• Title/Summary/Keyword: Gratification

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A Study on Preschoolers' Intelligent Ability, Reward Choice in Assumed Situation and Delay of Gratification Ability (유아의 지적능력, 가상상황에서의 보상선택유형 및 만족지연능력에 관한 연구)

  • Kim Hye-Soon
    • Journal of Families and Better Life
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    • v.24 no.3 s.81
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    • pp.15-25
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    • 2006
  • This study has been performed to identify intelligent ability, reward choice in assumed situation of delay of gratification, and delay of gratification ability. The subjects for this study were 100 preschoolers between the ages of 4 and 5, their mothers, and 15 teachers of three day-care centers in Seoul. T-test, F-test, Correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis were used for data analysis. The main results of this study were as follows: First, preschoolers' delay of gratification ability by mothers' educational background was significant and delay of gratification ability by sex was significant. This means that mothers who had a higher educational background were positively related to preschoolers' delay of gratification ability. Second, in an assumed situation of delay of gratification, preschoolers' delay of gratification ability by reward choice was not significant. Third, delay of gratification by intelligent ability was significant. Fourth, the correlation among intelligent ability, reward choice in assumed situation of delay of gratification and delay of gratification ability were significant. Finally, preschoolers' delay of gratification ability was significantly influenced by two factors: reward choice in assumed situation of delay of gratification and preschoolers' intelligent ability.

Discriminant Analysis of Factors Influencing Preschoolers' Ability to Delay Gratification : An Experiment (유아의 만족지연능력 및 관련변인 판별분석 -만족지연실험상황을 중심으로-)

  • Kim, Hye-Soon;Cho, Bok-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Child Studies
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.339-356
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    • 2008
  • Participants in this study on preschool children's ability to delay gratification were 132 4- to 5 year-old children and their mothers from 6 daycare centers. Mothers completed questionnaires reporting their parenting style, their child's ability to delay gratification, and child's temperament. Children participated in the real and hypothetical settings of the delay of gratification experiment. Data was analyzed by t-test, F-test, correlation and discrimination analysis. Results were that (1) 43% of preschoolers passed the delay of gratification experiment. (2) Older children were more able to delay gratification than younger children. (3) Children's rewards choices in the real setting correlated with their rewards choices in the hypothetical situation of delay of gratification. (4) Children's ability to delay gratification was influenced by their motor intelligence.

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Delay of Gratification in Infancy : Effects of Infants' Temperament and Parenting

  • Rha Jong-Hay
    • International Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.59-77
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this study was to extend our understanding of the developmental antecedents of delay of gratification in infancy. The first goal was to examine direct effects of one feature of an infants’ temperament and of positive and negative parenting assumed at age one on children’s delay of gratification six months later. The second goal of the study was to test the interactive effect of early infant temperament and parenting on children’s delay of gratification. It was hypothesized that 1) less negative infants at 12 months would delay gratification longer six months later, 2) children of parents who provided more positive and sensitive feedback would delay gratification longer than children with parents who were more negative and less sensitive, and 3) there would be differential prediction of parenting for children who scored high and low in negative emotionality as infants. Toward this end, 81 infants were observed interacting at one year of age with their mothers and fathers during laboratory assessments to obtain measures of parenting and infant negative emotionality. At 18 months of age, the child’s capacity to delay touching attractive objects was measured. The main effects of infant negative emotionality and of mothering on children’s delay of gratification were not detected at standard levels of significance. Differential effects of parenting on children’s delay of gratification for infants with low or high negative emotionality, too, were not detected. However, the anticipated effect of fathering on delay of gratification was found in some analyses, indicating that the more positive fathering children received, the longer they could delay gratification in the laboratory six months later.

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Maternal Perception of the Newborn and Confidence and Gratification of Mothering Role (어머니의 신생아 지각, 역할 수행에 대한 자신감 및 만족감)

