• Title/Summary/Keyword: STORM

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Operational Improvement of Small Urban Storm Water Pumping Station (1) - Simulation of Flood Hydrograph using GIS-based Hydrologic Model (도시 소유역 배수펌프장 운영개선 방안 연구 (1) - GIS 기반 수문모형에 의한 홍수유출수문곡선의 재현)

  • Gil, Kyung-Ik;Han, Jong-Ok;Kim, Goo-Hyun
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.682-686
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    • 2005
  • Recently some urban areas have been flooded due to heavy storm rainfalls. Though major causes of these floodings may be attributed to localized heavy rainfalls, other factors are related to urban flooding including deficiency of storm sewer network capacity, change of surface runoff due to covered open channels, and operational problems of storm drainage pump stations. In this study, hydrologic and hydraulic analysis of Sutak basin in Guri city were carried out to evaluate flooding problems occurred during the heavy storm in July, 2001. ArcView, a world most widely used GIS tool, was used to extract required data for the hydrologic analysis including basin characteristics data, concentration times, channel routing data, land use data, soil distribution data and SCS runoff curve number generation from digital maps. HEC-HMS, a GIS-based runoff simulation model, was successfully used to simulate the flood inflow hydrograph to Sutak pumping station.

The Effect of Rainfall on the Water Quality of a Small Reservoir (Lake Wangkung, Korea)

  • Hwang, Gil-Son;Kim, Jae-Ok;Kim, Jai-Ku;Kim, Young-Chul;Kim, Bom-Chul
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.38 no.spc
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    • pp.39-43
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    • 2005
  • The dynamics of water quality with the storm events were analyzed in a small reservoir for irrigation, Lake Wangkung. Water quality of the inflowing stream fluctuated seasonally with the variation of flow rate. Thermal stratification was consistent from April to October below 2 m depths and anoxic layer was developed below 2 m depth in summer. The unique feature of temperature showed that thermal stratification was disrupted by a heavy rain event during monsoon, but hypolimnetic hypoxia were reestablished after a few days. Phosphorus and nitrogen increased immediately following storm events. The marked increase may be due to the input of P-rich storm runoff from the watershed. Internal phosphorus loading can be one of the explanations for TP increases in summer. When there was a storm, total populations of phytoplankton and zooplankton was reduced immediately following the storm, indicating possible flushing of algae and zooplankton. After a lag period of low-density the plankton population bloomed to a peak again within five days after the storm. Turbid water in lake became clear again which coincided with the time of the phytoplankton buildup. The results demonstrate that water quality is regulated greatly by rainfall intensity in Lake Wangkung.

Assessment of Large Scale Climate Pattern of Extreme Rainfall in Korea (우리나라 극치강수량 발생시 대규모 기상장 특성 평가)

  • Kwon, Hyun-Han;Kim, Min-Ji;Kim, Jang-Kyung;Kim, Un-Gi
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.360-360
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    • 2011
  • 우리나라의 극치강수량 발생 특성은 6~8월 사이에 몬순시스템에 의해 영향을 많이 받는다. 이러한 동아시아 몬순시스템은 대규모 기상학적 거동으로서 우리나라의 국지적 강수발생 특성과 매우 큰 연관성을 가지고 있다. 우리나라의 극치강수량 발생 시에 나타나는 기상학적 특징을 진단하는 과정은 수문 기상학적으로 극치강수량을 예측할 수 있는 기본 토대를 제공할 수 있다. 이러한 점에서 본 연구에서는 우리나라에 발생한 극치강수량을 순위별로 추출하고 각 순위별로 극치강수량 발생시점을 중심으로 5일 이전의 기상변량을 NOAA 재해석(reanalysis) 자료로부터 추출하고 이를 합성시켜 기상특성을 평가하였다. 극치강수량의 기상학적 거동을 평가하기 위한 방법은 다음과 같다. 첫째, 기상변량으로는 Sea Level Pressure, Wind Vector, Geopotential Height 등을 추출한다. 둘째, 이들 기상자료로부터 대규모 강우장만을 추출하기 위해서 기준값(threshold)을 가지고 특정량 이상의 Storm Track만을 추출한다. 셋째, 이들 Storm Track들을 분류하여 범주화 시킨다. 넷째, 범주화된 Storm Track 별로 강수량 분포, 강수지속시간 등에 대한 확률 분포를 유도한다. 또한 이들 Storm Track에 패턴인식 기법을 적용하여 Storm Track의 이동경로를 추정할 수 있는 알고리즘을 개발하고자 한다.

