• Title/Summary/Keyword: High dose rate brachytherapy

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Intraluminal High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for the Tumors of Gastrointestinal Tract (위장관 종양의 고선량율 강내 방사선치료)

  • Choi Byung Ock;Choi Ihl Bhong;Chung Su Mi;Kim In Ah;Choi Myoung Gyu;Chang Suk Kyun;Shinn Kyeong Sub
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.243-252
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    • 1995
  • Purpose : Intraluminal high dose rate brachytherapy is an accepted treatment for the tumors of GI tract. However, there is only some limited clinical data for intraluminal high dose rate brachytherapy for the tumors of GI tract. Materials and Methods : Between February 1991 and July 1993, 18 Patients who have the tumors of GI tract (esophageal cancer-8 cases, rectal cancer-10 cases) were treated with high dose rate Iridium-192 afterloading system (Microselectron-HDR, Nucletron CO, Netherland) at the department of therapeutic radiology, St. Mary's hospital, Catholic university medical college. Age range was 47-87 years with a mean a9e 71 years. All patients were treated with intraluminal high dose rate brachytherapy within two weeks after conventional external radiation therapy and received 3-5 Gy/fraction 3-4 times per week to a total dose 12-20 Gy (mean 17 Gy). Standard fractionation and conventional dose were delivered for external radiation therapy. Total dose of external radiation therapy ranged 41.4-59.4 Gy (mean 49.6 Gy). Median follow up was 19 months Results : The analysis was based on 18 patients, The complete response and partial response in esophageal cancer was similar (38%). Two year rates for survival and median survival were 13% and 10 months, respectively. Among 10 patients of rectal cancers, partial response was obtained in 6 patients (60%). There was no complete response in the patients with rectal cancer, but good palliative results were achieved in all patients. Conclusion : Although the number of patients was not large and the follow-up period was relatively short, these findings suggested that intraluminal high dose rate brachytherapy could be useful in the treatment of the patients with advanced tumors of GI tract.

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Development of a cylindrical ultrasound applicator for Intracavitary Hyperthermia (강내온열 치료를 위한 원통형 초음파 치료기 개발)

  • Lee, Rena J.;Hyunsuk Suh
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.79-84
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    • 2002
  • In this study, a cylindrical ultrasound applicator is developed for the treatment of vagina and rectum in combination with high dose rate brachytherapy. A cylindrical transducer (PZT-8, 1=1.5 cm, thickness=1.5mm OD=2.5 cm) was used as an energy source for induction of hyperthermia. Three single-element applicators were constructed to examine the performance of the PZT material. Vector impedance was measured to determine driving frequency. The efficiencies of the elements were determined using a radiation force technique to evaluate the feasibility of using the applicator as a hyperthermia source. A multi-element ultrasound applicator was designed using the PZT-8 material for the treatment of vagina. Results from the vector impedance measurements showed maximum magnitude at 1.78, 1.77, and 1.77 MHz for applicator 1,2, and 3, respectively. The radiation force measurements showed that the acoustic power of 40 watts was obtained in all three elements. The average efficiencies of the elements were 61.4, 65.2, and 54.0% for element 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The designed ultrasound hyperthermia applicator could be used in combination with high dose rate brachytherapy for the treatment of vagina and rectum. The use of this applicator with intracavitary brachytherapy could offer improved tumor control by increasing radiosensitiyity of the tumor.

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High Dose Rate Brachytherapy in Two 9 Gy Fractions in the Treatment of Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer - a South Indian Institutional Experience

  • Ghosh, Saptarshi;Rao, Pamidimukkala Bramhananda;Kotne, Sivasankar
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.16
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    • pp.7167-7170
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    • 2015
  • Background: Although 3D image based brachytherapy is currently the standard of treatment in cervical cancer, most of the centres in developing countries still practice orthogonal intracavitary brachytherapy due to financial constraints. The quest for optimum dose and fractionation schedule in high dose rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) is still ongoing. While the American Brachytherapy Society recommends four to eight fractions of each less than 7.5 Gy, there are some studies demonstrating similar efficacy and comparable toxicity with higher doses per fraction. Objective: To assess the treatment efficacy and late complications of HDR ICBT with 9 Gy per fraction in two fractions. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective institutional study in Southern India carried on from $1^{st}$ June 2012 to $31^{st}$ July 2014. In this period, 76 patients of cervical cancer satisfying our inclusion criteria were treated with concurrent chemo-radiation following ICBT with 9 Gy per fraction in two fractions, five to seven days apart. Results: The median follow-up period in the study was 24 months (range 10.6 - 31.2 months). The 2 year actuarial local control rate, disease-free survival and overall survival were 88.1%, 84.2% and 81.8% respectively. Although 38.2% patients suffered from late toxicity, only 3 patients had grade III late toxicity. Conclusions: In our experience, HDR brachytherapy with 9 Gy per fraction in two fractions is an effective dose fractionation for the treatment of cervical cancer with acceptable toxicity.

