• Title, Summary, Keyword: Potential ecological risk index

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Speciation and Ecological Risk Assessment of Trace Metals in Surface Sediments of the Masan Bay (마산만 표층퇴적물에서 미량금속의 화학적 존재형태 및 생태계 위해도 평가)

  • Sun, Chul-In;Lee, Young-Ju;An, Jung-Hyun;Lee, Yong-Woo
    • The Sea:JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.155-163
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    • 2014
  • Total concentration and chemical speciation of trace metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Ni) were determined to evaluate pollution level and potential ecological risk in surface sediments of the Masan Bay. The results showed that the trace metal concentrations, except for Ni, were high in the inner Masan Bay. Based on the chemical speciation of metals in sediments, the percentage of total concentrations of Cd and Pb in non-residual fraction was 92% and 88%, respectively, indicating that these metals originated mainly from anthropogenic sources. However, Ni (70%) was dominant in residual fraction. Pollution load index (PLI) and ecological risk index (ERI) values in the inner bay indicate the presence of anthropogenic pollution and considerable-moderate ecological risk, respectively. Ecological index (Ei) value for Cd was high at most stations in the Masan Bay, and Cd content was the highest in acid soluble fraction, which presents the highest ecological risk. The results obtained in this study indicate that Cd presents a high potential ecological risk to benthic biota in the Masan Bay.

Distribution of Organic Matter and Trace Metals in Surface Sediments and Ecological Risk Assessment in the Tongyeong Coast (통영연안 표층퇴적물에서의 유기물과 미량금속 분포 특성 및 생태위해성 평가)

  • YANG, WON HO;LEE, HYO JIN;KIM, GI BEUM
    • The Sea:JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.125-133
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    • 2016
  • We investigated the distribution of organic matter and trace metals in surface sediment from Tonyeong coast. To determine the status of trace metal pollution, we also conducted an ecological risk assessment. Relatively high concentration of TN (total nitrogen), TOC (total organic carbon), and AVS (acid volatile sulfide) was found in surface sediment located in the narrow channel (site 35-38). Spatial distribution of Cd, Cr, Ni, Co, Hg, and Zn in surface sediment was similar and high Cu concentrations were found in narrow channel. The assessment of heavy metal pollution was derived using the Enrichment factors (EF). The enrichment factor indicated that Cd was no enrichment (EF<1), Pb, Cr, Ni, Co, Zn, and Hg were minor enrichment (1

A Geo-statistical Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in the Soil Around a Ship Building Yard in Busan, Korea (통계지표를 활용한 부산지역 조선소 주변 토양 내 중금속 오염조사 연구)

  • Choi, Jung-Sik;Jeon, Soo kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.24 no.7
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    • pp.907-915
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    • 2018
  • With the increase of metal usage in various industries, metal pollution and ecological toxicity in the environmental system have become a significant concern. A geo-statistical index has been widely used to determine contamination level with normalization through a background value. In this study, geo-statistical indexes such as an enrichment factor, accumulation index, and potential ecological risk index were used to assess metal pollution in soil at locations associated with shipbuilding manufacturing industries. Metal contamination, especially of Cu and Pb, was observed in some samples located closer to manufacturing sites. Enrichment factor and accumulation (IGEO) values were indicative of concerning levels of soil contamination in specific samples, and the soil contamination could be induced by anthropogenic sources. In further study, after more detailed sampling for soil and potential pollution sources, high interpretation techniques such as Pb isotope analysis and X-ray analysis will be needed to investigate source identification.

Distribution and Pollution Assessment of Heavy Metals in Surface Sediments Near Gwangan Bridge (광안대교 인근 퇴적토 중의 중금속 농도 및 오염도 조사 연구)

  • Lee, Junho;Yang, Changgeun;Lee, Taeyoon
    • Journal of the Korean GEO-environmental Society
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    • v.19 no.11
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    • pp.15-22
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    • 2018
  • The main objective of this study was to analyse heavy metals in sediments obtained from Gwangan bridge and to evaluate pollution intensity of the sites. To evaluate pollution intensity of the sites, we used enrichment factor (EF), geoaccumulation index, potential ecological risk factor (PERF), and mean PEL quotient. Pollution intensities of these sites were evaluated by above methods, and we found most dangerous heavy metal and polluted sites. All sites showed non polluted or low risk for the heavy metals such as Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn, but all sites were categorized as minor enrichment for Cd. G4 was evaluated as moderately polluted by Cd ($I_{geo}$) but other sites were unpolluted by heavy metals. In summary, Cd was found to be higher concentrations for all sites. For G4 and G5 sites, Pb and Zn in addition to Cd were higher than other sites.

