• Title, Summary, Keyword: Death

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The rate that underlying causes of death for vital statistics are derived from the underlying causes of death recorded at death certificates: (a study on the death certificates issued from three university hospitals) (사망진단서(사체검안서) 상의 선행사인으로부터 사망통계의 원사인이 선정되는 비율: (3개 대학병원에서 교부된 사망진단서를 중심으로))

  • Park, Woo Sung;Park, Seok Gun;Jung, Chul Won;Kim, Woo Chul;Tak, Woo Taek;Kim, Boo Yeon;Seo, Sun Won;Kim, Kwang Hwan;Suh, Jin Sook;Pu, Yoo Kyung
    • Quality Improvement in Health Care
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.4-14
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    • 2004
  • Background : To examine the problems involved in writing practice of death certificates, we compared the determination of underlying cause of death for vital statistics using recorded underlying cause of death in issued death statistics. Methods : We collected 688 mortality certificates issue in year of 2,000 from 3 university hospitals. And we also collected vital statistics from ministry of statistics. The causes of death were coded by experienced medical record specialists. And causes of death determined at ministry of statistics for national vital statistics were mapped to causes of death recorded at each death certificates. The rate that underlying causes of death for vital statistics were derived from underlying causes of death recorded at issued death certificates were analysed. Results : 64.5% of underlying cause of death for could be derived from underlying cause of death recorded at issued death certificates, 8.6% derived from intermediate cause of death, and 3.9% derived from direct cause of death. In 23% of cases, underlying cause of death could not be derived using issued death certificates. The rate that underlying cause of death for vital statistics could be derived from underlying cause of death recorded at death certificates was different between 3 university hospitals. And the rate was also different between death certificates and postmortem certificates. We classified the causes of death using 21 major categories. The rate was different between diseases or conditions that caused death too. Conclusion : When we examined the correctness of death certificate writing practice using above methods, correctness of writing could not be told as satisfactory. There was difference in correctness of writing between hospitals, between death certificates and postmortem certificates, and between diseases and conditions that caused death. With this results, we suggested some strategy to improve the correctness of death certificate writing practice.

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A Study on Death Anxiety of the Elderly (노인의 죽음불안에 관한 연구)

  • Ko, Gil-Ran;Yi, Yeong-Sug
    • Korean Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.639-648
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    • 2008
  • This study is to examine the meaning of death, the level of death anxiety, and the aspect of death anxiety that the aged have. For this, a quantitative research subjecting 532 of the aged living in local area, Jeollabuk-do was carried out. And among those 532 questionnaires, 10 were subjected for depth interview. The following is a summary of the result from this study. First, the meaning of death for the aged is classified into three classes as positive, neutral and negative meaning. Among these, there were far greater numbers of the aged who put neutral or negative meanings on their death than the positive one. Second, death anxiety of the aged are divided into three factors: 'annihilation anxiety', 'process anxiety', and 'afterdeath anxiety'. The factor that involves death anxiety the most was process anxiety, then afterdeath anxiety, and annihilation anxiety, in the order. Third, as a result of classifying the feature of death anxiety in the aged into the symptoms of death anxiety and the motive of recognizing death anxiety. Death anxiety is classified into the people with symptoms and those without symptoms, and those with certain symptoms are classified into the physical symptoms and the mental symptoms. The motive of recognizing death anxiety appeared when the individual is aged, experiences the death of other people, suffers physical pains, and when there is a mental loneliness.

Factors Associated with Death Acceptance among Thai Patients with Advanced Cancer