HIGH DOSE RATE BRACHYTHERAPY IN PRIMARY AND RECURRENT TONGUE CANCER (고선량율 근접 방사선치료법을 이용한 원발성 및 재발된 설암의 치료)

  • Lee, Ui-Lyong;Lee, Jong-Ho;Choung, Pill-Hoon;Kim, Myung-Jin;Park, Joo-Yong;Choi, Sung-Weon;Cho, Kwan-Ho
    • Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.470-476
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    • 2006
  • Low-dose rate brachytherapy(LDR) has been effective modality for treatment of oral cancer. But the disadvantage of LDR is radioexposure of medical staff. To overcome this problem, high dose rate(HDR) brachytherapy has been developed. Our study evaluates the outcomes of patients with tongue cancer as treated by HDR brachytherapy. Between 2002 and 2005, eight patients with carcinoma of the tongue were treated with HDR brachytherapy. Five patients had AJCC stage I or II disease and the remaining three patients had AJCC stage III or IV. The male-to-female ratio was 2:6 and the mean age was 60.1 years (range: 21-80 years).The median follow-up time was 23.8 months (range: 7-55 months). There was no local failure until now. Three patients showed some complications. Two patients showed soft tissue necrosis. There was no bone sequela in all cases. Our experience in treating tongue cancer with HDR brachytherapy is encouraging, because it gave a satisfactory local control. Prospective studies are necessary to delineate the optimum indication for this treatment modality and long-term outcome.

Current Status of High Dose Rate Brachytherapy in Cervical Cancer in Korea and Optimal Treatment Schedule (자궁 경부암 고선량율 강내조사 치료의 국내 현황과 적정 치료방법)

  • Huh, Seung-Jae
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.357-366
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    • 1998
  • Brachytherapy is an essential part of radiotherapy for uterine cervical cancer. The low dose rate (LDR) regimen has been the major technique of intracavitary therapy for cervical cancer. However, there has been an expansion in the last 20 years of high dose rate (HDR) machines using Ir-192 sources. Since 1979, HDR brachytherapy has been used for the treatment of uterine cervical cancer in Korea. The number of institutions employing HDR has been increasing, while the number of low dose rate system has been constant. In 1995, there was a total 27 HDR brachytherapy units installed and 1258 cases of patients with cervical cancer were treated with HDR Most common regimens of HDR brachytherapy are total dose of 30-39 Gy at point A with 10-13 fractions in three fractions per week. 24-32 Gy with 6-8 fractions in two fractions per week, and 30-35 Gy with 6-7 fractions in two fractions per week. The average fractionation regimen of HDR brachytherapy is about 8 fractions of 4.1 Gy each to Point A. In Korea, treatment results for HDR brachytherapy are comparable with the LDR series and appears to be a safe and effective alternative to LDR therapy for the treatment of cervical carcinoma. Studies from the major centers report the five-year survival rate of cervical cancer as. 78-86$\%$ for Stage 1, 68-85$\%$ for stage 11, and 38-56$\%$ for Stage III. World-wide questionnaire study and Japanese questionnaire survey of multiple institutions showed no survival difference in any stages and dose-rate effect ratio (HDR/LDR) was calculated to be 0.54 to 0.58. However the optimum treatment doses and fractionation schemes appropriate to generate clinical results comparable to conventional LDR schemes have yet to be standardized. In conclusion, HDR intracavitary radiotherapy is increasingly practiced in Korea and an effective treatment modality for cervical cancer. To determine the optimum radiotherapy dose and fractionation schedule, a nation-wide prospective study is necessary in Korea. In addition, standardization of HDR application (clinical, computer algorithms, and dosimetric aspects) is necessary.

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The Effects of High Dose Rate Brachytherapy in Recurrent Obstructive Bronchogenic Cancer after External Irradiation Therapy (외부 방사선 치료 조사후 재발한 기관지내 악성종양에서 고선량율 근접조사치료(High Dose Rate Brachytherapy)의 효과)

  • Cho, Jae-Youn;In, Kwang-Ho;Suh, Jung-Kyung;Kang, Sea-Yong;Shim, Jae-Jeong;Kang, Kyung-Ho;Kim, Kwang-Taak;Kim, Cheol-Yong;Yoo, Sa-Hwa
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.68-76
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    • 1998
  • Background: Patients with centrally recurred bronchogenic carcinoma make a complaint of many symptoms like hemoptysis, cough & dyspnea. At these conditions, the goal of treatment is only to relieve their symptoms. High dose rate brachytherapy(HDR-BT) is the palliative treatment modality of centrally located endobronchial tumor regardless of previous external irradiation(XRT) on the same site in symptomatic patients. Methods: We studied the effects of HDR-BT in 26 patients with symptomatic recurrent lung cancer. Patients(male: 24, mean age: 54yrs)were treated with HDR-BT underwent bronchoscopic placement of $^{192}Ir$ HDR after loading unit(Gammamed$^{(T)}$, Germany) to deliver 500cGY intraluminal irradiation at a depth of 1cm every lwk on 3 occasions. Evaluation at base line and 4wks after HDR brachytherapy included chest X-ray, bronchscopy, symptoms (Standadized Scale for dyspnea,cough,hemoptysis), and Karnofsky performance scale. Results: Endobronchial obstruction was improved in 11/26 patients(37%). Atelectasis in chest X-ray was improved in 5/15 patients(33%). Hemoptysis, dyspnea & cough were improved in 5/10 patients (50%), 5/8 patients (62%) & 10/18 patients (56%) respectively. Karnofsky performance status was changed from 76.4 scores in pretreatment to 77.6 scores after treatment. During HDR-BT, massive hemoptysis (2 patients) and pneumothorax(1 patient) were occurred as complications. Conclusion: We concluded that HDR-BT gave additional benefits for the control of symptoms and general performance and endobronchial obstruction & atelectasis. And HDR-BT will be an additional treatment for the recurrent and endobronchial obstructive lung cancer.

