• Title, Summary, Keyword: 이산화염소

Search Result 96, Processing Time 0.031 seconds

A Case Study on Chlorine Dioxide Usage at a Conventional Water Treatment Plant (기존 정수장 이산화염소 시범도입 사례연구)

  • Lee, Song-Hee;Lee, Byung-Doo;Kim, Jin-Keun;Seog, Kwon-Soo;Lee, Joung-Taek
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
    • /
    • v.27 no.1
    • /
    • pp.115-119
    • /
    • 2005
  • As the regulations on DBPs are tightened, many water treatment plants (WTPs) in Korea have already introduced or will introduce enhanced coagulation, alternative disinfectants and advanced treatments such as ozonization and granular activated carbon to improve drinking water qualify. After a phenol leakage accident at the Nakdong-River in 1991, 26 WIPs in Korea introduced carbon dioxide generators, but there has been no accumulation of significant operating data. This research summarizes things that should be considered for the introduction of carbon dioxide disinfection process to WTPs based on one year operation data from A WTP that has had high concentration of DBP during a specific period in the summer. The removal efficiency of DBP was $30{\sim}40%$, but those of 2-MIB, Geosmin were less than 10%. The generation rate of $ClO_2$ by-products such as chlorite and chlorate were $70{\sim}100%$ of input dosage, but the ratios increased over time. At the same time, strong chlorine odors may be produced in the distribution system when $ClO_2$ was used with $Cl_2$ as a result of reaction between the chlorite and residual chlorine.

Effect of various environmental factors such as concentration of NaClO2, relative humidity, temperature, and time on the production of gaseous chlorine dioxide (다양한 환경조건(NaClO2 농도, 상대습도, 온도, 시간)에 따른 이산화염소 기체의 발생량 변화)

  • Lee, Jeongmin;Lee, Nam-Teak;Ryu, Jee-Hoon
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.51 no.4
    • /
    • pp.404-409
    • /
    • 2019
  • This study was performed to determine the optimum conditions for the production of gaseous chlorine dioxide ($ClO_2$) from aqueous $ClO_2$ (HCl+$NaClO_2$). When 1 N HCl was reacted with various concentrations of $NaClO_2$ (50,000-500,000 mg/mL), the highest concentration (695 mg/L) of gaseous $ClO_2$ was obtained from the aqueous $ClO_2$ containing $100,000{\mu}g/mL$ $NaClO_2$. Next, the effects of relative humidity (RH; 43, 85, and 100%) and temperature (4, 12, and $25^{\circ}C$) on the production of gaseous $ClO_2$ were investigated. It was observed that the concentration of gaseous $ClO_2$ was increased as RH was decreased, or the temperature was increased. Finally, it was confirmed that the amount of gaseous $ClO_2$ was highly correlated ($R^2=0.9546-0.9992$) with the volume of aqueous $ClO_2$. The results of this study provide useful information for designing a sanitization program using gaseous $ClO_2$ under various environmental conditions.

Influence of Reactive Oxygen Species Produced by Chlorine Dioxide on Induction of Insect Cell Apoptosis (이산화염소의 활성산소 유발에 따른 곤충 세포의 아폽토시스)

  • Kim, Minhyun;Kumar, Sunil;Kwon, Hyeok;Kim, Wook;Kim, Yonggyun
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
    • /
    • v.55 no.3
    • /
    • pp.267-275
    • /
    • 2016
  • Chlorine dioxide has an insecticidal activity via its production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Its cytotoxic activity has been regarded as a main cause of the insecticidal activity. This study tested a hypothesis that cytotoxicity of chlorine dioxide is resulted from its induction of apoptosis against target cells using ROS. Injection of chlorine dioxide significantly reduced total hemocyte counts of Plodia interpunctella larvae and subsequently killed the larvae. To analyze the cytotoxicity with respect to apoptosis, terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase nick end translation (TUNEL) assay was performed. An insect cell line (Sf9) cells were exposed to different concentrations of chlorine dioxide. TUNEL assay showed that chlorine dioxide induced significant apoptosis of Sf9 cells in a dose-dependent manner. When different concentrations of chlorine dioxide were injected to larvae of P. interpunctella, it showed a dose-dependent induction of apoptosis against hemocytes. However, addition of vitamin E significantly suppressed the apoptosis induction and insecticidal activity of chlorine dioxide in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that cytotoxicity of chlorine dioxide is resulted from its induction of apoptosis against insect cells using ROS.