Evaluating Sediment Heavy Metal Pollution Level and Monitoring Network Representativeness at the Upstream Points of the Gangjeong-Goryeong Weir in the Nakdong River (낙동강 강정고령보 상류 퇴적물 측정망 지점의 중금속 오염도 및 대표성 평가)

  • Ahn, Jung Min;Im, Teo Hyo;Kim, Sungmin;Lee, Sangsu;Kim, Shin;Lee, Kwon Cheol;Kim, Yong Seok;Yang, Deuk Seok
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.27 no.7
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    • pp.477-488
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    • 2018
  • In this study, heavy metal levels at the sediment monitoring network site upstream of the Gangjeong-Goryeong weir in the Nakdong River were surveyed from 2012 to 2016. We assessed the sediment pollution level using various pollution indexes based on ICP-MS analysis. The stream sediment pollution assessment standard, established through Regulation No. 687 of the National Institute of Environmental Research (2015), pollution load index (PLI), potential ecological risk index (RI), and mean PEL Quotient (mPELQ) were used to evaluate the sediment pollution level. We verified the representativeness of the monitoring point through the distribution of sedimentation and scour behavior by river bed surveying using anacousticDopplercurrentprofiler.

Accumulation of heavy metals in surface sediments of Lere Lake, Chad

  • Ekengele, Leopold Nga;Blaise, Apelbo;Jung, Myung Chae
    • Geosciences Journal
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.305-315
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    • 2017
  • Thirty surface sediment samples collected from Lere Lake were analyzed for As, Co, Cr, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, Zn, Fe, pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC) and Organic Matter (OM) in order to assess the current pollution status in sediments of the study area. Sediment pollution assessment was carried out using Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geo-accumulation index ($I_{geo}$). The potential ecotoxic effects were evaluated based on sediment quality guidelines. The calculated enrichment factor showed that the sediment was mostly enriched with Sb, Cd, Cu, and Cr. The results of the geo-accumulation index indicated that sediments were unpolluted with Sn, Co, Pb; moderately polluted with As, Cr, Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, and strongly polluted with Sb. This pollution was attributed to anthropogenic activities caused by the sloping side of Lere Lake including consisting of mainly waste disposal, chemicals used in agriculture, and gold exploitation. Sites that exceeded TEL for Cr and Ni and PEL for Cr are ranked at the highest priority level in terms of potential ecological risk.

Comparison of Bayesian Spatial Ecological Regression Models for Investigating the Incidence of Breast Cancer in Iran, 2005- 2008

  • Khoshkar, Ahmad Haddad;Koshki, Tohid Jafari;Mahaki, Behzad
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.14
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    • pp.5669-5673
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    • 2015
  • Background: Breast cancer is the most prevalent kind of cancer among women in Iran. Regarding the importance of cancer prevention and considerable variation of breast cancer incidence in different parts of the country, it is necessary to recognize regions with high incidence of breast cancer and evaluate the role of potential risk factors by use of advanced statistical models. The present study focussed on incidence of breast cancer in Iran at the province level and also explored the impact of some prominent covariates using Bayesian models. Materials and Methods: All patients diagnosed with breast cancer in Iran from 2005 to 2008 were included in the study. Smoking, fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, obesity and the Human Development Index (HDI), measured at the province level, were considered as potential modulating factors. Gamma-Poisson, log normal and BYM models were used to estimate the relative risk of breast cancer in this ecological investigation with and without adjustment for the covariates. Results: The unadjusted BYM model had the best fit among applied models. Without adjustment, Isfahan, Yazd, and Tehran had the highest incidences and Sistan- Baluchestan and Chaharmahal-Bakhtiari had the lowest. With the adjusted model, Khorasan-Razavi, Lorestan and Hamedan had the highest and Ardebil and Kohgiluyeh-Boyerahmad the lowest incidences. A significantly direct association was found between breast cancer incidence and HDI. Conclusions: BYM model has better fit, because it contains parameters that allow including effects from neighbors. Since HDI is a significant variable, it is also recommended that HDI should be considered in future investigations. This study showed that Yazd, Isfahan and Tehran provinces feature the highest crude incidences of breast cancer.