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Measurement of Ir-192 Source Activity for High Dose Rate Brachytherapy (고 선량률 근접치료시 사용되는 Ir-192 선원의 방사능 평가)

  • 최동락;허승재;안용찬;임도훈;김대용;우홍균
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.25-29
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    • 1997
  • Ir-192 source activity for high dose rate brachytherapy is measured using Farmertype ionization chamber. The source-to-chamber distance is 10 cm and the measured charge unit is converted to activity unit. The measured values are compared to the values provided from vendor. Because of time dependency of Ir-192 source activity, the activities are regularly checked and compared to calculated values. As the accuracy of Ir-192 source activity is depend on the mechanical measurement setup, we estimated the precision of remote controlled source dwell position using home-made device and film scanner. The difference between measured and predicted dwell position is within 1 mm. As a result, the errors of source activity are 0.7${\pm}$1.5 % for measured and vendor-provided values and 0.l${\pm}$1.2% for measured and time-dependent calculated vlaues. In conclusion, our measured activity has been comparable to the values provided from vendor and our brachytherapy unit has been very accurate until now. Regular quality control of brachytherapy is essential for successful treatment which depends on the accuracy of source position and activity.

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Remote Afterloading High Dose Rate Brachytherapy AMC EXPERIANCES (원격조정 고선량 근접 치료)

  • Park, Su-Gyeong;Chang, Hye-Sook;Choi, Eun-Kyong;Yi, Byong-Yong;Kim, Jae-Sung
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.267-275
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    • 1992
  • Remote afterloading high dose rate brachytherapy (HDRB) is a new technology and needs new biological principle for time and dose schedule. Here, authors attempt to evaluate the technique and clinical outcome in 116 patients, 590 procedures peformed at Asan Medical Center for 3 years. From Sep. 1989 to Aug 1992, 471 procedures of intracavitary radiation in 58 patients of cervical cancer and 26 of nasopharyngeal cancer,79 intraluminal radiation in 12 of esophageal cancer, 11 of endobronchial cancer and 1 Klatskin tumor and 40 interstitial brachytherapy in 4 of breast cancer, 1 sarcoma and 1 urethral cancer were performed. Median follow-up was 7 months with range $1\~31$ months. All procedures except interstitial were performed under the local anesthesia and they were all well tolerated and completed the planned therapy except 6 patients. 53/58 patients with cervical cancer and 22/26 patients with nasopharynx cancer achieved CR. Among 15 patients with palliative therapy, $80{\%}$ achieved palliation. We will describe the details of the technique and results in the text. To evaluate biologic effects of HDRB and optimal time/dose/fractionation schedule, we need longer follow-up. But authors feel that HDRB with proper fractionation schedule may yield superior results compared to the low dose rate brachytherapy considering the advantages of HDRB in safety factor for operator, better control of radiation dose and volume and patients comfort over the low dose brachytherapy.

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Analysis of Accuracy of Apparent Activity According to Calibration Method for High Dose Rate Brachytherapy Source (측정용 전리함에 따른 고 선량율 근접치료용 방사성 선원의 겉보기 활성도의 정확도 비교 분석)

  • Huh, Hyun-Do;Choi, Jin-Ho;Choi, Sang-Hyoun;Kim, Seong-Hoon;Kim, Woo-Chul;Kim, Hun-Jeong;Lee, Re-Na;Kim, Kum-Bae;Hong, Seong-Eon;Shin, Dong-Oh
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.305-312
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    • 2008
  • The aim of this study is to introduce the accuracy of Ir-192 source's apparent activity using the well-type chamber and the Farmer-type ionization chamber in the high dose rate brachytherapy. We measured the apparent activity of Ir-192 that each medical center in the country has and the apparent activity of calibration certificate provided by manufacturer is compared with that by our experimental measurement. The number of sources used for the activity comparison was 5. The accuracy of the measured activity was in the range of -2.8% to -1.0% and -2.1% to 0.2% for the Farmer-type chamber system (Jig) and for the well-type, respectively. The maximum difference was within 1.0% for comparison with two calibration's tool. Our results demonstrate that well-type chamber as wall as Farmer-type chamber is a appropriate system as the routine source calibration procedures in HDR brachytherapy. Whenever a new source is installed to use in clinics, by periods, a source calibration should be carried out.

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