• Title/Summary/Keyword: Malignant Airway Obstruction

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Endobronchial Brachytherapy for Malignant Airway Obstruction: Low Dose Rate Versus High Dose Rate (악성 종양에 의한 기도폐쇄시 내기관지 근접치료 : 저선량 치료 대 고선량 치료의 비교)

  • Cho, Young-Kap
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.123-128
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    • 1996
  • Purpose : This is a retrospective study to compare the Palliation rates, survival rates and complications of low dose rate and high dose rate endobronchial brachytherapy in the management of malignant airway obstruction. Materials and methods : Forty three consecutive patients with malignant airway compromise from primary or metastatic lung tumors were treated with low dose rate(LDR) endobronchial Iridium-192 insertion(21 patients) between October 1988 and June 1992, and high dose rate(HDR) endobronchial brachytherapy(22 patients) between August 1992 and April 1994 with palliative aim Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy under fluoroscopic control was utilized in all 91 procedures. Twenty seven LDR Procedures delivered a dose of 5-7.5 Gy to a 1.0 cm radius respectively. Results : Subjective and objective responses to treatments were evaluated on follow-up examinations by clinical examination, chest x-rays and CT scan of the chest on some patients. Fifteen of 21 LDR patients and 19 of 22 HDR Patients showed subjective improvement in terms of better breathing and less Productive cough as well as complete disappearance of hemoptysis. Objective improvement on chest x-rays and CT scan of the chest had been demonstrated on 8 LDR Patients and 10 HDR patients. Conclusion : The technique of LDR and HDR endobronchial brachytherapy is simple and well tolerated procedure with minimal morbidity It Provides excellent palliation by keeping airway Patent in these short life-spanned patients.

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Short-term Results of Endobronchial Brachytherapy for Malignant Airway Obstructions (악성 기도 폐쇄에 대한 기관내 근접 조사 방사선치료의 단기 임상 경험)

  • Ahn Yong Chan;Lim Do Hoon;Choi Dong Rak;Kim Moon Kyung;Kim Dae Yong;Huh Seung Jae;Kim Ho Joong;Chung Man Pyo;Kwon O Jung;Rhee Chong Heon
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.299-306
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    • 1996
  • Purpose : Respiratory symptoms related with malignant airway disease have been the main causes of lowered qualify of life and also sometimes may be life-threatening if not properly managed. The authors report the short-term experiences of endobronchial brachytherapy for symptomatic malignant airway obstruction using high dose rate after-loading brachytherapy unit. Materials and Methdos : Twenty-five Patients with symptomatic malignant airway obstruction were treated with endobronchial brachytherapy between the period of December 1994 and March 1996 at Department of Radiation Oncology of Samsung Medical Center Twenty-one ($84\%$) were patients with non-small cell lung cancer, three with tracheal malignancies, and one with recurrence of esophageal cancer. Twenty Patients were given elective external beam radiation therapy, while six were given endobronchial laser evaporation therapy on emergency bases in addition to endobronchial brachytherapy. Three procedures for each patient were planned and total of 70 procedures were completed. Results : Improvement rates of major respiratory symptoms after endobronchial brachytherapy procedures were $88\%$(22/25). $96\%$(22/23), $100\%$ (15/15), and $100\%$(9/9) for cough, dyspnea, hemoptysis and obstructive pneumonia, respectively. ECOG performance scores were improved in $56\%$ of total patients group, while there was no case with worsened ECOG score. Fifteen patients died and the median interval from the start of treatment to death was 4 months (range: $1\~17$ months), while that of ten survivors was 9 months (range $5\~19$ months). There were five patients with controlled intrathoracic disease, who have survived over one rear. All deaths were associated with uncontrolled local and/or distant disease. Four Patients died of massive fatal hemoptysis, three of who received emergency endobronchial laser evaporation therapy before the start of endobronchial brachytherapy. Conclusion : Endobronchial brachytherapy has been confirmed as an excellent palliative treatment modality improving respiratory symptoms as well as patients' general performance status. Based on the current observations, use of endobronchial brachytherapy in curative setting as a boost technique may be warranted.

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Serious Complications after Self-expandable Metallic Stent Insertion in a Patient with Malignant Lymphoma

  • Cho, Sung Bae;Cha, Seon Ah;Choi, Joon Young;Lee, Jong Min;Kang, Hyeon Hui;Moon, Hwa Sik;Kim, Sei Won;Yeo, Chang Dong;Lee, Sang Haak
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.78 no.1
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    • pp.31-35
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    • 2015
  • An 18-year-old woman was evaluated for a chronic productive cough and dyspnea. She was subsequently diagnosed with mediastinal non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). A covered self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) was implanted to relieve narrowing in for both main bronchi. The NHL went into complete remission after six chemotherapy cycles, but atelectasis developed in the left lower lobe 18 months after SEMS insertion. The left main bronchus was completely occluded by granulation tissue. However, the right main bronchus and intermedius bronchus were patent. Granulation tissue was observed adjacent to the SEMS. The granulation tissue and the SEMS were excised, and a silicone stent was successfully implanted using a rigid bronchoscope. SEMS is advantageous owing to its easy implantation, but there are considerable potential complications such as severe reactive granulation, stent rupture, and ventilation failure in serious cases. Therefore, SEMS should be avoided whenever possible in patients with benign airway disease. This case highlights that SEMS implantation should be avoided even in malignant airway obstruction cases if the underlying malignancy is curable.

