• Title, Summary, Keyword: 감마핵종분석

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고순도게르마늄(HPGe) 검출기를 이용한 방사성폐기물 드럼의 핵종농도 평가

  • 박경록;강덕원
    • Proceedings of the Korean Nuclear Society Conference
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    • pp.583-589
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    • 1996
  • 원자력발전소에서 발생되는 방사성폐기물들은 폐기물형태 및 방사능 농도가 다양하며 영구처분장으로 이송전까지는 발전소내의 임시 저장고에 안전하게 보관, 관리하고 있다. 생성된 폐기물드럼내에는 감마방출핵종을 비롯하여 알파 및 베타방출 핵종들이 균질 또는 비균질하게 존재하고 있으며 방사능의 세기나 폐기물의 특성에 따라 안정화시키거나 압축처리하여 드럼에 담겨져 있기 때문에 일반적인 파괴분석에 의한 화학분석법으로는 작업자의 피폭, 시료의 대표성 선정 및 장시간의 화학처리 시간소요 등으로 핵종분석이 곤란하다. 따라서 본 논문은 일반적으로 감마핵종분석시 흔히 사용하고 있는 고순도게르마늄(HPGe) 검출기를 이용하여 드럼의 감마핵종농도를 분석하는 방법과 장치의 개발에 대해 언급하였으며 알파나 베타핵종과 같이 직접 분석이 곤란한 핵종들은 각 폐기물드럼내에 존재하는 Co-60이나 Cs-137과의 상관관계를 미리 예측한 척도인자 (scaling factor)를 이용하여 간접적으로 구하는 방법을 사용하고 있으나 본 논문에서는 드럼으로부터 감마핵종만을 분석하는 방법에 대해서만 언급하였다. 또한 핵종분석시스템의 최적 운전조건을 도출하기 위해 드럼회전테이블의 속도결정 및 모의드럼을 이용한 방사능측정 등을 통해 핵종 농도 분석시의 오차를 30% 이내로 유지할 수 있었다.

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감마선 동위원소 핵종비를 이용한 PWR 사용후핵연료의 연소도 결정

  • 박형종;박대규;박광준;서기석;엄성호;민덕기;노성기
    • Proceedings of the Korean Nuclear Society Conference
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    • pp.509-514
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    • 1998
  • ORIGEN-S 전산코드로 계산된 가압경수로(PWR)사용후핵연료 내에 존재하는 방사성핵종비 $^{134}$ Cs/$^{137}$Cs 및 $^{154}$ Eu/$^{137}$Cs 를 감마선 분광실험으로 측정한 값과 비교하여 핵연료의 연소도를 결정하였다. 고리 1호기 및 2호기 사용후핵연료봉에 대한 감마선 분광실험을 한국원자력연구소 조사재시험시설(IMEF)과 조사후시험시설(PIEF)의 시험기기 및 장치를 이용하여 수행하고 이 결과로부터 $^{134}$ Cs/$^{137}$Cs 와 $^{154}$ Eu/$^{137}$Cs 의 핵종비를 측정하였다. 이와 별도로 사용후핵연료의 연소도, 냉각시간, 초기농축도등에 따른 $^{134}$ Cs/$^{137}$Cs 와 $^{154}$ Eu/$^{137}$Cs의 핵종비를 ORIGEN-S 코드로 계산을 하였으며, 이 핵종비와 연소도 사이의 관계를 회귀분석하여 2차 다항식 함수로 유도하였다 이관계식과 감마선 분광실험으로 측정한 $^{134}$ Cs/$^{137}$Cs와 $^{154}$ Eu/$^{137}$Cs 의 핵종비를 이용하여 각각의 연소도를 결정할 수 있었다.

