit, the family support, other support and quality of support is better when the old exercises and eats regularly rather than the old does not. It has significance statistically. From the result of performing covariance structure analysis by structural equation modeling(SEM) with two endogenous variable(health behaviors and health status) and one exogenous variable(social support), factor loading of health status is 0.74 and factor loading of health behaviors is 0.05. The social support explains health status of 55.4% and health behaviors of 2.9%. Conclusions: This study has the meaning that it finds the difference of social support generating from inside of the group for the old residing in city and country and specifies the effect that the difference of social support influences to health status and health behaviors. From now on, in the development of health improvement strategy of the olds, it is necessary to approach from inclusive aspect while considering psychosocial factor such as social support and social economical factor as well as health status.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of spousal attachment on social support the husband provides for his wife, investigate the relationships between spousal attachment and the social support the husband received from the wife, and the view the relationship between the social support provided for the wife and the social support received from the wife during early adulthood. A survey was conducted for this study. The hypotheses were based on adult attachment theory. The results are as fellows: Secure attachment with a spouse had a significant positive effect on motivational support and esteem support provided for the wife. Anxious-avoidant attachment with a spouse had a significant negative effect on instrumental support, social companionship, motivational support, esteem support and informational support provided for the wife. Anxious-ambivalent attachment with a spouse negatively affected instrumental support, social companionship, motivational support, esteem support and informational support provided for the wife. Secure attachment with a spouse was positively related to instrumental support, social companionship, motivational support, esteem support and informational support received from the wife. Anxious-avoidant attachment with a spouse was negatively related to instrumental support, social companionship, motivational support, esteem support and informational support received from the wife. Anxious-ambivalent attachment with a spouse was negatively related to esteem support received from the wife. The results were discussed as they relate to the importance of spousal attachment for a healthy family.
The purpose of this study was to develop the Children's Social Support Scale to assess three potential aspects of social support in elementary school age children ; the children's subjective apprasials of family, peer, and teacher support ; the frequency of supportive behaviors available from the child's support network; and the size of children's social support network. The subjects of this study were 380 children of forth and sixth graders in elementary schools located in Seoul. The 68 items(perceived support scale 30 items, enacted support scale 35 items, and support network 3 items) were analyzed by the statistical methods of item analysis, principal factor analysis, Factor analysis revealed that a three factor solution was the best for the Perceived Support scale ; family peer, teacher support. Enacted Support scale comprised of three factors; emotional, self-esteem, and informational support. Support Network scale was composed of emotional, self-esteem, and informational support network. Reliabilities for the domains ranged form .75-89. It was concluded that the children's Social Support scale in general is acceptable for use in Korea.
The purpose of this study was to investigate adolescents' maladjustment in terms of type and source of social support. The main results of this study were as follows; 1. In social support source the mean score of peer support was higher than family support. In social support type the mean score of expressive support was higher than other support type. 2. Social support source was found significantly different according to sex of the children educational level of the father and mother. Malajustment were found significantly different according to sex of the children educational level of the father and mother income and marital satisfaction of the mother. 3. In social support source it was significantly different according to all maladjustment subscale in family support and to over-anxiousness social withdrawal and hyperactivity in peer support. In social support type it was significantly different according to over-anxiousness and social withdrawal in expressive support to socia withdrawal over-anxiousness hyperactivity and delinquency in esteem support and to over-anxiounsness in informational support.
This study focused on individual differences in social support among older adults. The purposes of this study were to investigate sex and age group differences in social support and to examine the effects of intergenerational social support on life satisfaction among the rural elderly. Data were from 545 elderly over 60 years of age living separately from adult children in the rural area. With regard to sex differences in support exchanges, no significant differences were found in support-giving and support-receiving. Men reported giving more financial support to children than women, while women reported receiving more financial support from children than men. With regard to age group differences in support exchanges, there was less support-giving in older age group. Older parents in their 60s reported giving more financial, instrumental, and emotional support and receiving less financial support than the group of age 70＋ Regression analyses showed that life satisfaction of both men and women was affected by support size and the frequency of contact with children. Giving financial and instrumental support was significantly associated with life satisfaction of men, but giving and receiving each type of social support had no effects on life satisfaction of women. Life satisfaction of parents in their 60s was found to be positively associated with support size, giving financial support and receiving emotional support, and negatively associated with giving instrumental support. In the group of age 70＋, the frequency of contact with adult children and giving financial support had positive influences on life satisfaction.