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Studies on the Time Distribution of Heavy Storms (暴雨의 時間的 分布에 關한 硏究)

  • Lee, Keun-Hoo
    • Magazine of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.69-84
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    • 1984
  • This study was carried out to investigate the time distribution of single storms and to establish the model of storm patterns in korea. Rainfall recording charts collected from 42 metheorological stations covering the Korean peninsula were analyzed. A single storm was defined as a rain period seperated from preceding and succeeding rainfall by 6 hours and more. Among the defined single storms, 1199 storms exceeding total rainfall of 80 mm were qualified for the study. Storm patterns were cklassified by quartile classification method and the relationship between cummulative percent of rainfalls and cummulative storm time was established for each quartile storm group. Time distribution models for each stations were prepared through the various analytical and inferential procedures. Obtained results are summarized as follows: 1. The percentile frequency of quartile storms for the first to the fourth quartile were 22.0%, 26.5%, 28.9% and 22.6%, respectively. The large variation of percentile frequency was show between the same quartile storms. The advanced type storm pattern was predominant in the west coastal type storm patterns predominantly when compared to the single storms with small total rainfalls. 3. The single storms with long storm durations tended to show delayed type storm patterns predominantly when compared to the single storms with short storm durations. 4. The percentile time distribution of quartile storms for 42 rin gaging stations was estimated. Large variations were observed between the percentiles of time distributions of different stations. 5. No significant differences were generally found between the time distribution of rainfalls with greater total rainfall and with less total rainfall. This fact suggests that the size of the total rainfall of single storms was not the main factor affecting the time distribution of heavy storms. 6. Also, no significant difference were found between the time distribution of rainfalls with long duration and with short duration. The fact indicates that the storm duration was no the main factor affecting the time distribution of heavy storms. 7. In Korea, among all single storms, 39.0% show 80 to 100mm of total rainfall which stands for the mode of the frequency distribution of total rainfalls. The median value of rainfalls for all single storms from the 42 stations was 108mm. The shape of the frequency distribution of total rainfalls showed right skewed features. No significant differences were shown in the shape of distribution histograms for total rainfall of quartile storms. The mode of rainfalls for the advanced type quartile storms was 80~100mm and their frequencies were 39~43% for respective quartiles. For the delayed type quartile storms, the mode was 80~100mm and their frequencies were 36!38%. 8. In Korea, 29% of all single storms show 720 to 1080 minutes of storm durations which was the highest frequency in the frequency distribution of storm durations. The median of the storm duration for all single storms form 42 stations was 1026 minutes. The shape of the frequency distribution was right skewed feature. For the advanced type storms, the higher frequency of occurrence was shown by the single storms with short durations, whereas for the delayed type quartile storms, the higher frequency was shown gy the long duration single storms. 9. The total rainfall of single storms was positively correlated to storm durations in all the stations throughout the nation. This fact was also true for most of the quartile storms. 10. The third order polynomial regression models were established for estimating the time distribution of quartile storms at different stations. The model test by relative error method resulted good agreements between estimated and observed values with the relative error of less than 0.10 in average.