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Key Parameters Analysis of Important Radionuclides in Dose Evaluation Model of Decommissioning Site (해체 부지 선량평가모텔의 주요 핵종에 대한 Key parameter 분석)

  • 임용규;김학수;손중권;박경록;강기두;김경덕;정찬우
    • Proceedings of the Korean Radioactive Waste Society Conference
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    • pp.52-57
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    • 2004
  • In order to analyze key parameters of important radionuclides in dose evaluation model of decommissioning site, a sensitivity analysis was performed. This analysis assumed a resident farmer for an exposure scenario and 0.037Bq/g for the concentration of radionuclides. As a result of sensitivity analysis, the key parameters of radionuclides considered were the area of contaminated zone, external gamma shielding factor and indoor time fraction for Cs-137 and Co-60. The key parameters for C-14 were the environmental parameters and hydrological parameters of unsaturated zone. Also, the key parameter for Sr-90 was the density of contaminated zone.

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Evaluation of Residual Radioactivity and Dose Rate of a Target Assembly in an IBA Cyclotron (IBA 사이클로트론 표적집합체에서의 잔류 방사화 분석 및 선량률 평가)

  • Hwang, Seon Yong;Kim, Youngju;Lee, Seung Wook
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.643-649
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    • 2016
  • When a cyclotron produces $^{18}F^-$, accelerated protons interact with metal parts of the cyclotron machine and induces radioactivity. Especially, the target window and chamber of the target assembly are the main parts where long-lived radionuclides are generated as they are incident by direct beams. It is of great importance to identify radionuclides induced in the target assembly for the safe operation and maintenance of a cyclotron facility. In this study, we analyzed major radionuclides generated in the target assembly by an operation of the Cyclotron 18/9 machine and measured dose rates after the operation to establish the radiation safety guideline for operators and maintenance personnel of the machine. Gamma spectroscopy with HPGe was performed on samples from the target chamber and Havar foil target window to identify the radionuclides generated during the operation for production of $^{18}F^-$- isotope and their specific activity. Also, the dose rates from the target were measured as a function of time after an operation. These data will help improve radiological safety of operating the cyclotron facilities.

Nuclide Identification of Gamma Ray Energy Peaks from an Air Sample for the Emergency Radiation Monitoring (비상시 환경방사능 모니터링을 위한 공기부유진 시료의 감마선에너지 스펙트럼에 대한 핵종판별)

  • Byun, Jong-In;Yoon, Seok-Won;Choi, Hee-Yeoul;Yim, Seong-A;Lee, Dong-Myung;Yun, Ju-Yong
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.170-175
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    • 2009
  • For the emergency radiation monitoring using gamma spectrometry, we should sufficiently survey the background spectra as environmental samples with systematic nuclide identification method. In this study, we obtained the gamma ray energy spectrum using a HPGe gamma spectrometry system from an air sample. And we identified nuclide of the gamma ray energy peaks in the spectrum using two methods -1) Half life calculation and 2) survey for cascade coincidence summing peaks using nuclear data. As the results, we produced the nuclide identification results for the air sample.

Comparison of the Correction Methods for Gamma Ray Attenuation in the Radioactive Waste Drum Assay (방사성폐기물드럼 핵종분석에서 감마선 감쇠보정 방법들의 비교 평가)

  • Ji Young-Yong;Ryu Young-Gerl;Kwak Kyoung-Kil;Kang Duck-Won;Kim Ki-Hong
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology(JNFCWT)
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.275-284
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    • 2006
  • In the measurement of gamma rays emitted from the nuclide in the radioactive waste drum, to analyze the nuclide concentration accurately, it is necessary to use the proper calibration standards and to correct for the attenuation of the gamma rays. Two drums having a different density were used to analyze the nuclide concentration inside the drum in this study. After carrying out the system calibration, we measured the gamma rays emitted from the standard source inside the model drum with changing the distance between the drum and the detector. The measured values were corrected with the three kinds of gamma attenuation correction methode, as a results, the error was less than 10 % in the low density drum and less than 25 % in the high density drum. The measured activity in the short distance was more accruable than in the long distance. The transmission correction for the mass attenuation showed good results(very Low error) compared to the mean density and the differential peak correction method.

