- Volume 75 Issue 4
DOI QR Code
Propagation characteristics of ultrasonic guided waves in tram rails
- Sun, Kui (Engineering Research Center of Railway Environment Vibration and Noise, Ministry of Education, East China Jiao Tong University) ;
- Chen, Hua-peng (Engineering Research Center of Railway Environment Vibration and Noise, Ministry of Education, East China Jiao Tong University) ;
- Feng, Qingsong (Engineering Research Center of Railway Environment Vibration and Noise, Ministry of Education, East China Jiao Tong University) ;
- Lei, Xiaoyan (Engineering Research Center of Railway Environment Vibration and Noise, Ministry of Education, East China Jiao Tong University)
- Received : 2020.02.01
- Accepted : 2020.04.18
- Published : 2020.08.25
Ultrasonic guided wave testing is a very promising non-destructive testing method for rails, which is of great significance for ensuring the safe operation of railways. On the basis of the semi-analytical finite element (SAFE) method, a analytical model of 59R2 grooved rail was proposed, which is commonly used in the ballastless track of modern tram. The dispersion curves of ultrasonic guided waves in free rail and supported rail were obtained. Sensitivity analysis was then undertaken to evaluate the effect of rail elastic modulus on the phase velocity and group velocity dispersion curves of ultrasonic guided waves. The optimal guided wave mode, optimal excitation point and excitation direction suitable for detecting rail integrity were identified by analyzing the frequency, number of modes, and mode shapes. A sinusoidal signal modulated by a Hanning window with a center frequency of 25 kHz was used as the excitation source, and the propagation characteristics of high-frequency ultrasonic guided waves in the rail were obtained. The results show that the rail pad has a relatively little influence on the dispersion curves of ultrasonic guided waves in the high frequency band, and has a relatively large influence on the dispersion curves of ultrasonic guided waves in the low frequency band below 4 kHz. The rail elastic modulus has significant influence on the phase velocity in the high frequency band, while the group velocity is greatly affected by the rail elastic modulus in the low frequency band.
- Bartoli, I., Marzani, A., Matt, H., Scalea, F. L., and Viola, E. (2006), "Modeling wave propagation in damped waveguides of arbitrary cross-section", J. Sound Vib., 295(3), 685-707. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsv.2006.01.021.
- Cerniglia, D., Pantano, A., and Vento, M. A. (2012), "Guided Wave Propagation in a Plate Edge and Application to NDI of Rail Base", J. Nondestructive Evaluation, 31(3), 245-252. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10921-012-0139-7.
- Chen, H. P. (2018), Structural Health Monitoring of Large Civil Engineering Structures, John Wiley and Sons Limited, Oxford, United Kingdom.
- Chen, H. P., Zhang, C., and Huang, T. L. (2017), "Stochastic modelling fatigue crack evolution and optimum maintenance strategy for composite blades of wind turbines", Struct. Eng. Mech., 63(6), 703-712. https://doi.org/10.12989/sem.2017.63.6.703. https://doi.org/10.12989/sem.2017.63.6.703
- Coccia, S., Bartoli, I., Marzani, A., Scalea, F.L.D., Salamone, S., and Fateh, M. (2011), "Numerical and experimental study of guided waves for detection of defects in the rail head", NDT E. International, 44(1), 93-100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ndteint.2010.09.011.
- Duan, W., Niu, X., Gan, T. H., Kanfoud, J., and Chen, H. P. (2017), "A Numerical Study on the Excitation of Guided Waves in Rectangular Plates Using Multiple Point Sources", Metals, 7(12), 552. https://doi.org/10.3390/met7120552.
- Dziedziech, K., Pieczonka, L., Kijanka, P., and Staszewski, W. J. (2016), "Enhanced nonlinear crack-wave interactions for structural damage detection based on guided ultrasonic waves", Struct. Control Health Monitor., 23(8), 1108-1120. https://doi.org/10.1002/stc.1828.
- Gharaibeh, Y., Sanderson, R., Mudge, P., Ennaceur, C., and Balachandran, W. (2011), "Investigation of the behaviour of selected ultrasonic guided wave modes to inspect rails for long-range testing and monitoring", Proc. Institution Mech. Eng., Part F J. Rail Rapid Transit, 225(3), 311-324. https://doi.org/10.1243/09544097JRRT413.
- Hayashi, T. (2008), "Guided wave dispersion curves derived with a semianalytical finite element method and its applications to nondestructive inspection", Japanese J. Appl. Phys., 47(5S), 3865. https://doi.org/10.1143/jjap.47.3865.
- Hayashi, T., Song, W. J., and Rose, J. L. (2003), "Guided wave dispersion curves for a bar with an arbitrary cross-section, a rod and rail example", Ultrasonics, 41(3), 175-183. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0041-624X(03)00097-0.
