• Title/Summary/Keyword: Local irritation

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Attraction effect against Lycorma delicatula, antioxidant activity and local irritation test of Ailanthus altissima extract (가죽나무 추출물의 꽃매미 유인효과, 항산화 활성 및 국소자극성시험)

  • Lee, Seung-Jin;Park, Seung-Chun
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.53 no.4
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    • pp.231-237
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    • 2013
  • This study aimed to assess the attraction effect against Lycorma delicatula and antioxidant activity of hexane, chloroform, butanol and water fraction obtained from Ailanthus altissima methanol extract. The attraction effect of chloroform fraction showed the highest activity (47%) as compared to that of other fractions. In the DPPH radical scavenging activity, methanol and butanol fraction showed higher antioxidant activity than other solvent fractions. From the above results, the potential chloroform fraction was further performed by local irritation test in New Zealand white rabbits. In eye irritation test, chloroform fraction showed moderate irritant at high concentration 0.5 g/site/mL, but there was no eye irritation at low concentration (0.05 g/site/mL). In accordance with the Draize evaluation of skin irritation, the primary irritation index was calculated to 3.3 and 0.68 at high (0.5 g/site/mL) and low concentration (0.05 g/site/mL) causing moderate and mild irritation, respectively. On the basis of this study, Ailanthus altissima chloroform fraction could be safely considered to be a candidate of attractant against Lycorma delicatula.

Studies on Local Irritation of DA-3030, a new granulocyte colony stimulating factor (새로운 과립구 콜로니 자극인자(rhG-CSF) DA-3030의 국소자극성에 관한 연구)

  • 김옥진;안병옥;이순복;김원배;양중익
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.247-255
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    • 1994
  • As a series of safety studies of DA-3030, a new rhO-CSF, its local irritancy was examined in the rabbits after the following treatment; application into the conjunctival sac of the eye(single), subcutaneous injection(single), intramuscular injection(single), and intravenous injection(8-day repeated). In addition, paravenous irritation of DA-3030 was investigated in mice. The results obtained were as follows. 1. In the result of ocular irritation test, 0.03% solution of DA-3030 could be considered as a non-irritating material. 2. The local irritation of DA-3030 by an injection of 0.5mι of its solution subcutaneously or intramuscularly was negligible and not so much different from that of saline. 3. In the vascular irritancy test, macro- and microscopic observations revealed that the irritating activity of DA-3030 in blood vessels was not different from that of saline when they were injected once a day into vein retroauricularis of rabbits for 8 days.4. The paravenous administration of DA-3030 did not induce any abnormal changes at injection sites except mild swelling in 1 mouse at 3 hours after injection which was thought to be due to slow absorption. The above-mentioned results suggest that DA-3030 has no irritating activity when injected through intravenous or subcutaneous route for clinical practice as 0.03% solution.

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Skin Penetration and Local Irritation of Ethyl Glycolate, a Potential Transdermal Prodrug (경피용 프로드럭인 에칠 글리콜레이트의 국소자극 및 피부투과성)

  • Yang, Sung-Woon;Ha, Yong-Ho;Kim, Johng-Kap;Choi, Young-Wook
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.155-162
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    • 1996
  • Hyperkeratinization is a dermatologic disorder, which is due to the increase of corneocyte cohesion force. Glycolic acid, an alpha hydroxy acid(AHA), has been used to breakdown the hyperkeratinization processes. However, it has a problem of skin irritation when applied topically, due to the strong acidity especially in high concentration. A molecular optimization of glycolic acid has been tried to reduce the skin irritation by the way of prodrug formation. Ethyl glycolate was synthesized by the esterification of glycolic acid with ethanol in acidic conditions in the presence of sulfuric acid, and examined under the spectroscopic trials, such as UV, IR, $^1H$-NMR, and GC-MS. The physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties of the prodrug were also evaluated. Through the toxicological tests of both skin irritation and eye mucous irritation, it has been proved that ethyl glycolate was less irritant than glycolic acid, since the pH value of synthetic prodrug was higher than that of glycolic acid. In the penetration test through nude mouse skin by diffusion cell, ethyl glycolate was continuously hydrolyzed to glycolic acid, which was assayed form the receptor compartment. It was obtained that the penetrated amount of ethyl glycolate was five times higher than that of glycolic acid. These results suggest that ethyl glycolate might be a successful prodrug of glycolic acid to reduce the skin irritation and to increase the skin penetration as well.

