• Title, Summary, Keyword: 평균제곱근오차

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Skill Assessments for Evaluating the Performance of the Hydrodynamic Model (해수유동모델 검증을 위한 오차평가방법 비교 연구)

  • Kim, Tae-Yun;Yoon, Han-Sam
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.107-113
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    • 2011
  • To evaluate the performance of the hydrodynamic model, we introduced 10 skill assessments that are assorted by two groups: quantitative skill assessments (Absolute Average Error or AAE, Root Mean Squared Error or RMSE, Relative Absolute Average Error or RAAE, Percentage Model Error or PME) and qualitative skill assessments (Correlation Coefficient or CC, Reliability Index or RI, Index of Agreement or IA, Modeling Efficiency or MEF, Cost Function or CF, Coefficient of Residual Mass or CRM). These skill assessments were applied and calculated to evaluate the hydrodynamic modeling at one of Florida estuaries for water level, current, and salinity as comparing measured and simulated values. We found that AAE, RMSE, RAAE, CC, IA, MEF, CF, and CRM are suitable for the error assessment of water level and current, and AAE, RMSE, RAAE, PME, CC, RI, IA, CF, and CRM are good at the salinity error assessment. Quantitative and qualitative skill assessments showed the similar trend in terms of the classification for good and bad performance of model. Furthermore, this paper suggested the criteria of the "good" model performance for water level, current, and salinity. The criteria are RAAE < 10%, CC > 0.95, IA > 0.98, MEF > 0.93, CF < 0.21 for water level, RAAE < 20%, CC > 0.7, IA > 0.8, MEF > 0.5, CF < 0.5 for current, and RAAE < 10%, PME < 10%, CC > 0.9, RI < 1.15, CF < 0.1 for salinity.

Accuracy Evaluation of VRS RTK Surveys Inside the GPS CORS Network Operated by National Geographic Information Institute (국토지리정보원 VRS RTK 기준망 내부 측점 측량 정확도 평가)

  • Kim, Hye-In;Yu, Gi-Sug;Park, Kwan-Dong;Ha, Ji-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.139-147
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    • 2008
  • The positioning accuracies tend to deteriorate as the distance between the rover and the reference station increases in the Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) surveys using Global Positioning System (GPS). To solve this problem, the National Geographic Information Institute (NGII) of Korea has installed Virtual Reference System (VRS), which is one of the network-based RTK systems. In this study, we conducted the accuracy tests of the VRS-RTK surveys. We surveyed 50 control points inside the NGII's GPS Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS) network using the VRS-RTK system, and compared the results with the published coordinates to verify the positioning accuracies. We also conducted the general RTK surveys at the same control points. The results showed that the positioning accuracy of the VRS-RTK was comparable to that of the general RTK, because the horizontal positioning accuracy was 3.1 cm while that of general RTK was 2.0 cm. Also the vertical positioning accuracy of VRS-RTK was 6.8 cm.

An Improved Newton-Raphson's Reciprocal and Inverse Square Root Algorithm (개선된 뉴톤-랍손 역수 및 역제곱근 알고리즘)

  • Cho, Gyeong-Yeon
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.46-55
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    • 2007
  • The Newton-Raphson's algorithm for finding a floating point reciprocal and inverse square root calculates the result by performing a fixed number of multiplications. In this paper, an improved Newton-Raphson's algorithm is proposed, that performs multiplications a variable number. Since the number of multiplications performed by the proposed algorithm is dependent on the input values, the average number of multiplications per an operation is derived from many reciprocal and inverse square tables with varying sizes. The superiority of this algorithm is proved by comparing this average number with the fixed number of multiplications of the conventional algorithm. Since the proposed algorithm only performs the multiplications until the error gets smaller than a given value, it can be used to improve the performance of a reciprocal and inverse square root unit. Also, it can be used to construct optimized approximate tables. The results of this paper can be applied to many areas that utilize floating point numbers, such as digital signal processing, computer graphics, multimedia, scientific computing, etc.