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A Study on the Statistical Characteristics and Numerical Hindcasts of Storm Waves in East Sea (동해 폭풍파랑의 통계적 특성과 파랑 후측모의 실험에 관한 연구)

  • Chun, Hwusub;Kang, Tae-Soon;Ahn, Kyungmo;Jeong, Weon Mu;Kim, Tae-Rim;Lee, Dong Hwan
    • Journal of Korean Society of Coastal and Ocean Engineers
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.81-95
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    • 2014
  • In the present study, the statistical analysis on the storm waves in the East Sea have been carried out, and the several storm waves were reproduced by the modified WAM as a first step for the accurate and prompt forecasting and warning against the swell waves in East Sea. According to the present study, the occurrences of the storm waves from the North were the most probable, while the waves from the Northeast were most frequently observed. It was found that the significant wave heights of storm waves from the North and Northern northeast were larger than those of storm waves from the Northeast. But due to long fetch distance, the significant wave periods of storm waves from the Northesast were longer than those of North and Northern northeast. In addition to the wave analysis, the numerical experiments for the storm waves in East Sea were carried out using the modified WAM, and three periods of storm waves in 2013 were calculated. The numerical results were well agreed with wave measurements. However the numerical simulation results in shallow water region showed lower accuracies compared to deep water, which might be due to lower resolution of wind field and bottom topography caused by large grid size, 5 minute, adopted in the present study. Overall computational efficiency of the modified WAM found to be excellent compared to original WAM. It is because the modified WAM adopted the implicit scheme, thereby the present model performed 10 time faster than original WAM in computation time.

Estimation of Frequency of Storm Surge Heights on the West and South Coasts of Korea Using Synthesized Typhoons (확률론적 합성태풍을 이용한 서남해안 빈도 해일고 산정)

  • Kim, HyeonJeong;Suh, SeungWon
    • Journal of Korean Society of Coastal and Ocean Engineers
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.241-252
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    • 2019
  • To choose appropriate countermeasures against potential coastal disaster damages caused by a storm surge, it is necessary to estimate the frequency of storm surge heights estimation. As the coastal populations size in the past was small, the tropical cyclone risk model (TCRM) was used to generate 176,689 synthetic typhoons. In simulation, historical paths and central pressures were incorporated as a probability density function. Moreover, to consider the typhoon characteristics that resurfaced or decayed after landfall on the southeast coast of China, incorporated the shift angle of the historical typhoon as a function of the probability density function and applied it as a damping parameter. Thus, the passing rate of typhoons moving from the southeast coast of China to the south coast has improved. The characteristics of the typhoon were analyzed from the historical typhoon information using correlations between the central pressure, maximum wind speed ($V_{max}$) and the maximum wind speed radius ($R_{max}$); it was then applied to synthetic typhoons. The storm surges were calculated using the ADCIRC model, considering both tidal and synthetic typhoons using automated Perl script. The storm surges caused by the probabilistic synthetic typhoons appear similar to the recorded storm surges, therefore this proposed scheme can be applied to the storm surge simulations. Based on these results, extreme values were calculated using the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) method, and as a result, the 100-year return period storm surge was found to be satisfactory compared with the calculated empirical simulation value. The method proposed in this study can be applied to estimate the frequency of storm surges in coastal areas.

Statistical characteristics of electron precipitation into the atmosphere

  • Park, Mi-Young;Lee, Dae-Young;Cho, Jung-Hee;Shin, Dae-Kyu;Lee, Eun-Hee
    • The Bulletin of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.94.2-94.2
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    • 2013
  • We studied the precipitation of magnetospheric energetic electrons into the Earth's atmosphere during magnetic storm times using precipitating electron flux data from the MEPED on board the NOAA Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (POES) low.altitude satellite, NOAA-16. We identified a total of 84 storm events between 2001 and 2012 using SYM-H index. We have done a superposition of precipitating electron fluxes for each of three energy ranges (i.e., e1: > 30 keV, e2: > 100 keV, e3: > 300 keV) for the identified storm times. The results show that the fluxes start to increase before the main phase of storm for all energy ranges and reach a maximum level just before the time of SYM-H minimum value. The precipitation timescales are energy-dependent, being shorter for lower energy, ~4.67 hours for e1, ~7.93 hours for e2 and ~26.5 hours for e3. The precipitating fluxes decline during the recovery phase of the storms. We examined the L shell dependence of the precipitating electron flux during the main phase. We found that statistically the precipitation fluxes are dominantly seen at L of ~ 3-4 or higher. This L value roughly corresponds to the plasmapause location during the main phase. Thus the results imply that the electron precipitation mainly occurs outside of the plasmapause. In addition, we classified the storm events by their strength and examined the dependence of precipitation on storm intensity. We found that the electron precipitation occurs on a faster time scale and penetrate into inner L shell region for a stronger storm.

