• Title/Summary/Keyword: Polyploidy

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Generation and Segregation of Hantaviral RNA Genomic Diploid; Implications of Reassortant Generation Mechanism

  • Park Sun-Whan;Chung Dong-Hoon;Ahn Byung-Yoon;Lee Pyung-Woo
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.16 no.7
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    • pp.1017-1025
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    • 2006
  • Hantaviruses possess three RNA segments of negative sense. Co-infection of closely related hantaviruses may result in generation of a progeny virus with genomic polyploidy, containing a partial or complete set of genome originated from more than one parental virus. To characterize the formation of viral genomic polyploidy, cultured Vero-E6 cells were co-infected with two closely related hantaviruses, Hantaan and Maaji, and the progeny viruses examined. The genotype of plaque-purified viruses was analyzed by a virus-specific RT-PCR. Seventy percent (67/96) of the progeny virus was categorized as Hantaan and 3.3% (2/96) was classified as Maaji, whereas 20% (21/96) was considered polyploidy as they contained both types of the S RNA segment. Most of the polyploidy progeny viruses were unstable and gave rise to either one of the parental viruses or a reassortant after several rounds of plaque purification. No recombination between the heterologous pair of S RNA was observed for those polyploid viruses during three consecutive plaque-to-plaque passages. These data suggest that the viral polyploidy formation constitutes a primary mechanism underlying the generation of a newly emerged hantavirus.

Characterization of Tetraploid Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer-Derived Human Embryonic Stem Cells

  • Shin, Dong-Hyuk;Lee, Jeoung-Eun;Eum, Jin Hee;Chung, Young Gie;Lee, Hoon Taek;Lee, Dong Ryul
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.425-434
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    • 2017
  • Polyploidy is occurred by the process of endomitosis or cell fusion and usually represent terminally differentiated stage. Their effects on the developmental process were mainly investigated in the amphibian and fishes, and only observed in some rodents as mammalian model. Recently, we have established tetraploidy somatic cell nuclear transfer-derived human embryonic stem cells (SCNT-hESCs) and examined whether it could be available as a research model for the polyploidy cells existed in the human tissues. Two tetraploid hESC lines were artificially acquired by reintroduction of remained 1st polar body during the establishment of SCNT-hESC using MII oocytes obtained from female donors and dermal fibroblasts (DFB) from a 35-year-old adult male. These tetraploid SCNT-hESC lines (CHA-NT1 and CHA-NT3) were identified by the cytogenetic genotyping (91, XXXY,-6, t[2:6] / 92,XXXY,-12,+20) and have shown of indefinite proliferation, but slow speed when compared to euploid SCNT-hESCs. Using the eight Short Tendem Repeat (STR) markers, it was confirmed that both CHA-NT1 and CHA-NT3 lines contain both nuclear and oocyte donor genotypes. These hESCs expressed pluripotency markers and their embryoid bodies (EB) also expressed markers of the three embryonic germ layers and formed teratoma after transplantation into immune deficient mice. This study showed that tetraploidy does not affect the activities of proliferation and differentiation in SCNT-hESC. Therefore, tetraploid hESC lines established after SCNT procedure could be differentiated into various types of cells and could be an useful model for the study of the polyploidy cells in the tissues.

Chromosome numbers of eight taxa of Aconitum L. in Korea and their systematic significance (Ranunculaceae)

  • Chung, Kyong-Sook;Nam, Bomi;Park, Myung Soon;Eom, Jeong Ae;Oh, Byoung-Un;Chung, Gyu Young
    • Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.215-222
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    • 2011
  • Various aneuploidy and polyploidy have been reported in the genus Aconitum L. (ca. 300 species worldwide, Ranunculaceae), and there is a demonstrated association between major lineage diversification and polyploidy. This study reports chromosome counts of eight Aconitum from Korea, including the first counts for A. japonicum Thunb. subsp. napiforme ($H. L{\acute{e}}v.$ & Vaniot) Kadota (2n = 32) and A. longecassidatum Nakai (2n = 16). The study also includes chromosome numbers for two taxa on the Critically Endangered species list in Korea. Among Korean native species, chromosome numbers in Aconitum subgenus Aconitum range from 2n = 16 to 2n = 64 with diverse levels of polyploidy (2x, 4x, and 8x), whereas Aconitum subg. Lycoctonum exhibits only diploids (2n = 16). Greater chromosome number diversity in subg. Aconitum than subg. Lycoctonum might explain higher species diversity within the former subgenus (more than 250 species worldwide). Investigating chromosome number diversity of Aconitum in a phylogenetic framework will be a critical step to understand species richness of the genus.