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A Histopathological Observation on the Local Side Reaction following the Intramuscular Injection of Iron Preparations in Guinea pigs (철분근육주사후에 일어나는 국소자극반응에 관한 병리조직학적 관찰)

  • Kim, Soon-Bok
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.179-182
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    • 1983
  • This study was conducted to observe the local irritation histopathologically following the intramuscular injection of iron preparations in guinea pigs. Necropsy findings were edema, hemorrhage and darkish brown pigmentation around the injection sites. On the microscopic examination, the muscle fibers near the injection sites became pale staining or uniformly eosinophilic, indicating necrosis of the fibers, which were occasionally filled with granular bluish-staining material. The nuclei were swollen or pyknotic. Infiltrations of heterophils and macrophages containing iron were evident around the necrotized tissues and the injected iron compounds. Fibrosis was often seen between the affected muscle fibers, and this change was considered as secondary inflammatory process.

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Sialolithiasis of minor salivary gland: a challenging diagnostic dilemma

  • Matiakis, Apostolos;Tzermpos, Fotios
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.47 no.2
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    • pp.145-148
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    • 2021
  • Minor salivary gland sialolithiasis (MSGS) is a not uncommon oral mucosal disease. Its clinical appearance may mimic a mucocyst or other benign submucosal overgrowth. Stasis of saliva, which accompanies MSGS, usually results in minor salivary gland inflammation, with a chronic sialadenitis appearance. MSGS typically is a painless lesion but can become painful when the salivary gland parenchyma or excretory duct becomes infected, with or without pus. However, misdiagnosis of this condition is rather common, as the clinical appearance is asymptomatic. The most common location is the upper lip, and MSGS affects males and females, with a slight predilection for males. The sialolith causing MSGS may be obvious during surgical excision, as in the case reported. In other cases, sialolith may be absent or fragmented. Differential diagnosis includes mucocele, swelling due to local irritation like fibroma and diapneusia, chronic abscess of the oral mucosa, and neoplasms either benign (lymphangioma, pleiomorphic adenoma) or malignant. Histopathological examination is needed to establish clinical diagnosis.

Paraquat Poisoning by Skin Absorption (파라콰트에 의한 피부 손상의 임상적 고찰)

  • Yang Jong Oh;Gil Hyo Wook;Lee Eun Young;Hong Sae Yong
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.101-105
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    • 2004
  • Purpose: Paraquat is the most commonly used herbicide in Korea. Exposure to paraquat through the skin has resulted in local irritation or inflammation of varying degree, sometimes severe. The purpose of this study was to review the patients with paraquat poisoning by skin absorption. Methods: We analysed retrospectively the clinical and laboratory findings of 45 patients with paraquat poisoning after dermal exposure, who were admitted to Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital from January 1999 to December 2003. Results: Among 870 cases of paraquat poisoning, 45 cases were exposed to paraquat through the skin. The peak incidence was the fifth decade($40\%$). The clinical symptoms were pain, pruritus, nausea, and vomiting. The major skin lesions were generalized vesicobullae and necrotic erosion in face, scrotum, trunk, upper and lower extremities and etc. All patients were survived after skin contact or inhalation of paraquat. Conclusion: This study illustrates the extreme toxicity of paraquat and demonstrates that lethal quantities of paraquat may be absorbed if repeated exposure to it. Stricter precautions, including the mandatory use of protective clothing, should be recommended whenever this material is used.