  • Krapo, Maliwan;Thanasilp, Sureeporn;Chimluang, Janya
    • Asian Journal for Public Opinion Research
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.18-30
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    • 2018
  • Patients with advanced cancer cope with various issues, especially psychological symptoms, such as anxiety about death. Previous research from various countries indicates that most advanced cancer patients perceive distress before death, which means they cannot accept death peacefully. The purpose of this study was to examine the factors associated with death acceptance of Thai patients with advanced cancer. The participants were 242 adult patients with advanced cancer from three tertiary hospitals in Bangkok, Thailand. The research instruments consisted of 7 questionnaires: a personal information questionnaire, the death anxiety questionnaire, Buddhist beliefs about death questionnaire, the unfinished task questionnaire, general self-efficacy scale, family relationship questionnaire, and death acceptance scale. These instruments were tested for their content validity by a panel of experts. All instruments except the first one were tested for reliability, and their Cronbach's alpha coefficient were .86, .72, .74, .74, .89, and .70, respectively. Descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation, Point-biserial correlation coefficient, and stepwise multiple regression were used to analyze the data. The results revealed that a total of 42% of variance of death acceptance among Thai patients with advanced cancer was explained by death anxiety, Buddhist beliefs about death, and self-efficacy. Knowing these factors provides further information for nurses to help patients to cope with their death. From this crucial knowledge, nurses can develop interventions in decreasing or controlling anxiety about death, promoting Buddhist beliefs about death, and enhancing self-efficacy of advanced cancer patients. Therefore, a better quality of life and good death can be achieved.

John Donne's "Holy Sonnets": The song of rebirth (존 던의 "거룩한 쏘넷": 부활의 노래)

  • Jung, Kyung-Mi
    • English Language & Literature Teaching
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.277-290
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    • 2006
  • This study is to find out the meaning of the death in Donne's "Holy Sonnets" and divine poems. Death issue is the important theme and is used frequently in his poems. He expresses an assertion of faith about the defeat of death and wishes to gain new birth and eternal life through death. Ironically death must be died for rebirth and an inevitable death. Death is another way to get new life and return to Christ. Many readers think that "Hymn to God my god, in my sickness" is Donne's most distinguished achievement in his divine poems. The poem shows that death must be accepted willingly because it is only through death that man can reach heavenly bliss and gain new life. He develops an antithetic parallel between two hills and two trees. Paradise and Adam's tree which brought death into the world are related analogically to Calvary and the Cross, which brought resurrection and eternal life. Death and resurrection are shown to be conjoined in the poem. To sum up, Donne tried to pursuit death for rebirth and modeled after Christ's death and Resurrection.

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Analysis and Improving ways of Factors affecting the Ill-defined Causes of Death of the Aged in Korea (노인의 불명확한 사망원인진단 관련요인 분석과 개선방안)

  • Park, Sang-Hee;Lee, Tae-Yong
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.329-348
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    • 2011
  • This research analyzed 168,010 cases of death of the aged over 65 from 244,867cases of death excluding 7 unknown age cases from 244,874 all age cases of death by using the death data of the National Statistical Office for 2007 to figure out factors affecting the quality of causes of death statistics of the aged and to suggest the ways of improving the quality of death statistics of the aged in korea. This research tried to derive factors affecting ill-defined cause of death category in acordance with WHO's guidelines and to find causes of lowering the accuracy of causes of death statistics of the aged. This research identified the problems of causes of death statistics of the aged by using both demographic characteristics such as sex, age, marital status, educational attainment, residential region, region size and factors of death items as independent variable to find causes of ill-defined cause of death of the aged. Logistic regression analysis was executed to calculate the hazard ratio about the ill-defined causes of death of the aged and multiple regression analysis was conducted to derive factors affecting the ill-defined cause of death by regional groups through using these independent variables such as the component ratio of over age 65, female death rates, doctors insitutions rate, medical institutions rate, attaching rates of death certificate by neighborhood. As a results of this research, R-code was the highest of ill-defined causes of death, accounting for 82.1%, and senility death(R54) of R-code was the highest, accounting for 91.2%. through subdivided order distribution of the ill-defined causes of death of the aged. As ill-defined causes of death by regional groups, attaching rates of death certificate by neighborhood was the most important factor(p<0.05) and also showed regression model's description with 83.8% ($R^2$=83.8%). Furthermore, Jeon-nam was the highest in the regional groups and these regions such as Je-ju, Jeon-buk, Chung-nam were not only attaching the death certificate by neighborhood but also were high at the rate of ill-defined causes of death. Therefore, this research found that both reconsideration about death certificate by neighborhood and education for doctors who write death certificate were needed the most.