Superovulation-Oocyte and Uterine Function (과배란-난자 및 자궁기능)

  • 문영석
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.379-384
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    • 1997
  • Superovulation with exogenous gonadotropins creates a spectrum of pre or periovulatory hormonal changes with subsequent detrimental effects on oocyte quality, fertilization, embryo development, implantation and maintenance of pregnancy. Our recent study determined potential roles for insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in uterine environment regulation and preimplant tation in the rat. The evidence indicates that IGF-l may play an important role in the main tenance of a receptive uterine environment for embryonic development and the regulation of decidualization. Embryonic loss and failure of implantations following superovulation may be partially attributed to disturbances in uterine IGF-l action as observed in this study. We investigated the effects of superovulatory doses of gonadotropins on frequency of chromosomal a abnormalities of mouse embryos. Chromosome a analysis of mouse zygotes and 8- to 16-cell stage embryos from spontaneously ovulated, 5, 10, and l 15 lU pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) superovulated mice was carried out. Aneuploidy, polyploidy and structural chrom- osomal abnormalities were detected among the four groups. However, only polyploidy was correlated with superovulation. In 10 and 15 IV PMSG treated groups, the rate of polypoidy was 2.9% and 10.5%, respectively. Furthermore, there was a dose reponse relationship between the PMSG dose and the incidence of embryonic p polyploidy (P

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Chromosome numbers and polyploidy events in Korean non-commelinids monocots: A contribution to plant systematics

  • JANG, Tae-Soo;WEISS-SCHNEEWEISS, Hanna
    • Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy
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    • v.48 no.4
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    • pp.260-277
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    • 2018
  • The evolution of chromosome numbers and the karyotype structure is a prominent feature of plant genomes contributing to or at least accompanying plant diversification and eventually leading to speciation. Polyploidy, the multiplication of whole chromosome sets, is widespread and ploidy-level variation is frequent at all taxonomic levels, including species and populations, in angiosperms. Analyses of chromosome numbers and ploidy levels of 252 taxa of Korean non-commelinid monocots indicated that diploids (ca. 44%) and tetraploids (ca. 14%) prevail, with fewer triploids (ca. 6%), pentaploids (ca. 2%), and hexaploids (ca. 4%) being found. The range of genome sizes of the analyzed taxa (0.3-44.5 pg/1C) falls well within that reported in the Plant DNA C-values database (0.061-152.33 pg/1C). Analyses of karyotype features in angiosperm often involve, in addition to chromosome numbers and genome sizes, mapping of selected repetitive DNAs in chromosomes. All of these data when interpreted in a phylogenetic context allow for the addressing of evolutionary questions concerning the large-scale evolution of the genomes as well as the evolution of individual repeat types, especially ribosomal DNAs (5S and 35S rDNAs), and other tandem and dispersed repeats that can be identified in any plant genome at a relatively low cost using next-generation sequencing technologies. The present work investigates chromosome numbers (n or 2n), base chromosome numbers (x), ploidy levels, rDNA loci numbers, and genome size data to gain insight into the incidence, evolution and significance of polyploidy in Korean monocots.

Promising line development of sweet sorghum by gamma-ray treatment (감마선($^{60}Co$) 처리 효과에 의한 억새의 변이체 유기 및 유망 계통 육성)

  • Lee, Moon-Sub;Bok, Tae-Gyu;Choi, Yun-Pyo;Lee, Hee-Bong
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.7-10
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    • 2011
  • In order to develop the new Miscanthus varieties for biomass, characteristics of collected materials were surveyed. Also, they were treated with S-azide(Sodium-azide) and DES(dethyl sulfate) for promising lines and 0.2% Colchicine for polyploidy, respectively. CNU-J1 line induced with chemical, DES and S-azide treatment showed shorter than others in stem height and stem diameter. CNU-N1 line treated with 10 mM DES showed earlier than non-treated lines in flowering as 7days. Among selected lines, the CNU-J1 line was crossed with DB-1 selected as a superior line and their hybrid was expected to be high in biomass than others. Especially, CNU-W1 line treated with 2.5~5.0 mM DES showed heading in M1 generation.

Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a Novel Calcium-dependent Protein Kinase Gene IiCPK2 Responsive to Polyploidy from Tetraploid Isatis indigotica

  • Lu, Beibei;Ding, Ruxian;Zhang, Lei;Yu, Xiaojing;Huang, Beibei;Chen, Wansheng
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.39 no.5
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    • pp.607-617
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    • 2006
  • A novel calcium-dependent protein kinase gene (designated as IiCPK2) was cloned from tetraploid Isatis indigotica. The full-length cDNA of IiCPK2 was 2585 bp long with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1878 bp encoding a polypeptide of 625 amino acid residues. The predicted IiCPK2 polypeptide included three domains: a kinase domain, a junction domain (or autoinhibitory region), and a C-terminal calmodulin-like domain (or calcium-binding domain), which presented a typical structure of plant CDPKs. Further analysis of IiCPK2 genomic DNA revealed that it contained 7 exons, 6 introns and the length of most exons was highly conserved. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the expression of IiCPK2 in root, stem and leaf were much higher in tetraploid sample than that in diploid progenitor. Further expression analysis revealed that gibberellin ($GA_3$), NaCl and cold treatments could up-regulate the IiCPK2 transcription. All our findings suggest that IiCPK2 might participate in the cold, high salinity and GA3 responsive pathways.

On the Fertility of Several Polyploidy Mulberries, Morus, Fructified by Natural Cross (배수성 뽕나무에 있어 자연교잡한 경우의 임성)

  • 박광준
    • Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.97-101
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    • 1994
  • The fertilities of pyloploidy mulberries and the germination abilities and shape of poliploidy mulberry seeds fructified by natural cross were investigated and the results are as follows. Regarding the size of seeds, that of the tetraploid was the biggest and that of hexaploid was the smallest among the investigated polyploids. Those of diploid and triploid ranged between those of tetraploid and hexaploid. The fertilization rates of the varieties of Shinkwangppong and Cheongunppong, which were triploid, were 25.4 and 55.0%, respectively, and Shinkwangppong showed 10.2% of cross rate, but Cheongunppong did not have germination ability. The tetraploid seeds showed 61~68% of fertility and 30~54% of cross rate. The Puksan No. 2, which is hexaploid, had about 43% and 7% in fertility and cross rate, respectively. The germination abilities of floating seeds of diploid and tetraploid were comparatively high, but the floating seeds of triploid and hexaploid did not have germination ability. The seeds of diploid had a high fertility of 81~95% and a comparatively high cross rate of 47~74%.

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Relationship of Lycoris (Amaryllidaceae) Based on RAPD Markers (RAPD markers에 의한 상사화속 식물의 유연관계)

  • Tae, kyoung-Hwan;Kim, Yong Hyun;Shin, Young-Hwa;Kang, Shin-Ho;Kim, Joo-Hwan;Ko, Sung-Chul
    • Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.17-29
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    • 2008
  • Phylogenetic relationships were examined for 17 taxa of Lycoris by RAPD analysis. The length of the amplified DNA fragments ranged from 300 bp to 1,700 bp. 57 scorable RAPD markers were observed from PCR reactions with five random oligoprimers. The analysis by UPGMA sepatated the examined taxa of Lycoris into were clusters. First group was comprised of ten taxa of L. chinensis var. sinuolata, L. sanguinea var. koreana, L. uydoensis, L. flavescens, L. radiata var. pumila, L. radiata, L. squamigera, L. chejuensis, L. aurea and L. guangxiensis, second group of L. haywardii, L. sprengeri, L. rosea, L. straminea and L. houdyshii, third group of outgroup of Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis and Crinum asiaticum var. japonicum. From the viewpoint of cytological characters such as polyploidy and karyotype, the RAPD analysis was very useful to show the relationship among the intraspecific taxa of Lycoris.