Efficacy of Chemical Sanitizers in Reducing Levels of Foodborne Pathogens and Formation of Chemically Injured Cells on Cabbage (양배추에 오염된 병원성 미생물의 저해 및 화학적 손상세포 생성에 있어서의 화학적 살균소독제의 효과)

  • Choi, Mi-Ran;Oh, Se-Wook;Lee, Sun-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
    • /
    • v.37 no.10
    • /
    • pp.1337-1342
    • /
    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to investigate effects of chemical sanitizers on inhibiting foodborne pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), and E scherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7), on cabbages. Cabbages were inoculated with the culture cocktail of pathogens and treated with water, 100 ppm commercial chlorine, and 50, 100, and 200 ppm chlorine dioxide ($ClO_2$) for 1, 5, and 10 min at room temperature ($22{\pm}2^{\circ}C$). Treatments with water did not significantly reduce levels of three pathogens whereas other treatments with chemical sanitizers significantly reduced levels of three pathogens. Treatment with 200 ppm $ClO_2$ for 10 min was the most effective at inhibiting pathogens and reduction levels were 1.90, 1.92, and 1.98 log CFU/g for L. monocytogens, S. Typhimurium, and E. coli O157:H7, respectively. Levels of reduction were increased with the increase of $ClO_2$ concentrations. When chemically injured cells were investigated, there were no significant differences on the levels of injured cells between before and after treatment with commercial chlorine and $ClO_2$. These results suggest that $ClO_2$ can be used as an alternative sanitizer for reducing pathogens on fresh produces.

Effect of Reacting Gas Injection Rate and Reductant Quantity on Preparation of Uranium Tetrachloride in Chlorination of Uranium Dioxide (이산화우라늄의 염소화반응에서 반응가수 주입량과 환원제의 양이 사염화우라늄 제조에 미치는 영향)

  • Yang, Yeong-Seok
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
    • /
    • v.6 no.9
    • /
    • pp.919-924
    • /
    • 1996
  • 사염화우라늄을 제조하기 위한 가장 효율적인 반응계는 이산화우라늄, 염소가스와 탄소분말이다. 여러 가지 실험변수 가운데 이산화우라늄의 염소화반응에 사용된 염소가스 주입량과 탄소의 양이 사염화우라늄 제조에 미치는 영향에 관하여 연구하였다. 각각의 실험변수들에 대한 전화율과 휘발률 계산을 통해 효율적인 반응을 위한 적정 염소가스 주입량과 탄소의 양을 구하였고, 이산화우라늄의 증가함에 따라 직접접촉에 의한 기체-고체반응에서는 전화율과 휘발률은 증가했으나 이후 과량을 첨가함에 따라 감소하였고, 용융염내의 기체-액체반응에서는 전화율의 미미한 증가와 휘발률의 감소를 확인하였가. 염소주입량이 증가함에 따라 전화율과 휘발률이 증가했으며, 과량의 염소가수 주입시 고이온가 염화물의 생성량이 증가하였다.