- Khalili, P., and Khalili, P. (2015), "Excitation of single-mode Lamb waves at high-frequency-thickness products", IEEE Transactions Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, Frequency Control, 63(2), 303-312. https://doi.org/10.1109/TUFFC.2015.2507443. https://doi.org/10.1109/TUFFC.2015.2507443
- Li, W., Dwight, R. A., and Zhang, T. (2015), "On the study of vibration of a supported railway rail using the semi-analytical finite element method", J. Sound Vib., 345, 121-145. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsv.2015.01.036.
- Lu, C., Nieto, J., Puy, I., Melendez, J., and Martinez-Esnaola, J. M. (2018), "Fatigue prediction of rail welded joints", J. Fatigue, 113, 78-87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2018.03.038.
- Nilsson, C. M., Jones, C. J. C., Thompson, D. J., and Ryue, J. (2009), "A waveguide finite element and boundary element approach to calculating the sound radiated by railway and tram rails", J. Sound Vib., 321(3-5), 813-836. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsv.2008.10.027.
- Niu, X., Duan, W., Chen, H. P., and Marques, H. R. (2019), "Excitation and propagation of torsional T (0, 1) mode for guided wave testing of pipeline integrity", Measurement, 131, 341-348. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.measurement.2018.08.021.
- Niu, X., Marques, H. R., and Chen, H. P. (2018), "Sensitivity analysis of circumferential transducer array with T(0,1) mode of pipes", Smart Struct. Syst., 21(6), 761-776. https://doi.org/10.12989/sss.2018.21.6.761. https://doi.org/10.12989/SSS.2018.21.6.761
- Panunzio, A. M., Puel, G., Cottereau, R., Simon, S., and Quost, X. (2018), "Sensitivity of the wheel-rail contact interactions and Dang Van Fatigue Index in the rail with respect to irregularities of the track geometry", Vehicle Syst. Dynam., 56(11), 1768-1795. https://doi.org/10.1080/00423114.2018.1436717.
- Ramatlo, D. A., Wilke, D. N., and Loveday, P. W. (2018), "Development of an optimal piezoelectric transducer to excite guided waves in a rail web", Ndt E Intl., 2018, 72-81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ndteint.2018.02.002.
- Rizzo, P., Cammarata, M., Bartoli, I., Scalea, F. L., Salamone, S., Coccia, S., and Phillips, R. (2010), "Ultrasonic Guided Waves-Based Monitoring of Rail Head: Laboratory and Field Tests", Adv. Civil Eng., 2010, 1-13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/291293.
- Rose, J. L., Avioli, M. J., Mudge, P., and Sanderson, R. (2004a), "Guided wave inspection potential of defects in rail", Ndt E Intl., 37(2), 153-161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ndteint.2003.04.001.
- Rose, J. L., Avioli, M. J., Mudge, P., and Sanderson, R. (2004b), "Guided wave inspection potential of defects in rail", Ndt E Intl., 37(2), 153-161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ndteint.2003.04.001.
- Ryue, J., Thompson, D. J., White, P. R., and Thompson, D. R. (2008), "Investigations of propagating wave types in railway tracks at high frequencies", J. Sound Vib., 315(1-2), 157-175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsv.2008.01.054.
- Shi, H., Zhuang, L., Xu, X., Yu, Z., and Zhu, L. (2019), "An Ultrasonic Guided Wave Mode Selection and Excitation Method in Rail Defect Detection", Appl. Sci., 9(6), 1170. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9061170.
- Uyar, G. G., and Babayigit, E. (2016), "Guided wave formation in coal mines and associated effects to buildings", Struct. Eng. Mech., 60(6), 923-937. https://doi.org/10.12989/sem.2016.60.6.923.
- Wang, R., Yu, Z.J., Zhu, L.Q. and Xu, X.N. (2018), "Multimodal guided wave fusion for estimating longitudinal thermal stress of continuously welded rail", J. China Railway Soc., 40(6), 136-143. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1001-8360.2018.06.018.
- Xu, C. B., Yang, Z. B., Chen, X. F., Tian, S. H., and Xie, Y. (2018), "A guided wave dispersion compensation method based on compressed sensing", Mech. Syst. Signal Processing, 103, 89-104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ymssp.2017.09.043.
- Yao, W., Sheng, F., Wei, X., Zhang, L., and Yang, Y. (2017), "Propagation characteristics of ultrasonic guided waves in continuously welded rail", Modern Physics Letters B, 31(19-21), 1740075. https://doi.org/10.1142/S0217984917400759.
- Zhang, X., Feng, N., Wang, Y., and Shen, Y. (2015), "Acoustic emission detection of rail defect based on wavelet transform and Shannon entropy", J. Sound Vib., 339, 419-432. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsv.2014.11.021.