Purpose: This study was done to identify the relationship between social support and morale in the elderly. Method: A structured questionnaire was carried out from April, 2003 to June, 2003 on 203 elderly. The data was analyzed with a SPSS program for descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation coefficients, t-test, ANOVA, and stepwise multiple regression was done Result: The level of social support was moderate, and family support was the highest score. In types of support, appraisal support was the highest score. The level of morale was slightly lower than moderate, and the score of social support showed significantly positive correlation with morale. In general characteristics, several variables were significantly related to social support and morale. The most powerful predictor of morale was material support by family and the variance was 19.6%. A combination of material support by family, emotional support by relatives, level of satisfaction with pocket money, perceived health, level of intimacy with one's children, and material support by friends account for 43.3% of the variance in morale of the elderly. Conclusion: To increase the morale of the elderly, it is necessary to consolidate material support by family and relatives.
The purpose of this study was to explore Korean divorced mothers' experiences with child support. The data were collected from 17 Korean divorced mothers who were divorced between the years of 2004 and 2009 and were raising at least one minor child. Data were analyzed based on the inductive data analysis method. Most mothers negotiated to receive child support from noncustodial fathers without experiencing much conflict with the fathers at the time of the divorce, but only five mothers received child support at the time of the interviews. The mothers experienced difficulties in receiving child support from the fathers under the child support policy in Korea that treated child support as a personal issue and provided little systemic support for child support. Regarding required parenting agreements, most of the mothers acknowledged the need to have parenting agreements but they still wanted voluntary payment of the child support from the fathers. The results suggest that it is necessary to expand parenting education for divorced parents to encourage voluntary participation in parenting and to improve the child support policy by introducing child support guidelines and enhancing child support collection systems.
Engineering rock mass classification is extensively used to determine the reasonable support system throughout the tunneling process in the field. Selection of support system based on the results of engineering rock mass classification is simple and straight-forward. However, this method cannot consider the effect of in-situ stresses, mechanical properties of support material, and support installation time on the behavior or rock-support system To handle the various conditions encountered in the underground excavation sites rock-support system. To handle the various conditions encountered in th eunderground excavation sites rock-support interaction program has been developed. This program can analyze the interaction between rock mass and support materials and also can simulate the tunnel excavation-support insstallation process by controlling the support installation time and the stiffness of support system. Practical applicability of this program was verfied by comparing the results of support design to those from rock mass classification for virtual underground excavation at the drilling site KD-06 in Geoje island.
The Journal of Korean Society for School & Community Health Education
Objectives: This study intends to understand the difference of social support levels and the relationship between social support the health status, college adjustment and academic achievement in the college student. Methods: Data were obtained from self-administered questionnaire of 416 college student. We measured the demographic characteristics, social support (tangible support, appraisal support, belonging support, self-esteem support), health status (36-item short-form health survey(SF-36), center for epidemiologic studies-depression(CES-D), perceived stress scale(PSS)), student adaptation to college questionnaire(SACQ), average grades point. Chi-square test, t-test, ANOVA test, pearson correlation analysis were used for analysis factors relation of the social support of the college students. Results: In considering the degree of social support by the demographic characteristics in the college students, the social support was better for the female college students. In considering the relation between social support and health status, the students who get better social support, were good in health depression and perceived stress status. When they got better social support their college adjustment and academic achievement were good. The result was statistically significant. Conclusions: Social support for students has great influence on health, college adjustment and academic achievement of students. Psychological aspects of students should be included in the strategy of social support for students.
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