  • PDF

Evasive Behavior of the Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum, against Chlorine Dioxide and Its Suppression by Heat Treatment (이산화염소에 대한 거짓쌀도둑거저리의 회피행동과 이를 억제하는 열처리 효과)

  • Kim, Yonggyun;Kumar, Sunil;Rahman, M. Mahbubur;Kwon, Hyeok;Chun, Yongsik;Na, Jahyun;Kim, Wook
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
    • /
    • v.54 no.3
    • /
    • pp.151-158
    • /
    • 2015
  • Chlorine dioxide ($ClO_2$) can be used as a fumigant to kill insects. However, some insects can exhibit an evasive behavior from chlorine dioxide. This evasive behavior decreases the efficiency of the insecticidal activity of chlorine dioxide. This study tested a hypothesis that heat treatment suppresses the evasive behavior and synergizes the control efficacy of chlorine dioxide. Chlorine dioxide fumigation killed the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, under direct exposure condition to the chemical for 12 h with median lethal concentrations of 383.67 ppm (153.63 - 955.78 ppm: 95% confidence interval) for larvae and 397.75 ppm (354.46 - 446.13 ppm: 95% confidence interval) for adults. However, when they were treated with enough diet flour, they exhibited an evasive behavior by entering the diet, which significantly decreased the control efficacy of the fumigant. To clarify the evasive behavior, the choice test of the adults were performed in Y tube arena. The test adults significantly avoided the diet treated with chlorine dioxide, while the antennatectomized adults lost the avoidance behavior. Heat treatment using $46^{\circ}C$ for 6 h killed only 10% or less of T. castaneum. Interestingly, most adults were observed to come out of the diet under the heat treatment. Chlorine dioxide treatment even at 400 ppm for 6 h did not kill any T. castaneum. However, the combined treatment of chlorine dioxide with the heat treatment for 6 h resulted in 95% mortality. These results indicated that heat treatment suppressed the evasive behavior of T. castaneum and synergized the control efficacy of the chlorine dioxide fumigant.

Changes in Marketability of Strawberry 'Maehyang' for Export as Affected by Concentration of Gaseous Chlorine Dioxide Treatment (이산화염소 가스 처리 농도에 따른 수출 딸기 '매향'의 상품성 변화)

  • Kim, Hye Min;Hwang, Seung Jae
    • Journal of Bio-Environment Control
    • /
    • v.28 no.2
    • /
    • pp.166-171
    • /
    • 2019
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of gaseous chlorine dioxide ($ClO_2$) concentration and treatment method for maintaining marketability in strawberries 'Maehyang' for export. After harvesting strawberry colored with $60{\pm}5%$ of the skin, and the gaseous $ClO_2$ was applied as four treatments in the cold store set with $10^{\circ}C$ which were as follows: i) non-treatment (Control), ii) $0.2mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$ for 30 minutes, iii) $0.4mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$ for 30 minutes, and iv) continuously exposed at $0.4mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$ during the storage period. Weight loss, firmness, soluble solids content, color, incidence of gray mold, and quality grade of strawberries were investigated every 3 days during 16 days storage in cold store. The weight loss was consistently high at $0.2mg{\cdot}L^{-1}\;ClO_2$ treatment, and the weight loss was lower than other treatments when gaseous $ClO_2$ was continuously treated. Firmness was significantly higher at 0.2 and $0.4mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$ $ClO_2$ treatment on the 13th day of storage. Soluble solids content tended to below in continuous gaseous $ClO_2$ treatment. The colors showed no tendency as affected by concentrations and treatment methods of gaseous $ClO_2$. No gray mold was observed in the continuous gaseous $ClO_2$ treatment until the 13th day of storage. The quality grade was lower in gaseous $ClO_2$ treatment group than in the control. As a result, it was possible to decrease the weight loss and the incidence of gray mold by continuously treating the gaseous $ClO_2$ to strawberry 'Maehyang' for export during the storage period after harvest. However, further research is needed on method to maintain quality grades of fruits.

Conducted to Verify the Effect of Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2) on Odor Reduction at a Compost Facility (이산화염소 가스분무에 의한 퇴비장 악취저감 효과)

  • Song, J.I.;Jeon, J.H.;Lee, J.Y.;Park, K.H.;Cho, S.B.;Hwang, Y.H.;Kim, D.H.
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
    • /
    • v.18 no.sup
    • /
    • pp.1-6
    • /
    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to verify the effect of chlorine dioxide ($ClO_2$) on odor reduction at a commercial swine facility consisting of a compost ficility. Compost facility in $NH_3$ concentration was around 550 ppm and less than 78 ppm before and after the $ClO_2$ spraying, respectively, which was over 86% reduction. There was no H2S detection. $NH_3$ concentration was around 420 ppm and less than 35 ppm before and after the $ClO_2$ spraying, respectively, which was over 83% reduction. $H_2S$ concentration was around 210 ppb and less than 32 ppb before and after the $ClO_2$ spraying, respectively, which was over 85% reduction. Hence, $ClO_2$ spraying at windowless barns was compost facility decreased malodor such as $NH_3$.