A Study of Intensive Care Unit Nurses' Understanding of the Meaning of Death, Death Anxiety, Death Concern and Respect for Life (중환자실 간호사의 죽음의미, 죽음불안, 죽음관여도 및 생명존중의지에 관한 연구)

  • Kang, Jeong Hwa;Han, Suk Jung
    • Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.80-89
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: We investigated how intensive care unit (ICU) nurses understand the meaning of death, death anxiety, death concern and respect for life. Methods: From November 2009 through February 2010, a survey was conducted on 230 nurses working at the ICU of 10 general hospitals located in Seoul and Gyeonggi province. Participants were asked to answer a questionnaire consisted of 67 questions under four categories of the meaning of death, death anxiety, death concern and respect for life. Results: Participants scored 4.27 points on their understanding of the meaning of death, 4.43 on death anxiety, 4.12 on death concern and 4.18 on respect for life. Participants' meaning of death was negatively correlated with death anxiety and death concern and positively with respect for life. Participants' positive meaning of death was negatively correlated with death anxiety and death concern and positively with respect for life. Participants' negative meaning of death was negatively correlated with death anxiety and death concern and positively with respect for life. Participants' death anxiety was positively correlated with death concern and negatively with respect for life. Participants' death concern was negatively correlated with respect for life. Conclusion: Compared with nurses who served at ICU for a long time, nurses with less ICU experience scored lower on the meaning of death and respect for life, while they presented high anxiety and concern about death. A training course may help nurses develop their view on the meaning of death, which in turn would enhance their performance in caring dying patients.

The Aesthetics of Death of Works of Comtemporary Art (현대 예술 작품에 나타난 죽음의 미학)

  • Wang, Xin-yu;Kim, Hyun-joo;Youn, Ji-young
    • Journal of Digital Convergence
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.439-451
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    • 2020
  • In order to deeply understand the significance of death aesthetics in contemporary art, this research first summarizes the development process of death aesthetics in art works with popular perspectives, and then classifies and discusses death aesthetics in modern art works. The results of this study are as follows: First, the aesthetic expressions of death are divided into two types: death reproducibility and death symbolism. Death reproducibility includes reproducibility of real objects and reproducibility of imaginary objects. The symbolism of death can be divided into external and internal manifestations. Secondly, in contemporary art, the reproducibility of death through the description of death scenes has increased the various problems and philosophical significance caused by death. Third, in contemporary art, the symbolism meaning of death is not just something directly related to death, it also shows the various psychological states brought about by death. Subsequent research will promote the artists' visual expression of the aesthetics of death in artworks, and the profound changes in meaning that result from it.

Attitudes of male and female older adults concerning death (성별에 따른 죽음에 대한 태도 비교 연구 - 남.녀노인들의 임종과 죽음에 대한 불안도 측정을 중심으로 -)

  • 서혜경
    • Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.89-102
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    • 1990
  • The research is a comparative study of death attitudes between male and female elderly people. There is no doubt as to the inevitability of death. And yet, there is a vast conspiracy involved in the word of dead or death. The aged are considered to be nearer death than are people in other age groups. Kalish(1976) emphasized that for the aged two meanings of death have significance for evaluating their life ; first, that older people are known to have a limited life time and face death ; second that older people are known to have suffered many death-imposed losses that are often associated with the dying process. In considering these implications, the level of anxiety regarding death and dying is a crucial factor in determining mental health. In the study, 152 male elderly and 145 female elderly residing in Seoul, Korea was compared on the four dimensions of death anxiety and assigned personal variables. Therefore, the purpose the research was (1) to examine the characteristics of subjects on the independent variables(age, marital status, family relationship, social activities, religiousity etc.) ; (2) to examine the relationship between the independent variables and each dimension of death axniety ; (3) to determine the proportion of variance in the respective of death anxiety which is accounted for by the respective independent variables ; (4) to examine whether a significant difference between the respective independent variables and each dimension of death anxiety has ; (5) to determine the combination of variables which is the most successful in explaining the variance in death anxiety. Finding from this study support the following conclusions; 1. There was a significant differences between the male and female subjects in the level of death anxiety. In turn, the male older adults had lower death anxiety than did the female elderly. This implies that male tend to look forward to death rather than deny it. 2. As there was evidences from several studies, this research found that fear of death decreases as age increases. 3. The following two variables that correlate best with dying anxiety of others in both male and female older adults : 'marriage life', 'social interaction'. 4. The variables 'age' and 'children' for both female and male elderly accounted for the most variance in death anxiety of self. The findings of the study lend this investigator several suggestions, implications and recommendations for future research. There can be no death without life, and conversely, no life without death. Psychologists and health-related professionals may be learn as much about death as they can in order to develop more healthy attitudes and in order to be able to better aid and comfort dying people and their familities. Perhaps most importantly, professionals may be help those who are not faced with death at present to develop an understanding of it and healthy attitudes toward it. The programs of death education are needed for dedication to the evitability of death and the preparation of life for the older adults. More seminars, symposiums and research on death attitudes are needed. Finally, study for female older adults has been negelected topic in the areas of women's study and health education. Future study, for female elderly, have to deeply investigate where those problems come from and how to cope with in order to the female elderly segment can live the rest of their lives in satisfaction with well-being.