  • 구현영;문영임
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.920-930
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    • 1998
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate maternal perception of the newborn, confidence and gratification of mothering role, and contribute to maternal nursing and neonatal nursing. The questionnaire, maternal perception of the newborn(Ⅰ) was completed by 47 mothers at three hospitals in the Kyoung-In area during the first to third day after birth. The questionnaire, maternal perception of the newborn(Ⅱ), confidence and gratification of mothering role were completed at fourth to sixth week after birth. The data were analyzed by a SPSS program. The results were as follows ; 1) The means of perception of the newborn(Ⅰ) and (Ⅱ) were 2.28±4.81 and 3.83±4.84. The means of confidence and gratification of mothering role were 40.38±5.51 and 39.30±6.70. 2) Half of the mothers(48.9%) rated their newborn as better than average newborn at first to third day after birth, and 74.5% of mothers did at fourth to sixth week after birth. 3) The score of maternal perception of the newborn (Ⅰ) was significantly correlated with the score of confidence and gratification of mothering role. The score of maternal perception of the newborn(Ⅱ) was correlated with the score of confidence and gratification of mothering role. The score of confidence and gratification of mothering role was related. 4) Maternal gratification of mothering role was significantly different by maternal perception of the newborn(Ⅰ), and maternal confidence was different by maternal perception of the newborn (Ⅱ). 5) Mothers who had religions and who wanted the pregnancy had higher perception of the newborn(Ⅰ) than those who did not. Mothers whose newborns were boys had higher perception of the newborn(Ⅱ) than those whose newborns were girls. Mothers who wanted the pregnancy had higher confidence of mothering role than those who did not. Mothers who planed cow's milk had lower gratification of mothering role than those who did not. The above findings indicate that mothers who have a different level of perception of the newborn, confidence and gratification of mothering role. Therefore, it is important that maternal perception of the newborn, confidence and gratification of mothering role were precisely evaluated, and nursing intervention for improving perception of the newborn should be provided for mothers.

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Relations among Preschoolers' Temperament, Mothers' Parenting Behaviors, and Ability to Delay Gratification (유아의 기질 및 어머니의 양육행동과 만족지연능력간의 관계)

  • SunWoo, Hyun-Jung;Doh, Hyun-Sim
    • Korean Journal of Child Studies
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.179-193
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between preschoolers' temperament, mothers' parenting behaviors, and ability to delay gratification. A sample of 131 preschool children aged from 4 to 5 participated in a delay-of-gratification experiment, as reconstructed by Rodriguez and his colleagues (2005). Mothers answered questionnaires on their parenting behaviors and children's temperament. Data were analyzed by t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficients, and multiple regressions. Children's activity as well as mothers' warmth and control predicted the ability to delay gratification; significant interaction effects were found between children's activity and maternal warmth on the ability to delay gratification. It would be plausible to intervene in children's activity level and improve the ability to delay gratification.

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The Relationships among Infant's Delay Gratification, Delay Strategy, and Parents' Child-rearing Attitude (영아의 만족지연능력과 만족지연전략 및 어머니의 양육방식간의 관계)

  • Choi, Eun Hwa;Cho, Bok Hee
    • Korean Journal of Childcare and Education
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.167-189
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among delay gratification, delay strategy, and parents' child-rearing attitude. The participants of the study were 62, 18-36 month old infants, who demonstrated individual differences in the level of delay gratification and their mothers. The instruments of the study were infant's delay gratification and delay strategy were assessed by Mischele(1974) and the parents' responded to the parents' child-rearing attitude(Cho et al., 1999). Data were collected by menas of conducting observations on infants in experimental settings and completing questionnaires with mothers. The results of this study were as follows: 1. The delay gratification of infants differed accordingly to their age. Older infants displayed increased time in showing their delay gratification, while younger infants relatively exhibited shortened time. There was no significant difference in infants' sex and the order of the birth. 2. Following the age factor, the distraction strategy in the delay strategy played a significant difference to infants. Older infants required a frequent use of the distraction strategy in comparison to younger infants. 3. The previous two factors - delay gratification and distraction strategy-showed a positive relationship. 4. The delay gratification was significantly influenced by infants' age, parents' attitude, direct facing strategy, and infants' distraction strategy. However, the delay gratification was insignificantly accounted for by infants' sex.

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The Impact of Preschoolers' Cognitive Ability, Parenting Behavior, and Attachment to their Mothers and Teachers on Preschoolers' Ability of Delay of Gratification (유아의 인지능력, 어머니의 양육행동, 어머니와 교사에 대한 애착이 유아의 만족지연능력에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Hye-Soon
    • Korean Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.737-747
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study was to identify the impact of preschoolers' cognitive ability, parenting behavior, and attachment to their mothers and teachers on delay of gratification of preschoolers. The participants of this study were 116 mothers and their 15 teachers of 3-6 year olds from 2 day-care centers in Seoul. T-test, F-test, Correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis were used for data analysis. First, the result of this study showed that preschoolers' delay of gratification by cognitive ability was significant to only motor intelligence. Second, preschoolers' delay of gratification showed positive correlation with warm-acceptance of parenting. Third, preschoolers' delay of gratification by attachment to their mothers was statistically significant, but it was not significant to their teachers. Fourth, the effect of preschoolers' intelligence, parenting behavior, and attachment to their mothers and teachers on delay of gratification was statistically significant to mothers' warm-acceptance($\beta$=.24, p<.05) and was negatively significant to mothers' permissiveness(.$\beta$=-.35, p<.001).