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Derived I-D-F Curve in Seoul Using Bivariate Precipitation Frequency Analysis (이변량 강우 빈도해석을 이용한 서울지역 I-D-F 곡선 유도)

  • Kwon, Young-Moon;Kim, Tae-Woong
    • KSCE Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.29 no.2B
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    • pp.155-162
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    • 2009
  • Univariate frequency analyses are widely used in practical hydrologic design. However, a storm event is usually characterized by amount, intensity, and duration of the storm. To fully understand these characteristics and to use them appropriately in hydrologic design, a multivariate statistical approach is necessary. This study applied a Gumbel mixed model to a bivariate storm frequency analysis using hourly rainfall data collected for 46 years at the Seoul rainfall gauge station in Korea. This study estimated bivariate return periods of a storm such as joint return periods and conditional return periods based on the estimation of joint cumulative distribution functions of storm characteristics. These information on statistical behaviors of a storm can be of great usefulness in the analysis and assessment of the risk associated with hydrologic design problems.

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Web Service System for GIS-based Storm-surge Visualization (GIS기반 폭풍해일 시각화를 통한 웹 서비스 시스템 구축)

  • Kim, Jin-Ah;Park, K.S.;Kwon, Jae-Il
    • 한국HCI학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.611-614
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    • 2009
  • Understanding the severity of the typhoon-induced storm-surge helps in planning reaction and in preventing further disaster. Natural disasters due to the storm-surge are predictable from accurate observations and forecasts from numerical simulations. What we can do is to make intelligent effort to minimize the loss due to the disaster to the most extent with the technology of early warning, forecast and prevention activity. In this paper, we propose the design of GIS-based Web Service System to visualize the time-varying storm-surge's height and wind field data effectively with 3 different kinds of resolution for predict and prevent storm-surge disasters. This system is one of the efforts to provide the storm-surge forecast service to general public and share two-way more helpful information to coastal resident through the Internet.

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RELATIONSHIPS OF THE SOLAR WIND PARAMETERS WITH THE MAGNETIC STORM MAGNITUDE AND THEIR ASSOCIATION WITH THE INTERPLANETARY SHOCK

  • OH SU YEON;YI YU
    • Journal of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.151-157
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    • 2004
  • It is investigated quantitative relations between the magnetic storm magnitude and the solar wind parameters such as the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (hereinafter, IMF) magnitude (B), the southward component of IMF (Bz), and the dynamic pressure during the main phase of the magnetic storm with focus on the role of the interplanetary shock (hereinafter, IPS) in order to build the space weather fore-casting model in the future capable to predict the occurrence of the magnetic storm and its magnitude quantitatively. Total 113 moderate and intense magnetic storms and 189 forward IPSs are selected for four years from 1998 to 2001. The results agree with the general consensus that solar wind parameter, especially, Bz component in the shocked gas region plays the most important role in generating storms (Tsurutani and Gonzales, 1997). However, we found that the correlations between the solar wind parameters and the magnetic storm magnitude are higher in case the storm happens after the IPS passing than in case the storm occurs without any IPS influence. The correlation coefficients of B and $BZ_(min)$ are specially over 0.8 while the magnetic storms are driven by IPSs. Even though recently a Dst prediction model based on the real time solar wind data (Temerin and Li, 2002) is made, our correlation test results would be supplementary in estimating the prediction error of such kind of model and in improving the model by using the different fitting parameters in cases associated with IPS or not associated with IPS rather than single fitting parameter in the current model.