• Title, Summary, Keyword: Chlorobenzene

Search Result 80, Processing Time 0.029 seconds

Application of Ultrasounds for the Removal of Chlorobenzene and Chlorinated Phenols in Water (Chlorobenzene 및 Chlorinated Phenol류의 분해에 미치는 초음파의 응용)

  • 우영억;황규탁
    • Journal of environmental and Sanitary engineering
    • /
    • v.15 no.4
    • /
    • pp.35-43
    • /
    • 2000
  • Aqueous solutions of chlorobenzene and chlorinated phenols were exposed to 200kHz ultrasound with a power of $6.0W/\textrm{cm}^2$ per unit volume on sonochemical reactor under ambient temperature and pressure conditions. The concentration of chlorobenzene and chlorinated phenols decreased with ultrasound, indicating first-order kinetics. Degradation rate constants are calculated from the slope of plots. The order of the rate constants is as follows : 2-chlorphenol(2-CP)$\leq$ 4-chlorophenol(4-CP)<3-chlorophenol(3-CP)$5.63~9.96({\times}10^{-2})min^{-1}$ under argon. The degradation was suppressed by the addition of t-BuOH and the suppressed yield was agreed with their reactivity for hydroxy radical. The main products of these systems were formic acid, acetic acid, small amount of methane and inorganic carbon forms as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide in sonolysis of chlorinated phenols, and also these results agreed with change of TOC.

  • PDF

A Study on the Chlorobenzene and Chlorophenol Behavior in Plasma Type Pyrolysis/Gasfication/Melting Process (플라즈마 방식 열분해 가스화용융시설의 공정별 클로로벤젠 및 클로로페놀 배출거동에 관한 연구)

  • Shin, Chan-Ki;Shin, Dae-Yun;Kim, Ki-Heon;Son, Ji-Whan
    • Journal of environmental and Sanitary engineering
    • /
    • v.22 no.2
    • /
    • pp.9-20
    • /
    • 2007
  • The incineration process has commonly used for wastes amount reduction and thermal treatments of pollutants as the technologies accumulated. However, the process is getting negative public images owing to matter of hazardous pollutants emission. Specially dioxins became a main issue and were mostly emitted from municipal solid wastes incineration. In this reason, pyrolysis/gasification/melting process is presented as an alternative of incineration process. The pyrolysis/gasification/melting process, a novel technology, is middle of verification of commercial plant and development of technologies in Korea. But the survey about the pollutant emission from the process, and background data in these facilities is necessary. So in this survey, t is investigated that the behavior of chlorobenzenes and chlorophenols in plasma type pyrolysis/gasification/melting plant of pilot scale. We investigated discharging behavior of each phase of chlorobenzene through each process in the plsasma type pyrolysis/gasification/melting process. From this result, it was found that about 99 percent of particle-phase chlorobenzene was removed, but on the other hand gas-phase chlorobenzene was increased by about 600 percent through heat exchanger, flue gas cooling, system and semi dry absorption bag filter(SDA/BF). Also, this investigation presented that di-chlorobenzene(DCB) tri-chlorobenzene(TCB), tetra-chlorobenzene(TeCB), penta-chlorobenzene (PCB), except mono-chlorobenzene(MCB) and hexa-chlorobenzene(HCB) were increased through the flue gas cooling system and the semi dry absorption bag filter(SDA/BF). It was investigated that concentration of particle-phase chlorophenol was decreased by about 66 percent, but on the other hand, concentration of gas-phase chlorophenol was increased by about 170 percent through heat exchanger, flue gas cooling system, and semi dry absorption bag filter(SDA/BF). Also, it was found that di-chlorophenol(DCP), tri-chlorophenol(TCP), and penta-chlorophenol(PCP) were increased through the flue gas cooling system, and the semi dry absorption bag filter(SDA/BF). It can be considered that small-scale pilot facility and short investigation period might cause the concentration increase through the flue gas cooling system and the semi dry absorption bag filter(SDA/BF). A further study on real-scale pilot facility and accurate investigation may be required.