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The Effect of Multiple Roles of South Korean Married Working Mothers: Role Gratification and Strain, and Factors which Influence Potential Role Gratification and Strain (취업주부의 다중역할 수행의 효과 -취업주부의 역할 만족도와 긴장도 및 역할 만족도와 긴장도에 영향을 미치는 요인들-)

  • Park Ju-hee
    • Journal of Families and Better Life
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    • v.23 no.6 s.78
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    • pp.117-131
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    • 2005
  • In this paper, 1 examined role gratification and role strain of South Korean working mothers. The results show that South Korean working mothers experienced very similar level of role gratification and role strain as taking their multiple roles. The findings also show that the factors of caregiving demands, employment demands, caregiving resources, employment resources are not strongly related to role gratification and role strain. Among the 12 caregiving demand variables and employment demand variables, number of children, type of family, number of hours worked were significantly related to producing role gratification. Among the 12 caregiving demand variables, number of hours worked, number of husbands absence due to night work were significantly related to producing role strain. Among the 8 caregiving resources, participants satisfaction due to income contribution, look to make a purchase new electric home appliances were significantly related to produce role satisfaction. Among the 8 caregiving resources, number of family support policies in the husbands workplace, participants satisfaction due to income contribution were significantly related to producing role strain.

The Effects of Kangaroo Care on Anxiety and Confidence and Gratification of Mothering Role in Mothers of Low Birth Weight Infants (캉가루식 돌보기가 저출생체중아 어머니의 불안, 역할 수행에 대한 자신감 및 만족감에 미치는 효과)

  • Moon Young Im;Koo Hyun Young
    • Child Health Nursing Research
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.281-290
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    • 2000
  • This study was performed to investigate the effect of kangaroo care on anxiety and confidence and gratification of mothering role in mothers of low birth weight infants. The subjects were 30 mothers of low birth weight infants, sixteen for the kangaroo care group and fourteen for the control group, whose infants hospitalized in two neonatal intensive care unit at two university-affiliated hospital. The kangaroo care was applied 9 times during the twenty six days with 40 minutes for each session. The kangaroo care provides the skin-to-skin contact during which a low birth weight infant wearing a diaper and a hat is placed on its mother's chest. The questionnaire, state anxiety was completed before beginning the first intervention. The questionnaire, state anxiety and confidence and gratification of mothering role were completed at 2 weeks after discharge. The data were analyzed by a SPSS program. The results were as follows : 1. There were no significant differences in the state anxiety between the kangaroo care and the control group before beginning the first intervention. The state anxiety was significantly lower in kangaroo care group than in control group. 2. The confidence of mothering role was significantly higher in kangaroo care group than in control group at 2 weeks after discharge. 3. The gratification of mothering role was significantly higher in kangaroo care group than in control group at 2 weeks after discharge. 4. In mothers of low birth weight infants, the state anxiety was negatively correlated to the confidence of mothering role and the gratification of mothering role at 2 weeks after discharge. And the confidence of mothering role in mothers of low birth weight infants was positively correlated to the gratification of mothering role at 2 weeks after discharge. These results suggest that kangaroo care is an effective nursing intervention for mothers of low birth weight infants in reducing the state anxiety, improving the confidence and gratification of mothering role.

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A Study on Competition among Three Game Platforms in aspect of User's Gratification in Multi-channel Era (다매체 시대의 게임 플랫폼 경쟁에 관한 연구: 이용자 만족 요인을 중심으로)

  • Kim, Yoo-Jin;Yu, Sae-Kyung
    • Korean journal of communication and information
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    • v.66
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    • pp.159-183
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    • 2014
  • This study analyzed the competition among three game platforms, PC, Console and Mobile in aspect of user's gratifications using niche analysis. To do this, four gratification factors, 'transportability and accessibility', 'liveliness and variety', 'availability and economic feasibility', 'relationship', were assessed. To investigate competition level among three game platforms, niche breadth, niche overlap, competitive superiority of four gratification factors were analyzed. The results of niche analysis show that mobile platform appeared as a most competitive platform because it utilized diverse resources for game user gratification and had competitive superiority in 'transportability and accessibility' which appeared as most important factor determining user's gratification. However there was no game platform which had competitive superiority in all four gratification factors.

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