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Analysis of 766 keV Gamma Peak from NPP Environmental Samples (원전주변 환경시료의 766 keV 감마선에너지 피크에 대한 해석)

  • Kim, Wan;Lee, Hae-Young;Yang, He-Sun;Park, Hae-Soo;Kim, Bong-Kuk;Park, Hwan-Bae;Kim, Hong-Joo;Lee, Sang-Hoon
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.190-194
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    • 2009
  • Gamma spectral results for macroalgae samples taken from the environment of Ulchin nuclear power plants in Korea (east coast), showed 766 keV peaks, which were identified as $^{95}Nb$ by several research institutes. After the enhancement of liquid radioactive waste disposal facility at Ulchin NPP site, the $^{95}Nb$ amount in the liquid radioactive waste outflow has drastically reduced, but the expected reduction in $^{95}Nb$ specific activity from environmental samples did not actually show up on gamma spectroscopy. Detailed re-investigation revealed that along with 766 keV peak, other peaks (63, 92 and 1001 keV) from $^{234}Th-^{234}mPa$ decay series were also detected on spectroscopy, and that the measured half lives of the four peaks were very close to known half life of $^{234}Th-^{234}mPa$ decay series, which is 24.1 day. The measured gamma yield ratios of 766 keV peak to 1001 peak were very close to known ratio 0.35 for $^{234}mPa$. It is concluded that 766 keV peaks on gamma spectroscopy of Ulchin NPP environmental samples were mainly from $^{234}mPa$, which is one of naturally occurring radionuclides.

MDA Assessment of NaI(Tl), LaBr3(Ce), and CeBr3 Detectors for Freshly Deposited Radionuclides on the Soil (지표면 침적 방사성핵종에 대한 NaI(Tl), LaBr3(Ce) 및 CeBr3 검출기의 MDA 비교 평가)

  • Lee, Jun-Ho;Kim, Bong-Gi;Lee, Dong Myung;Byun, Jong-In
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology(JNFCWT)
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.321-328
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    • 2019
  • The detection performances of the NaI(Tl), $LaBr_3$(Ce) and $CeBr_3$ scintillation detectors, which can be used to rapidly evaluate the major artificial radionuclides deposited on the soil surface in a nuclear accident or radiological emergency, were compared. Detection performance was assessed by calculating the minimum detectable activity (MDA). The detection efficiency of each detector for artificial radionuclides was semi-empirically determined using mathematical modelling and point-like sources having certified radioactivity. The background gamma-ray energy spectrum for MDA evaluation was obtained from relatively wide and flat grassland, and the MDA values of each detector for the major artificial radionuclides that could be released in nuclear accidents were calculated. As a result, the relative MDA values of each detector regarding surface deposition distribution at normal environmental radiation level were evaluated as high in the order of the NaI(Tl), $LaBr_3$(Ce), and $CeBr_3$ detectors. These results were compared based on each detector's intrinsic and measurement environment background, detection efficiency, and energy resolution for the gamma-ray energy region of the radionuclide of interest.

Analysis of Proton Nuclear Reaction-Generated Nuclides for Different Proton Energy (양성자 에너지 변화에 따른 핵반응 생성핵종 분석)

  • Lee, Samyol
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.819-824
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    • 2019
  • In this study, we proposed a method for identifying isotopes generated from high-energy proton $^{nat}Pb$(p,xn) nuclear reactions through the difference of gamma rays generated through nuclear reactions using different proton energies. The experiment was performed by using a high energy proton generated from a 100 MeV proton linear accelerator of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. Gamma rays generated by various nuclides generated through proton nuclear reactions were measured using a gamma-ray spectroscopy system composed of HPGe detectors. Gamma-ray standard sources were used for accurate energy calibration and efficiency measurements of HPGe gamma-ray detectors. For the proposed method, 100 and 60 MeV proton energy beams were used for the same natural lead samples. This method was found to be very effective in identifying nuclides produced by comparing gamma rays generated from the same sample with each other. The results of this study are expected to be very effective in obtaining other proton nuclear reaction results in the future.