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Effects of Selective Exposure to YouTube Political Videos on Attitude Polarization: Verifying Mediating Effects of Political Identification

유튜브 정치동영상의 선택적 노출과 정치적 태도극화: 정치성향별 내집단 의식의 매개효과 검증

  • Ham, Minjeong ;
  • Lee, Sang Woo
  • 함민정 (연세대학교 정보대학원) ;
  • 이상우 (연세대학교 정보대학원)
  • Received : 2021.01.08
  • Accepted : 2021.03.07

Abstract

YouTube has rapidly grown as a news media outlet. As political content without fact-checking is actively provided and YouTube algorithms are used for content recommendations, users are selectively exposed to certain political ideologies, which could escalate conflicts among political groups. In particular, the stronger the identification of in-group, the greater the antipathy toward outgroup, and the more exposed the content to the parties that support or oppose it, the stronger the identification or the antipathy can be. This study investigated the relationship between selective exposure and political attitude polarization in the context of political video on YouTube. Based on social identity theory, this study also found that political identification mediates the relationship between selective exposure and political attitude polarization.

2019 디지털뉴스 리포트에 따르면, 한국은 다른 국가들에 비해 유튜브를 통한 뉴스 이용 비중이 상대적으로 높은 편이다. 유튜브를 통한 정치뉴스 이용이 증가하게 되면, 사람들은 유튜브가 추천한 특정 정치이념에 선택적으로 노출되고 확증 편향된 사고방식을 갖게 되어 정치 집단 갈등의 골이 깊어질 수 있다. 사회적 정체성 이론(Social Identity Theory)에 따르면, 특정 정치 집단에 대한 내집단 의식이 강해질수록 외집단에 대한 반감이 더 커지거나 내집단에 대한 애착이 커지면서 정치적 집단 간 갈등이 극화될 수 있다. 이 연구는 일상적으로 소비되고 있는 유튜브 정치 동영상의 선택적 노출과 태도극화 현상을 진단하였고, 사회적 정체성 이론을 근거로 정치적 내집단 의식이 선택적 노출과 태도극화 간 관계를 매개한다는 사실을 밝혔다. 이 연구의 결과는 정치성향에 따라 정치적 내집단 의식의 매개효과가 상이하게 나타날 수 있음을 의미한다.

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