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The Death Orientation of Paramedic Student (응급구조과 학생의 죽음에 관한 의식)

  • Lee, Jung-Eun;Koh, Bong-Yeun
    • The Korean Journal of Emergency Medical Services
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.45-55
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    • 2011
  • Objective : The purpose of this study was to investigate the perception of death in paramedic student. The results of this study will help develop education program for death orientation, paramedic students education and practice. Methods : A total of 201 paramedic students filled out the questionnaire. The perception of death was examined using questionnaires designed for examining Death Orientation. The data were analyzed with SPSS 18.0 statistics program for frequency, percentage, average, standard deviation, t-test, ANOVA, cronbach alpha coefficient, factor analysis. cronbach alpha coefficient was .866. Results : The paramedic students' got a score of $2.35({\pm}.48)$ on the Orientation on death as average. The reason is that death is not yet pressing them at all and ahead of their lives they have many days to live. With respect to the Death Orientation, significant differences was found in experience of death(t=2.318, p=.021). Group of death experience was higher than group of no death experience. In view of the attitude on afterlife, students responded no afterlife(24.9%), unknown after death(22.4%). Conclusion : The results of this study suggest that paramedic curriculum should include education program on death and improve quality of prehospital care. Additional studies are needed to establish death education for paramedic.

A Study on the Death Rates and Causes of Death (한국(韓國) 농촌지역주민(農村地域住民)의 사망률(死亡率) 및 사망원인(死亡原因)에 대(對)한 연구(硏究) -경기도(京畿道) 강화군(江華郡)을 중심(中心)으로-)

  • Kim, Ki-Soon;Lee, Byung-Mok
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.142-149
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    • 1977
  • To use basic data for health planning and evaluation of Kangwha community health project of Yonsei University, a study on death rates and causes of death were investigated in two townships (Naega and Sunwon Myuns) in Kangwha County from April 1, 1975 to March 31, 1977 All death was identified and reported by family health workers who are living in each village and 2 trained public health nurses confirmed the death. The causes of death were investigated by 2 public physicians. Total number of deaths for 2 years was 230 and the followings are brief summary of the study. 1. Age-adjusted crude death rates of study area were 8.69 per 1,000 population in 1975 and 7.18 per 1,000 population in 1976. Age-adjusted crude death rates for male were 9.18 in 1975 and 6.38 in 1976 and for female were 8.33 and 7.80 per 1,000 population 2. Age specific death rate curves by year and sex showed 'U' shapes. 3. Infant and neonatal death rates were 30.08 and 22.56 per 1,000 live births in 1975, and the rates in 1976 were 18.18 and 13.64. 4. The most common cause of death was cerebrovascular disease and average cause specific death rate for the disease was 215.5 per 100,000 population. 5. Four leading causes of death were non-infectious origin; cerebrovascular disease, malignant neoplasms, senility and suicide. Pulmonary tubeculosis and pneumonia occupied 5th and 9th causes of death. 6. Stomach cancer and hepatoma occupied 61.3% of total death due to malignant neoplasms. 7. Most frequent cause of neonatal death was birth injury. Two deaths due to tetanus were found in 1975, but no death due to this disease was found in 1976. 8. About half of deceased received care from physician before death.

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