Mechanical Degradation of Polymers in Dilute Solution. The Influence of the Mixed Solvents II. (稀搏溶液에서의 Polymer의 機械的 切斷. 混合溶媒의 영향 Ⅱ)

  • Yeong Moo Won
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
    • /
    • v.16 no.1
    • /
    • pp.50-55
    • /
    • 1972
  • The mechanical degradation of $poly(\alpha-methyl$ styrene) in several mixed solvents (chlorobenzene-n-butyl alcohol, chlorobenzene-sec-butyl alcohol, chlorobenzene-Kerosene, chlorobenzene-methylketone) was studied using the capillary flow method. The velocity constant of scission reaction (K) and the limited degree of polymerization (g) were compared at the same value of [${\eta}$], which is considered as the parameter of molecular dimension of polymers in solution. As results, (K) did not change much, even if the species and the volume fraction of poor(non-) solvents changed, while the value of (g) changed according to the species of poor (non-) solvents and the value of [${\eta}$] these results were discussed.

  • PDF

Vapor-Phase Chlorination of Chlorobenzene over Solid-Acid Catalysts

  • 장향자;최평호;박상언
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
    • /
    • v.16 no.6
    • /
    • pp.507-511
    • /
    • 1995
  • Catalytic chlorination of chlorobenzene was studied in vapor phase using various solid-acid catalysts such as silica-alumina, alumina, zeolite and a modified clay prepared by impregnating bentonite with ferric chloride. The conversions of both chlorine gas and chlorobenzene showed high over silica-alumina, alumina and modified clay catalysts. However relatively large amounts of polychlorinated benzene derivatives were also observed. The active species of catalytic activity in chlorination of chlorobenzene in vapor phase were proved to be as Lewis acid sites by in-situ IR experiments. The strength of Lewis acid sites which were effective for the vapor-phase chlorination seemed to be having Hammett acidity Ho >-3.0. The selectivity to dichlorobenzenes was proved to be high over the zeolite catalyst due to their shape-selective properties. p-Dichlorobenzene or dichlorobenzene selectivities were improved more or less by changing the reaction conditions.

  • PDF

Organobentonite as a dual sorbent for Chlombenzene and Lead (클로로벤젠과 납의 동시 제거를 위한 흡착제로서의 유기 벤토나이트에 관한 연구)

  • 이정주;박재우;김일규
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
    • /
    • v.6 no.4
    • /
    • pp.41-50
    • /
    • 2001
  • The use of clay has been the favored method of reducing or eliminating hazardous contaminants in the leachate from landfills. But, neither natural clays nor organoclays modified with surfactants are able to effectively sorb both heavy metals and organic contaminants. Therefore, the objective of this study is to determine the optimal amount of surfactant added on the clay mineral to effectively remove both of them. For this purpose, Na-Bentonite as the natural clay, and hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) as the cationic surfactant were used, Chlorobenzene and lead ($Pb^{2-}$) were selected as representative contaminants. Experimental result showed that chlorobenzene sorption increased with increasing HDTMA to bentonite, ratios. On the contrary, the removal rate of lead decreased as the amount of HDTMA increased. The removal of chlorobenzene was influenced by the amount of HDTMA added to the bentonites rather than initial concentration of chlorobenzene, but the removal of lead was much more influenced by the initial concentration of lead. The adsorption of lead was not affected by chlorobenzene, and vice versa. The competitive sorption between the heavy metal and the organic contaminant was not present.