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A Study on Local Irritation Test of Bee Venom for Herb-Acupuncture (약침용(藥鍼用) 봉독액(蜂毒液)의 국소독성시험(局所毒性試驗)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Lee, Jong-Seok;Koh, Hyung-Kyun;Kim, Chang-Hwan
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.227-249
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    • 1995
  • Pursuant to the Medical Product Safety Administration Guidelines for safety assessment of Korean bee vonom for herb-acupuncture, rabbits were used for skin, eye balls, subcutaneous and muscle irritation test. The results were as follows; 1. The skin irritation test of bee venom for herb-acupuncture did not produce any irritation reactions, when the skin was covered with bee venom. 2. The eye irritation test produced moderate to severe stimulating reactions, once the eye mucous membrane was contacted with bee venom. 3. The subcutaneous and muscle irritation test of bee venom showed such local inflammatory reactions as death of cells, infiltration of inflamed cells, dropsical swelling, and congestion, once injected under the skin and in the muscle. As the results of the study on bee venom for herb-acupuncture indicate that severe reactions in such tests as eye balls, subcutancous and muscle irritation exist in the laboratory, more professional caution should be taken in clinical application of the therapy. In addition, further study on subacute, chronic toxicity and allergy reactions should be pursued.

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Safety and outcomes of subconjunctival allogenic mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in canine experimental corneal defects

  • Kim, Ju-Won;Lee, So-Young;Park, Hee-Myung
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.52 no.3
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    • pp.157-162
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    • 2012
  • Corneal injury is very common clinical condition in veterinary medicine and delayed or incomplete corneal healing has the potential of vision loss due to the loss of corneal transparency. For the reconstruction of corneal epithelium, tissue graft and cell transplantation have been prosperously investigated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical value and short-term safety of application of cultured allogenic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the treatment of canine experimental corneal defect. Corneal defects were surgically generated in the central corneas of healthy beagle dogs and cultured canine allogenic MSCs were transplanted via subconjunctival injection. Although mean healing time, the rate of epithelial regeneration, and the degree of corneal transparency were not significantly improved after MSC transplantation, significant immune reaction or incompatibility reaction was not detected except transient local irritation. These results propose the possibility of MSC application as a new regenerative medicine in canine ocular disorders.

Eye Irritation, Skin Irritation and Skin Sensitization Tests for Nonspecific Immunostimulator BARODON® (비특이 면역증강제 BARODON® 의 안점막 및 피부에 대한 국소자극시험)

  • ;;;;;;Nguyen Ba Tiep
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.39-44
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    • 2003
  • Two local irritation and skin sensitization studies of nonspecific immunostimulator, $BARODON^{\circledR}$ were carried out with New Zealand White rabbits and Hartley guinea pigs. In skin irritation test of male New Zealand White rabbits, body weights were not significantly changed and there were no responses after treatment for 24 or 72 hours and the Primary irritation index (P.1.1.) was '0'. And, in the eye irritation test, there were chemosis in some of rabbits. One of 3 rabbits in washing group was detected chemosis after 24 and 72 h following treatment and 2 of 6 rabbits in non-washing group were detected chemosis after 24h and 7 days following treatment. Therefore, total score is '4' after 24 h and '2' after 72 h following treatment by conforming article "some blood vessel are clearly hyperemic" . However evaluation value is non-irritant because M.O.I. (Mean ocular irritation index) score is below during the all experimental period and no significance through individuals and exposure time. In skin sensitization, the score of skin reaction was graded 1 with 0% sensitization rate. Taken together, these results indicate that $BARODON^{\circledR}$ may be non-irritant material. material.

The Review on the Study of Bee Venom in the domestic papers (최근 10년간 국내의 봉독 관련 연구에 대한 고찰)

  • Lee, Hong-seok;Lee, Jae-dong;Koh, Hyung-kyun
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.154-165
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    • 2003
  • Objective : to research the trend of the study related to Bee venom and o establish the hereafter direction for the study on Bee Venom therapy. Methods : We reviewed the domestic papers published last ten years(1992-2001). Results: 1.We have searched 53 papers in 7 journals and the pattern of study was as follow: the experimental studies were 33, the clinical studies were 10 and the reviewed studies were 10. 2. The experimental studies were 2 papers of analysis of Bee Venom, 3 papers of safety assessment, 1 paper on production of antibody against Bee Venom and 26 paper of safety assessment. 3. Bee Venom used in studies was made in Korea, China and U.S.A.. There were differences of component and effect according to the place of production. 4. There were the experimental studies of LD50 in mouse, acute toxicity, local irritation test, antigenicity and pyrogen test of Bee Venom. Conclusions : We need more studies of unification of term about Bee Venom, difference according to the place of production, clinical safety and effects.

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