Prediction of Temperature and Heat Wave Occurrence for Summer Season Using Machine Learning (기계학습을 활용한 하절기 기온 및 폭염발생여부 예측)

  • Kim, Young In;Kim, DongHyun;Lee, Seung Oh
    • Journal of Korean Society of Disaster and Security
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.27-38
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    • 2020
  • Climate variations have become worse and diversified recently, which caused catastrophic disasters for our communities and ecosystem including economic property damages in Korea. Heat wave of summer season is one of causes for such damages of which outbreak tends to increase recently. Related short-term forecasting information has been provided by the Korea Meteorological Administration based on results from numerical forecasting model. As the study area, the ◯◯ province was selected because of the highest mortality rate in Korea for the past 15 years (1998~2012). When comparing the forecasted temperatures with field measurements, it showed RMSE of 1.57℃ and RMSE of 1.96℃ was calculated when only comparing the data corresponding to the observed value of 33℃ or higher. The forecasting process would take at least about 3~4 hours to provide the 4 hours advanced forecasting information. Therefore, this study proposes a methodology for temperature prediction using LSTM considering the short prediction time and the adequate accuracy. As a result of 4 hour temperature prediction using this approach, RMSE of 1.71℃ was occurred. When comparing only the observed value of 33℃ or higher, RMSE of 1.39℃ was obtained. Even the numerical prediction model of the whole range of errors is relatively smaller, but the accuracy of prediction of the machine learning model is higher for above 33℃. In addition, it took an average of 9 minutes and 26 seconds to provide temperature information using this approach. It would be necessary to study for wider spatial range or different province with proper data set in near future.

A algorithm development on optical freeform surface reconstruction (광학식 자유곡면 형상복원 알고리즘 개발)

  • Kim, ByoungChang
    • Journal of the Korea Convergence Society
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    • v.7 no.5
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    • pp.175-180
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    • 2016
  • The demand for accurate freeform apsheric surface is increasing to satisfy the optical performance. In this paper, we develop the algorithm for opto-mechatronics convergence, that reconstruct the surface 3D profiles from the curvarure data along two orthogonal directions. A synthetic freeform surface with 8.4 m diameter was simulated for the testing. The simulation results show that the reconstruction error is 0.065 nm PV(Peak-to-valley) and 0.013 nm RMS(Root mean square) residual difference. Finally the sensitivity to noise is diagnosed for probe position error, the simulation results proving that the suggested method is robust to position error.

On Prediction Intervals for Binomial Data (이항자료에 대한 예측구간)

  • Ryu, Jea-Bok
    • The Korean Journal of Applied Statistics
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.943-952
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    • 2013
  • Wald, Agresti-Coull, Jeffreys, and Bayes-Laplace methods are commonly used for confidence interval of binomial proportion are applied for prediction intervals. We used coverage probability, mean coverage probability, root mean squared error, and mean expected width for numerical comparisons. From the comparisons, we found that Wald is not proper as for confidence interval and Agresti-Coull is too conservative to differ from confidence interval. However, Jeffrey and Bayes-Laplace are good for prediction interval and Jeffrey is especially desirable as for confidence interval.

Confidence Intervals for a tow Binomial Proportion (낮은 이항 비율에 대한 신뢰구간)

  • Ryu Jae-Bok;Lee Seung-Joo
    • The Korean Journal of Applied Statistics
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.217-230
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    • 2006
  • e discuss proper confidence intervals for interval estimation of a low binomial proportion. A large sample surveys are practically executed to find rates of rare diseases, specified industrial disaster, and parasitic infection. Under the conditions of 0 < p ${\leq}$ 0.1 and large n, we compared 6 confidence intervals with mean coverage probability, root mean square error and mean expected widths to search a good one for interval estimation of population proportion p. As a result of comparisons, Mid-p confidence interval is best and AC, score and Jeffreys confidence intervals are next.

A Study on the Neural Network Model for Soil Moisture Estimation (토양수분 추정을 위한 신경망 모형 개발에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Gwang-Seob;Park, Jung-A
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.408-408
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    • 2011
  • 수자원관리와 수문모형에 있어 강수, 증발산, 침투, 침루 등의 물 순환과정에 대한 실질적인 이해와 분석연구의 중요도가 높아지고 있는 실정이며, 그중에서도 토양수분은 강수의 침투, 유출 등의 지표면과 대기사이의 질량 및 에너지이동에 관여하는 중요한 요소로서 수자원 및 수문현상에 직접적인 영향을 미친다. 이를 위해 강수, 증발산, 토양수분과 같은 수문변수에 대한 다양한 관측이 실시되어야 하지만 국내에서는 지속적이고 안정적으로 지상관측을 할 수 없는 실정이며 관련 기반기술도 매우 취약하다. 따라서 이를 극복하기 위해서는 위성영상자료를 이용함으로써 한반도 전체에 대한 광역적인 토양수분자료의 획득을 용이하게 한다. 본 연구의 연구유역은 수자원 연구를 위해서 지정된 용담댐 시험유역으로 하였으며, 토양수분 관측지점의 지상관측 수문자료인 각 지점별 강수량, 지면온도, 인공위성자료인 MODIS 정규식생지수 등의 가용자료를 수집하고 신경망모형을 활용한 토양수분자료 생산 모형을 개발하여, 개선된 시공간 분해능과 공간정보 대표성을 가진 광역 토양수분자료를 생산하고 적용타당성을 분석하였다. 산정된 토양수분모형의 적용가능성을 파악하고자 용담댐 유역의 각 지점별 토양수분 관측데이터와 추정데이터를 비교한 결과 추천, 부귀, 상정 지점의 경우 평균 약 0.9257의 상관계수와 약 1.2917의 평균제곱근오차를 보였고, 검증지점인 천천2의 경우 약 0.8982의 상관계수와 약 5.1361의 평균제곱근오차의 결과를 보여주었으며 토양수분 추정모형의 적용가능성이 높음을 확인할 수 있었다.