Quality Changes of Cherry Tomato with Different Chlorine Dioxide ($ClO_2$) Gas Treatments during Storage (저장 중 이산화염소 가스의 처리 조건에 따른 방울토마토의 품질변화)

  • Choi, Woo Suk;Ahn, Byung Joon;Kim, Young Shik;Kang, Ho-Min;Lee, Jung-Soo;Lee, Youn Suk
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF PACKAGING SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
    • /
    • v.19 no.1
    • /
    • pp.17-27
    • /
    • 2013
  • The effects of chlorine dioxide gas ($ClO_2$) treatments between high-concentration-short-time and low-concentration-long-time on maintaining the quality of cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv 'unicorn') were investigated. Tomatoes were treated with 5 ppm for 10 min and 10 ppm for 3 min as high-concentration-short-time $ClO_2$ gas treatment conditions and 1 ppm for once a day interval in terms of low-concentration-long-time $ClO_2$ gas treatment condition, respectively. After $ClO_2$ gas treatments, tomatoes were storage at 5 and $23^{\circ}C$ for 7 days. Weight loss, changes in tomato color, firmness, soluble solids content, pH, growth of total microorganism, and decay rate were evaluated. On day 7, tomatoes treated with chlorine dioxide gas showed low values of respiratory rate, total microbial growth, and decay rate compared to those of tomato without chlorine dioxide gas treatment. Additionally, tomatoes treated the chlorine dioxide were kept the values of firmness and soluble solids content during storage. However, chlorine dioxide gas treatment on tomatoes had no direct effect on weight loss, pH, and color. Results showed that both $ClO_2$ concentration and treatment time played the important roles for keeping the quality of tomatoes during storage. Tomatoes with chlorine dioxide gas treatment of low-concentration-long-time had more effective values of firmness, the total microbial growth, and decay rate than those with two chlorine dioxide gas treatments of high-concentration-short-time. Results suggest the potential use of chlorine dioxide gas treatment of low-concentration-long-time as an highly effective method for keeping the freshness of cherry tomato.

  • PDF

Enhanced Acetylcholinesterase Activity of the Indianmeal Moth, Plodia interpunctella, Under Chlorine Dioxide Treatment and Altered Negative Phototaxis Behavior (이산화염소 처리에 따른 화랑곡나방 아세틸콜린에스터레이즈 활성 증가와 음성주광성 행동 변화)

  • Kim, Minhyun;Kwon, Hyeok;Kwon, yunsik;Kim, Wook;Kim, Yonggyun
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
    • /
    • v.55 no.1
    • /
    • pp.27-33
    • /
    • 2016
  • Chlorine dioxide has been used as a disinfectant against microbial pathogens. Recently, its insecticidal activity has been known against stored insect pests by oxidative stress. However, any molecular target of the oxidative stress induced by chlorine dioxide has been not known in insects. This study assessed an enzyme activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) as a molecular target of chlorine dioxide in the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella. AChE activities were varied among developmental stages of P. interpunctella. Injection of chlorine dioxide with lethality-causing doses significantly increased AChE activity of the fifth instar larvae of P. interpunctella. Exposure of the larvae to chlorine dioxide fumigant also significantly increased AChE activity. The fifth instar larvae of P. interpunctella exhibited a negative phototaxis. However, chlorine dioxide treatment significantly interrupted the innate behavior. These results suggest that AChE is one of molecular targets of oxidative stress due to chlorine dioxide in P. interpunctella.