  • PDF

Controllability of separate heat pump distillation for separating isopropanol-chlorobenzene mixture

  • Zhu, Zhaoyou;Liu, Xingzhen;Cao, Yujuan;Liang, Shisheng;Wang, Yinglong
    • Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering
    • /
    • v.34 no.3
    • /
    • pp.866-875
    • /
    • 2017
  • The isopropanol-chlorobenzene mixture is separated via separate heat pump distillation (SHPD) to achieve significant energy savings. Rigorous steady state and dynamic characteristics for this SHPD process are simulated using Aspen Plus and Aspen Plus Dynamics. Optimized operation conditions including vapor flow rate to compressor are developed on the condition of minimum total annual cost. Two control strategies are proposed to solve feed disturbance issues and the improved structure with $Q_{Re}/F$ (lower column reboiler duty/feed flow rate) ratio scheme can maintain the two product purities requirement with smaller transient deviation and shorter settling time.

Slow Sorption of Hydrophobic Organic Contaminants in Natural Soils (자연토양에서의 소수성 유기오염물질의 느린 흡착)

  • Shin, Won Sik;Park, Taehyo;Ahn, Taebong;Chun, HeeDong
    • Journal of the Korean GEO-environmental Society
    • /
    • v.2 no.1
    • /
    • pp.103-114
    • /
    • 2001
  • Sorption studies were conducted to determine if slow sorption fraction is observed in recent1y deposited organic matter by studying wetland soils explicitly. Sorption characteristics of hydrophobic organic compounds (chlorobenzene and phenanthrene) in recently deposited freshwater marsh soils were determined using a batch sorption procedure. Relative indicators of organic matter age were assessed using several techniques including the ratio of elemental oxygen to carbon in the organic matter. Slow sorption characteristics for both surface marsh soil (top 0-2 cm, <5 years old) and deeper marsh soil (below 10-cm, >20 years old) were compared against relatively older PPI (Petro Processors, Inc. Superfund site) and BM (Bayou Manchac) soils to investigate whether soil age can cause differences in sorption of organic compounds in wetland soils. Increases in sorption non-linearity of slow sorption model parameters (increase in KF and decrease in N) explain the existence of slow sorption fraction. The results of slow sorption model indicates the presence of a sizable slow sorption fraction; 25.4 - 26.3% (chlorobenzene) and 1.4 - 1.9% (phenanthrene) of the sorbed mass in wetland soils and 40.0 - 55.93% (chlorobenzene) and 2.9 - 3.19% (phenanthrene) of the sorbed mass in PPI and BM soils, respectively. The slow sorption fraction increased in the order of surface < deeper < PPI < BM soil indicating that size of the slow sorption fraction increases with soil organic matter age.

  • PDF

Investigation of Solvent Effect on the Electrical Properties of Triisopropylsilylethynyl(TIPS) Pentacene Organic Thin-film Transistors (용제에 따른 TIPS(triisopropylsilyl) Pentacene을 이용한 유기박막 트렌지스터의 전기적 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, K.S.;Kim, Y.H.;Han, J.-In;Choi, K.N.;Kwak, S.K.;Kim, D.S.;Chung, K.S.
    • Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society
    • /
    • v.17 no.5
    • /
    • pp.435-441
    • /
    • 2008
  • In this paper, we investigated the electrical properties of triisopropylsilyl (TIPS) pentacene organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) depending on solvent type. We spin coated TIPS pentacene by using chlorobenzene, p-xylene, chloroform, and toluene as solvents. Fabricated OTFT with chlorobenzene shows field-effect mobility of $1.0{\times}10^{-2}cm^2/V{\cdot}s$, on/off ratio of $4.3{\times}10^3$ and threshold voltage of 5.5 V. In contrast, with chloroform, the mobility is $5.8{\times}10^{-7}cm^2/V{\cdot}s$, on/off ratio of $1.1{\times}10^2$ and threshold voltage of 1.7 V. Moreover we measured the grain size of each TIPS pentacene solvent by atomic force microscopy (AFM). From these results, it can be concluded that a solvent with higher boiling point results in better electrical characteristics due to large grain size and high crystallinity of TIPS pentacene layer. In this paper TIPS pentacene with chlorobenzene shows the best electrical properties.