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A Study on Parameter Estimation of Rainfall-Runoff Model Considering the Reservoir Dischage (저수지 방류량을 고려한 강우 강우-유출 모형의 매개변수 추정에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Ah-Reum;Lee, Do-Hun;Lee, Eun-Tae
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.1822-1829
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    • 2006
  • 본 연구에서는 계산된 유량과 실측 유량을 비교하여 Clark 단위도 방법의 매개변수를 추정하고자 하였다. 오산천과 진위천 상류유역에 대하여 Arcview와 WMS로 지형자료에 대한 전 처리를 한후, HEC-HMS 프로그램을 이용하여 유출량을 산정하였다. 2001년부터 2005년까지 4개의 사상에 대하여 강우량, 기흥저수지와 이동저수지의 실제 방류량을 이용하여 유출량을 산정하였으며, Clark 모형의 매개변수를 Russel 공식, Sabol 공식 및 HEC-HMS 프로그램에 내장된 Nelder-Mead 최적화 방법을 이용하여 매개변수를 각각 산정하여 회화 지점의 실측 유출량과 비교.평가하였다. 빈도가 큰 유출사상의 경우에는 Sabol 식을 적용한 결과가 Russel 식을 적용한 모의결과보다 첨두유량의 재현성이 우수하게 나타났으며, 유출량이 작은 경우에는 Russel 식을 적용한 모의결과가 우수하였다. 첨두가 중제곱평균제곱근오차, 잔차자승의 합, 절대잔차의 합 등 3가지의 서로다른 목적함수를 적용하여 매개변수를 자동 보정하였을 때, 목적함수에 따른 첨두유량의 오차는 거의 동일하였으며, 첨두시간에 대한 오차는 첨두가중제곱평균제곱근오차를 적용했을 때 가장 작은 것으로 분석되었다. 그리고 Clark 유역 추적모형의 자동보정을 통하여 추정한 매개변수인 도달시간과 저류상수는 강우사상에 따라서 변동하는 특성을 나타내기 때문에 최적의 도달시간 및 저류상수는 홍수사상별로 추정되어야 하며 이 결과는 홍수량 산정을 위한 매개변수 추정과정의 비유일성 및 복잡성을 암시하고 있다.

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Evaluating the prediction models of leaf wetness duration for citrus orchards in Jeju, South Korea (제주 감귤 과수원에서의 이슬지속시간 예측 모델 평가)

  • Park, Jun Sang;Seo, Yun Am;Kim, Kyu Rang;Ha, Jong-Chul
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.262-276
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    • 2018
  • Models to predict Leaf Wetness Duration (LWD) were evaluated using the observed meteorological and dew data at the 11 citrus orchards in Jeju, South Korea from 2016 to 2017. The sensitivity and the prediction accuracy were evaluated with four models (i.e., Number of Hours of Relative Humidity (NHRH), Classification And Regression Tree/Stepwise Linear Discriminant (CART/SLD), Penman-Monteith (PM), Deep-learning Neural Network (DNN)). The sensitivity of models was evaluated with rainfall and seasonal changes. When the data in rainy days were excluded from the whole data set, the LWD models had smaller average error (Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) about 1.5hours). The seasonal error of the DNN model had the similar magnitude (RMSE about 3 hours) among all seasons excluding winter. The other models had the greatest error in summer (RMSE about 9.6 hours) and the lowest error in winter (RMSE about 3.3 hours). These models were also evaluated by the statistical error analysis method and the regression analysis method of mean squared deviation. The DNN model had the best performance by statistical error whereas the CART/SLD model had the worst prediction accuracy. The Mean Square Deviation (MSD) is a method of analyzing the linearity of a model with three components: squared bias (SB), nonunity slope (NU), and lack of correlation (LC). Better model performance was determined by lower SB and LC and higher NU. The results of MSD analysis indicated that the DNN model would provide the best performance and followed by the PM, the NHRH and the CART/SLD in order. This result suggested that the machine learning model would be useful to improve the accuracy of agricultural information using meteorological data.