The Relationship Between Obesity, Overweight, and the Human Development Index in World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region Countries

  • Ataey, Amin;Jafarvand, Elnaz;Adham, Davoud;Moradi-Asl, Eslam
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.53 no.2
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    • pp.98-105
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    • 2020
  • Objectives: Obesity is regarded as one of the most prominent health threats worldwide and a serious risk factor for non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes mellitus type 2, high blood pressure, cardiovascular diseases, and some types of cancer. Given the role that societal development-as reflected by the Human Development Index (HDI)-may play in the prevalence of obesity and overweight, this study aimed to investigate the degree to which the prevalence of obesity and overweight is affected by HDI and its components. Methods: In this ecological study, the required data on HDI and its components were gathered from the latest report of the United Nations Development Program, and data on obesity and overweight were acquired from the latest reports published on the World Health Organization website. Statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS version 24.0. Results: The prevalence of obesity was determined to be significantly higher among females than males, and the gross national index per capita was found to be significantly higher for males than females (p<0.05). Significant positive correlations were found between HDI and its components and sex, as well as indices of obesity and overweight. Conclusions: A significant positive correlation exists between HDI and obesity. As policy-makers attempt to improve the general welfare of the people, they should be aware of potential unwanted effects of development on the risk of obesity and overweight among the population.

Evaluation of Pollution Level for Organic Matter and Trace Metals in Sediments around Taehwa River Estuary, Ulsan (울산 태화강 하구역 퇴적물의 유기물 및 미량금속 오염도 평가)

  • Hwang, Dong-Woon;Lee, In-Seok;Choi, Minkyu;Kim, Chung-Sook;Kim, Hyung-Chul
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.48 no.4
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    • pp.542-554
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    • 2015
  • Grain size, the content of ignition loss (IL), and the concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD), acid volatile sulfide (AVS), and trace metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, As, and Hg) in surface sediments from the Taehwa River estuary, Ulsan, were measured to evaluate pollution levels and potential ecological risks of organic matter and trace metals in estuarine sediment. The mean grain size (Mz) of sediments in the study region ranged from $-0.8-7.7{\varphi}$ (mean $2.8{\pm}2.4{\varphi}$). Surface sediments in the upstream region of the Taehwa River were mainly composed of coarse sediments compared to the downstream region. The concentrations of IL, COD, AVS and trace metals in the sediment were much higher at downstream sites of Myeongchon Bridge in the vicinity of industrial complexes than at upstream sites of those in the vicinity of the residential areas due to the anthropogenic input of organic matter and trace metals by industrial activities. On the basis of several geochemical assessment techniques [sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), enrichment factor (EF), geoaccumulation index ($I_{geo}$), pollution load index (PLI) and ecological risk index (ERI)], the surfaces sediments in the study region are not highly polluted for trace metals, except for As. However, the higher concentrations in downstream study regions of the Taehwa River could impact benthic organisms including shellfish (i.e. Manila clam) in sediments.

Potential Human Health and Fish Risks Associated with Hypothetical Contaminated Sediments Using a Risk Assessment Model ($TrophicTrace^{(R)}$) (위험평가모형($TrophicTrace^{(R)}$)을 이용한 가상 해양오염퇴적물의 쥐노래미와 인체 영향 예비평가)

  • Yang, Dong-Beom;Hong, Gi-Hoon;Kim, Kyung-Ryon
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.60-70
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    • 2011
  • The sediment removal index derived from the chemical contaminants, $CI_{HC}$, is currently in use to identify and define the spatial extent of the contaminated sediments in the sea. In order to analyze the sensitivity of the ecological and human risk associated with contaminated sediment, we evaluated five hypothetical contaminated sediments, whose $CI_{HC}$ values are identical but consisted of different contaminant contents, using $TrophicTrace^{(R)}$ model dedicated to evaluate sediment risk, against the resident greenling (Hexagrammos otakii) and humans by calculating No-Observed-Adverse-Effect-Level based Toxicity Quotient (NOAEL TQ) and Lowest-Observed-Adverse-Effect-Level based Toxicity Quotient (LOAEL TQ), and cancer risks and hazard indices (HI), respectively, based on the site conceptual model and exposure assumptions of fish ingestion to human receptor populations. NOAEL and LOAEL TQ values varied as much as a factor of 2 among 5 hypothetical sediments. Chemical element specific contribution to the carcinogenic risk and HI varied also greatly in these sediments. The reason for this significant dissimilarity in ecological and human risk stems from the different risk of each contaminant to the resident fish and human receptor. When the conceptual food web model is constructed for the target biological species for a given site, the ecological and human risk analysis considering trophic transfer of contaminants will add a ecosystem based tool for the management of contaminated sediments.