Clinical Experience of Rigid Bronchoscopy in Single Center

  • Kim, Hyun-Jin;Kim, Sei-Won;Lee, Hye-Yeon;Kang, Hyeon-Hui;Kang, Ji-Young;Kim, Ju-Sang;Kim, Myung-Sook;Kim, Seung-Soo;Kim, Jin-Woo;Yun, Hyeong-Gyu;Kim, Chi-Hong;Kim, Kwan-Hyoung;Moon, Hwa-Sik;Cho, Kwang-Jae;Moon, Seok-Hwan;Lee, Sang-Haak
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.72 no.6
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    • pp.486-492
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    • 2012
  • Background: The aim of this study was to analyze clinical situations requiring rigid bronchoscopy and evaluate usefulness of rigid bronchoscopic intervention in benign or malignant airway disorders. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 29 patients who underwent rigid bronchoscopy from November 2007 to February 2011 at St. Paul's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea School of Medicine. Results: Of the 29 patients, the most frequent underlying etiology was benign stenosis of trachea (n=20). Of those 20 patients, 16 had post-intubation tracheal stenosis (PITS), 2 had tracheal stenosis due to inhalation burn (IBTS) and other 2 had obstructive fibrinous tracheal pseudomembrane (OFTP). Other etiologies were airway malignancy (n=6), endobronchial stenosis due to tuberculosis (n=2), and foreign body (n=1). For treatment, silicone stent insertion was done in 16 cases of PITS and IBTS and mechanical removal was performed in 2 cases of OFTP. In 6 cases of malignant airway obstruction mechanical debulking was performed and silicone stents were inserted additionally in 2 cases. Balloon dilatation and electrocautery were used in 2 cases of endobronchial stenosis due to tuberculosis. In all cases of stent, airway obstructive symptom improved immediately. Granulation tissue formation was the most common complication. Conclusion: Tracheal stenosis was most common indication and silicone stenting was most common procedure of rigid bronchoscopy in our center. Rigid bronchoscopic procedures, at least tracheal silicone stenting, should be included in pulmonary medicine fellowship programs because it is a very effective and indispensable method to relieve critical airway obstruction which needs training to learn.

Bronchoscopic Electrocautery with Electroprobe and Diathermic Snare in Patients with Malignant Airway Obstruction (중심성 폐암환자에서 악성 기도폐쇄에서 전기 탐침과 투열올가미를 사용한 전기 소작술의 효과)

  • You, Hong Jun;Choi, Pyoung Rak;Park, Eun Ho;Yang, Jae Hong;Choi, In Su;Kim, Hyoung Jun;Kim, Joo Hoon;Oak, Chul Ho;Cho, Hyun Myung;Jang, Tae Won;Jung, Maan Hong
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.59 no.5
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    • pp.504-509
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    • 2005
  • Background : Endobronchial tumors cause life-threatening dyspnea and can lower the quality of life due to central airway obstruction. In those cases with an intraluminal tumor, various bronchoscopic techniques are available for tumor debulking. The therapeutic effect of bronchoscopic electrocautery for palliation in patients with a symptomatic tumor obstruction was studied. Method : Nineteen patients with bronchogenic carcinomas (n=15) and metastatic tumors affecting the bronchi (n=4), between March 2002 and March 2005, were enrolled in this study. Electrocautery was performed under local anesthesia using an electroprobe and diathermic snare. Using flexible bronchoscopy, a follow-up bronchoscopic examination was performed 3-4 days later. Symptom improvement was evaluated by $FEV_1$, FVC and dyspnea score (Modified Borg Category Scale (0~10)), both before and after the electrocautery. Results : The success rate of electrocautery on the follow up examination was 84%. Patients with endoluminal airway lesions had a mean overall decrease in the size of the obstruction to $47.8{\pm}15.7%$. The mean Improvement in the dyspnea score immediately after the endobronchial tumor debulking was $2.78{\pm}1.42$. The average improvements in the $FEV_1$ and FVC after electrocautery were $0.32{\pm}0.19L$ and $0.5{\pm}0.22L$, respectively. There were 2 cases of complications related with electrocautery (one each of pneumothorax and pneumonia). Conclusion : Electrocautery using an electroprobe and diathermic snare was an effective and safe palliative treatment for a symptomatic endoluminal airway obstruction in lung cancer.